Sayensị Ndị Kraịst na Ihe Ndị Na-ahụ Anya

AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ NA-ECHICHE

1821 (July 16): Mary Baker, emesia Mary Baker Eddy, onye guzobere Sayensị Ndị Kraịst, a mụrụ na Bow, New Hampshire.

1850 (ụbọchị amaghi): A mụrụ James Franklin Gilman, ikekwe na Woburn (Massachusetts).

1874 (June 10): Onye na-ese ihe osise na onye isi ojii Violet Oakley mụrụ na Bergen Heights, New Jersey.

1875: Mary Baker bipụtara mbipụta nke mbụ nke isi ọrụ ya, Sayensị na Ahụike na Isi Ihe Dị n'Akwụkwọ Nsọ, nke gunyere ọtụtụ ihe na nkà mmụta.

1879: E hiwere Chọọchị Kraịst (Scientist).

1893: Mary Baker Eddy malitere iwu na Boston nke Churchlọ Nne, Christian Science's architectural masterpiece.

1893: Eddy na Gilman bipụtara akwụkwọ ahụ Kraịst na Christmas.

1893 (Disemba 21): Winifred Nicholson mụrụ na Oxford.

1902-1927: Oakley mepụtara ọrụ dị mkpa n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke muralism America site na ịchọ Pennsylvania State Capitol na Harrisburg mma.

1903 (Disemba 18): Onye na-ese akwụkwọ na onye isi ojii Evelyn Dunbar mụrụ na Reading, United Kingdom.

1903 (Disemba 24): Joseph Cornell mụrụ na Nyack, New York.

1910 (December 3): Mary Baker Eddy nwụrụ na Newton, Massachusetts.

1920: Onye omenkà Canada bụ Lawren Harris sere Christian Scientist, ihe osise nke nwunye nke abuo ya bu Bess Housser.

1920: Lawren Harris guzobere na Toronto otu asaa, nke ndị otu ya bụ Theosophists, gụnyere Harris n'onwe ya, ma ọ bụ Christian Scientists.

1920 (November 5): Winifred Nicholson lụrụ na London Ben Nicholson, bụkwa Christian Scientist.

1925: Joseph Cornell ghọrọ Christian Science.

1929: James Franklin Gilman nwụrụ na Westborough, Massachusetts.

1938: Ben na Winifred Nicholson gbara alụkwaghịm.

1938 (November 17): Ben Nicholson lụrụ na onye na-ese ihe na London bụ Barbara Hepworth, n'aka nke ya zụlitere Christian Scientist.

1960 (May 12): Evelyn Dunbar nwụrụ na Hastingleigh, United Kingdom.

1961 (February 25): Violet Oakley nwụrụ na Philadelphia.

1972 (Disemba 29): Joseph Cornell nwụrụ na New York.

1981 (March 5): Winifred Nicholson nwụrụ na Carlisle, United Kingdom.

AKWỤKWỌ AKWỤKWỌ NKE AKWỤKWỌ / DOCTRINES

"Sayensị Chineke, na-ebili elu karịa echiche anụ ahụ, na-ewepu ihe, kpebie ihe n'ime echiche, ma dochie anya nke ihe onwunwe na echiche ime mmụọ "(Eddy 1934: 123). Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) dere okwu ndị a iji gosipụta isi ihe nke Sayensị Ndị Kraịst ọnọdụ ime mmụọ. Ha nwekwara ike ije ozi dị ka usoro nlegharị anya na nka. "Echiche nke efu efu," Eddy kwukwara, "ga-emesị mee ka ọdịdị dị ebube nke anyị na-ahụ mgbe ụfọdụ na igwefoto nke Mindi Chineke, mgbe echiche nke uche bụ nke ime mmụọ na ruo mgbe ebighị ebi. Ụmụ mmadụ ga-ele anya na ha ga-eme ka ha ghara inwe ụdị ihe ọ bụla "(Eddy 1934: 123).

Eddy kwuru n'ụzọ doro anya nkà mmụta dị n'ime ọrụ ya kachasị mkpa, Sayensị na Ahụike. “Onye na-ese ihe,” ka o dere, “anọghị n’ise ya. Ihe onyonyo a bu ihe anabataghi ”(Eddy 1934: 310). Otu onye omenkà tinyere uche na Christian Science, ọ na-ekwu, ga-anọ n'ọnọdụ ikwu, sị: “Enwere m ebumnobi ime mmụọ, nke enweghị mbibi na ebube. Mgbe ndị ọzọ hụtara ha dịka m si ahụ, n'ezi ìhè ha na ihunanya ha, - ma mara na ebumnuche ndị a dị adị na ebighi ebi n'ihi na esitere na Eziokwu, - ha ga-achọpụta na ọ nweghị ihe funahụrụ, na mmeri niile, site n'echiche ziri ezi nke ihe dị adị ”(Eddy 1934: 359-60).

Sayensị Ndị Kraịst ekwughị usoro ọ bụla gbasara ịkọwa ihe. Otú ọ dị, echiche Eddy na ụwa nke Chineke zuru okè karịrị ihe efu nke okwu duziri ọtụtụ ndị na-ese ihe bụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị Ndị Kraịst. Onye ọ bụla n’ime ha sụgharịrị Christian Science n’ike mmụọ nsọ n’asụsụ ya nke nka. N'uche Eddy, "ozugbo a matara ihe dị ka ihe efu karịa nro, (…) enwere ike ịgbanwe ya, na-eweghachi onye kwere ekwe n'ọnọdụ ahụike zuru oke yana nkwekọ na mbara igwe" (Kent 2015: 474). Ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị Ndị Kraịst na-anwa igosi ọnọdụ a nke ezigbo nkwekọrịta: ọnọdụ nke, maka Sayensị Ndị Kraịst, bụ n'ezie eziokwu karịa ihe efu nke ndụ kwa ụbọchị.

NDỊ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ ỌTỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ 

Carline, Hilda (1889-1950). Onye na-ese foto Britain.

Chabas, Maurice (1862-1947). Onye na-ese French, mgbe e mesịrị, Theosophist.

Cornell, Joseph (1903-1972). Ndị na-egwu egwu America.

Dunbar, Evelyn (1906-1960). British painter na muralist.

Gilman, James Franklin (1850-1929). Ihe osise American.

Grier, Edmund Wyly (1862-1957). Onye nlere Canada.

Hepworth, Barbara (1903-1975). Onye na-ese onyinyo nke Britain.

Johnston, Frank Hans (Franz) (1888-1949). Onye nlere Canada.

Nicholson, Ben (1894-1982). Onye na-ese foto Britain.

Nicholson, Winifred (1893-1981). Onye na-ese foto Britain.

Oakley, Violet (1874-1961). Onye na-ese foto na onye na-eme ihe nkiri America.

MGBE NDỊ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ NA-AHỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ MGBE

Harris, Lawren (1885-1970). Onye nlere Canada.

Li Yuan-Chia (1929-1994). Onye na-ese Chinese.

MacDonald, James Edward Hervey (1873-1932). Onye nlere Canada.

IHE NDỊ ECHICHE 

Ọkà mmụta sayensị wuru, site na mmalite ya, nnukwu ụka dị iche iche. Onye nchoputa, n'enyeghi otu uzo di iche iche, ka akwadoro ikwesi ntukwasi obi na omenala ndi Kristain. Chọọchị Ndị Kraịst nke mbụ bụ ndị Katọlik bụ ndị na-adịghị Roman ma ọ bụ Neo-Gothic, mgbe ụfọdụ na Renaissance ma ọ bụ ihe ndị a ma ama (Ivey 1999). Mgbe e mesịrị, a na-akwụkwa ndị na-ese akwụkwọ n'oge a ụgwọ, dị ka Hendrik Petrus Berlage (1856-1934) maka ụka dị na The Hague (Ivey 1999, 200-201). The windo-glass windows oChristianScienceAV1f Ọ bụ ụlọ ọrụ obodo nke Phipps Slocum & Co. kwadebere Mama Church dị na Boston [Foto dị n'aka nri], n'okpuru nduzi nke ndu Christian Science (Pinkham 2009), n'ụdị usoro ọdịnala. Fọdụ nkọwa mesiri ike ịba ụba nke ụmụ nwanyị, bụ nke yitụrụ ụdị ihe osise Ndị Kraịst oge gboo. Otú ọ dị, ndị na-ese ihe abụghị Ndị Kraịst Ọkà Mmụta Sayensị.

James Franklin Gilman (1850-1929), onye na-ese ihe nkiri nke si Vermont ruo Massachusetts, bụ onye mbụ ọkachamara ọkachamara ghọrọ onye Christian Scientist (Gilman 1935). Na 1893, Gilman na Oriakụ Eddy na-arụkọ ọrụ iji gosipụta uri ya Kraịst na Christmas (Duputa Ebube 1998). Ihe osise ndị a kọọrọ akụkọ banyere Oriakụ Eddy, ọ bụ ezie na o dere na ha "anaghị atụ aka n'ụdị mmadụ, kama ha na-egosi ụdị na onyinyo nke Eziokwu pụtara na nwanyị nakwa na nwoke nke Chineke, Nna anyị na nne anyị" ( Eddy 1924: 33).

Kraịst na Christmas [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ ọrụ pụrụ iche na-arụkọ ọrụ n'etiti onye ndú okpukpe na onye na-ese ihe, dị ka  ChristianScienceVA3nke mgbanwe ndị Eddy rịọrọ maka mbipụta ndị sochirinụ (Duputa Ebube 1998). Ihe Nne Eddy chọrọ site na Gilman bụ, n'oge ahụ, ihe osise nke gosipụtara eziokwu nke sayensị nke Chineke. Ma ihe banyere nkà n'ike mmụọ nsọ site na Christian Science ụkpụrụ ma ọ bụghị ozugbo egosi akwụkwọ ọgụgụ ya? Nke a bụ ihe ịma aka nye ọgbọ na-abịa n'ihu nke ndị na-ese ihe. Na 1900, Violet Oakley (1874-1961) bidoro usoro nke dugara na ntụgharị ya na Christian Science. Ọ bụ onye otu afọ iri isii nke ụka Sayensị Christian ya na Filadelfia, ebe o jere ozi dịka otu n'ime ndị na - agụ akwụkwọ abụọ (yabụ ndị ozi na - eduzi ọrụ ahụ). Mụ na Jesse Willcox Smith (1863-1935) na Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871-1954), Oakley bụ otu n'ime atọ "Red Rose Girls". Ndị niile gụrụ akwụkwọ na ụmụ akwụkwọ niile nke onye Sweden ama ama ama ama Howard Pyle (1853-1911), ụmụ agbọghọ atọ ahụ kpebiri ibikọ ọnụ na Red Rose Inn nke Philadelphia n'agbata 1899 na 1901 wee chọọ ebe ọrụ na-achịkwa ( Carter 2002).

Oakley ghọrọ onye ama ama dịka nwanyị nwanyị America mbụ nabatara ọrụ ihu ọha. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ihe osise iri anọ na atọ na Harrisburg Pennsylvania State Capitol, nke emere n'etiti 1902 na 1927, bụ ọmarịcha ọrụ nke American muralism ma duru ọtụtụ ọrụ ndị ọzọ. Ha gụnyere ochicho mma nke Vassar College's Alumnae House Living Room na Poughkeepsie, New York, ebe o webatara onyogho ndị Christian Scientists hụrụ n'anya, dịka Nwanyị Nwanyị Anwụ na Sun na okpueze nke ebube Ndị Kraịst (Mills 1984) Anyị na-agụ na monograph banyere Oakley na "nkwenye siri ike Christian Science ya nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na ndụ ya na ọrụ ya" yana nka bụ maka ya "ụzọ isi kụzie ụkpụrụ omume nke ga-ebuli mmụọ mmadụ." “Mgbe ụfọdụ, nraranye ọ ji obi ya niile [Christian Science] mee bụ ihe na-enye ume ọhụrụ, mana ụfọdụ ndị ya na ha na-akpakọrịta kpọrọ ya asị na ọ ga-agwa ndị mmadụ okwu ihu ọha”ChristianScienceVA6

N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, anyị nwere ike ịjụ onwe anyị n'echiche dịka Oakley bụ onye na-eme ihe nkiri Christian Science. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ maka akwụkwọ ndị Kraịst Science na-ese foto abụọ nke Eddy, ugbu a na Mary Baker Eddy Library na Boston. Otú ọ dị, ọ na-ekwu na Science Ndị Kraịst mere ka ọ kwụsị ọrụ okpukpe ya. Oakley weere ọrụ kacha mma ọ na-arụ Ịdị n'Otu, na-eme emume njedebe nke Agha Obodo na ịgba ohu, na Pennsylvania Senate Chamber. O kwupụtara, o kwuru, "ịma mma na nkwekọ na mmụọ nsọ na nsonaazụ nke ndị a: Udo dị n'uche onye na-ahụ ya" (Kọmitii Na-echekwa Pennsylvania Capitol 2002: 133). Fọdụ n'ime ogidi Oakley gbalịrị ịkọwapụta ụkpụrụ doro anya nke Christian Science. Ha gụnyere Iwu Chineke: Ịhụnanya na amamihe, nke mbụ ya maka Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu nke Pennsylvania. Ndị mmụọ ozi na-ebu akwụkwọ ozi ahụ bụ "Ịhụnanya na Amamihe" na Eziokwu Chineke, ọkara nke ezoro ezo, ọkara-kpughere, dị n'azụ (Ụlọọrụ Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee 2002: 89).

N’atughi anya, onye okacha amara nke Christian Christian Science Evelyn Dunbar (1906-1960) bidoro oru ya dika onye na-ese okwu, n’arụ ọrụ n’okpuru onye nkuzi Royal College of Arts Charles Mahoney (1903-1968) na Brockley County School for Boys, South London. Mmekọrịta chiri anya Mahoney na Dunbar na-abụkarị eziokwu na ọ bụ onye na-amaghị ama, ebe amụrụ ya na Christian Science ma kwenyesie ike n'okpukpe ya. Achọpụtara dịka otu n'ime ndị ntorobịa Britain na-eto eto kachasị mma, na 1940 Dunbar ka enyere ọrụ ka ọ bụrụ naanị nwanyị UK nwanyị na-ese ihe agha. Ọ lekwasịrị anya n'ihu ụlọ wee bụrụ onye amaara ama n'oge agha ahụ maka ihe osise ya na-enweghị atụ, na-elekwasị anya n'agha ahụ si emetụta ụmụ nwanyị Britain. Mgbe agha ahụ bisịrị, Dunbar gara biri na Warwickshire ya na di ya, onye na-ahụ maka akụ na ụba Roger Folley (1912-2008). E gosipụtara Folley n'otu n'ime eserese ya ama ama, Oge mgbụsị akwụkwọ na Poet (1958-1960), nke a na-ahụkarị n'oge mbubreyo Dunbar.

Dunbar bụ onye ọkà mmụta sayensị nke Onye Kraịst dị oke egwu n'oge ndụ ya niile. "Ihe ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ya bụ Ndị Kraịst jupụtara n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ya" (Clarke 2006: 163). Dunbar onwe ya kọwara na ya chọrọ igosi na "ihe nile e mere bụ ọrụ nke Chineke na ihe niile dị mma" (Clarke 2006: 163: n'ezie ihe e dere site na Eddy 1934: 521), ọbụna n'ọnọdụ ndị siri ike.

Ma Winifred Nicholson (1893-1981) na Hilda Carline (1889-1950) kwupụtara mmetụta yiri nke ahụ maka okike. A maara Carline nke ọma maka alụm di na nwunye ya na ịgba alụkwaghịm ya na onye na-ese ihe na Stanley Spencer (1891-1959). Otú ọ dị, ndị nkatọ na-anakwerewanye nkà ya dị ka olu dị mkpa na post-impressionism nke Britain, ma e wezụga mmekọrịta ya na Spencer. Nkwenye siri ike nke Carline na Science Science enweghị nke Spencer, ma nye aka na nsogbu nke alụmdi na nwunye ha (Thomas 1999).

Nicholson, bụ onye na-ese onyinyo Neo-Impressionist, bụ onye Britain, ghọrọ Onye Kraịst Science na 1920s. Ọ na-ekwu na ọ bụ Christian Science na ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na ọ gbakee n'ụzọ ọrụ ebube mgbe ọ daa n'oge mmalite ime afọ 1927. Sayensị Ndị Kraịst "ji nke nta nke nta malite echiche ya na nkà ya" (Andreae 2009: 66). Nicholson bụ otu n'ime ndị na-acha akwụkwọ nsọ kachasị mma na nkà mmụta nke oge a. O tinyere ndụ ọhụrụ na eserese nke okooko osisi. Osisi ya gosiri ụwa dị ka ọrụ zuru oke nke Chineke na ngosipụta nke ịma mma Chineke. Dị ka ọmụmaatụ, Daffodils na Bluebells (1950-1955) bụ ihe osise ihe atụ dị elu, ebe ịma mma nke okooko osisi ahụ na-ele anya na windo chọọchị na ìhè nke Chineke.

Na 1954, Nicholson dere na The Christian Science Monitor na ihe osise ndị a nọchiri anya "usoro ka na-akpata ọgba aghara," "ebe nkwekọrịta nke oghere na-enye mkpebi ya" (Nicholson 1954). Nicholson eseghị okooko osisi na mbara ala naanị. Ọ hụrụ otu mma ime mmụọ dị na ndụ ezinụlọ, ụmụaka, na ọ joụ dị egwu nke ime obodo. Site na akụkọ ụmụ ya, "ọ gaghị abụrịrị nne ka mma" (Andreae 2009: 92) na mmekọrịta ịhụnanya a chọtara ọnọdụ na nka ya.

Nicholson nyochakwara ihe omuma dika uzo iji weputa isi ihe mara nma na idi nma nke uwa ChristianScienceVA81935. Aha ya nke a maara nke ọma na-abụghị ihe atụ, Kwaranụ Huit Quai d'Auteuil, na-ezo aka adreesị ya na Paris, bụ ebe ọ malitere iso enyi na-ede akwụkwọ Dutch Piet Mondrian (1872-1944) na-adị ndụ ogologo oge. Otú ọ dị, site n'ihe ndị a na-adịghị ahụ anya, Nicholson nọgidere na-alọghachi na okooko osisi. N'ikpeazụ, ndụ ya, ya na onye na-ese foto nkịtị bụ Li Yuan-Chia (1929-1994) na-akpachi anya. N'okpuru nduzi ya, o jiri ugbochi mee ihe, na-eweputa usoro ihe omuma nke esere anya banyere ìhè, ihe nnochi nke Kraist na nke Science Science nke na-ewepu njehie nke uche mmadu. [Image na nri]

Winifred jiri ọrụ ya nile aha ya bụ Nicholson, bụ nke ọ nwetara mgbe ọ dị afọ iri abụọ na isii mgbe ọ lụrụ nwoke ibe ya bụ Ben Nicholson (1894-1982), ọ bụ ezie na ha gbara alụkwaghịm na 1938 mgbe afọ iri na asatọ nke alụmdi na nwunye gasịrị. Ben bụkwa onye Christian Scientist, wee si n'okporo ámá na-enweghị nkà n'okpuru nkà nke Christian Science na echiche ya bụ na ụwa zuru okè karịrị ihe efu. O kwuru ugboro ugboro na na-enweghị ịtụle mmetụta nke Christian Science, ndị nkatọ ga-enwe ihe ize ndụ nke ịghara ịghọta ọrụ ya ma ọlị, "Science Ndị Kraịst na-amanyekwa ndụ ya" (Kent 2015: 474).

Mgbe ya na Winifred gbara alụkwaghịm, Ben lụrụ onye na-ese ihe bụ Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975), onye a zụlitere dị ka onye Christian Scientist ma bụrụ onye echiche Eddy na-emetụta banyere ịgbanwe ihe niile na ọrụ ya niile, n'agbanyeghị na n'afọ ndị sochirinụ ọ bịara becameka nso. nke England (Curtis na Stephens 2015).

Mgbe Ben gbara alụkwaghịm, Winifred Nicholson chọtara mmụọ mmụọ na Mondrian, bụ Theosophist siri ike (Introvigne 2014). Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri bụ Ndị Kraịst bụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na Theosophists na-abụkarị enyi nke ibe ha, ụfọdụ sikwa na Christian Science gaa Theosophy. Ejiri Theosophical Society guzo na New York na 1875, naanị izu abụọ ka e bipụtachara ya Sayensị na Ahụike. Ndi nwanyi kere mmeghari abuo a, wee choputa ndi na eso uzo n'otu obodo mepere emepe. Ozizi abụọ ahụ bụ, dị ka Stephen Gottschalk (1941-2005) si kwuo, "enweghị nkwekọrịta zuru oke" (Gottschalk 1973: 156). Onye guzobere Theosophy, Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891), wakporo Christian Science dị ka nkọwa na-ezighi ezi nke ikike mmụọ na mgbaasị mmadụ, na Oriakụ Eddy lere Theosophy anya dị ka ụdị ajọ ndọrọndọrọ anụmanụ, yabụ nke mwakpo ọjọọ iji chịkwaa echiche ụmụ mmadụ ndị ọzọ .

Na agbanyeghị nkwenkwe ozizi a, mmekọrịta dị n'etiti onye ọ bụla bụ Theosophist na Christian Scientists na-adịkarị mma, karịsịa na mpaghara nka. Onye na-ede akwụkwọ Britain bụ Cyril Scott (1879-1970), bụ onye mbụ nwere mmasị na Christian Science wee mesịa ghọọ Theosophist, kwuru na e webatara ya Theosophy site na Ndị Kraịst Science ndị enyi (Chandley 1994, 38). Onye na-ese onyinyo nke France bụ Maurice Chabas (1862-1947) [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri] "kpọrọ onwe ya Christian Scientist" (Reiss-de Palma 2ChristianScienceVA10004: 82) n'oge Agha Iwa Mbụ, tupu ịbanye na Theosophical Society na 1917 (Reiss-de Palma 2004: 93). Sayensị Ndị Kraịst na-emetụta, yana ihe nketa Katọlik ya, nyere aka ịkọwa nkwụsi ike nke isiokwu Ndị Kraịst na ọrụ Chabas nke ọma mgbe ọ ghọrọ Theosophist.

Otu ihe atụ bụ Otu nke Asaa, ndị otu narị afọ nke iri abụọ kachasị na Canada nke ndị na-ese ihe. Onye nchoputa, Lawren Harris (1885-1970), nwere nne Christian Science ma emesia kwagara Theosophy. N'ime ndị otu ahụ, James Edward Hervey MacDonald (1873-1932) bụ Theosophist na nwunye Christian Scientist, Frank Hans (Franz) Johnston (1888-1949), bụ Christian Scientist. Nwunye nke abụọ Harris hụrụ n'anya Bess Housser (1891-1969), bụ onye Christian Scientist nke mechara bụrụ onye Theosophist. Na 1920, ogologo oge tupu ha alụọ, Harris sere ya dị ka Christian Scientist. Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị niile ha na ha bụ enyi bụ Theosophists ma ọ bụ Ndị Kraịst Ọkà mmụta sayensị.

Ọ bụ ezie na ejiri obi ike nye Theosophy, Lawren [Image na nri] na Bess Harris nọgidere na-adabere na isi Christian Science ChristianScienceVA12echiche nke anumanu. Harris malitere ichegbu onwe ya na nkà nwere ike ịghọ ụzụ nke magnetism nke anụmanụ, mgbe ọ na-anwa imeri ihe nnọchianya. Nke a mesịrị mee ka akụkụ ahụ site na mbinye aka ya na Canada na-arụ ọrụ na-adịghị ahụ anya nke afọ ya gachara (lee Introvigne 2016).

Johnston bụ nanị onye so n'òtù nke asaa ndị "nọgidere bụrụ onye kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi na onye na-eso ụzọ [Christian Science] n'oge ndụ ya niile. Ọ malitere kwa ụbọchị n'ekpere na ọgụgụ Bible "(Mason 1998: 21). E mere Johnston ka o sonyere Christian Science site Sir Edmund Wyly Grier (1862-1957), onye na-ese onyinyo ihe omumu nke ga-abanye na 1929 onyeisi oche nke Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Ọ bụ ezie na ejiji ejiji "omenala" ya n'egbughị oge, a ghaghị itinye Grier na ndepụta nke ndị ọhụụ a ma ama bụ ndị Christian Scientists na-eguzosi ike n'ihe.

Ihe Harris kwuru na enwere ike ịchọta nkwubi okwu banyere nka site na Christian Science na Theosophy, dị ka ihe a na-apụghị ịkọwa akọwa dị ka sistemụ abụọ ahụ, na-eduga anyị ọzọ na ajụjụ ụdị ụdị mma ọ nwere ike inweta site na Christian Science. Nke a bụ nsogbu ndụ niile maka Joseph Cornell (1903-1972), ikekwe onye kachasị mkpa Christian Science artist.

Cornell sitere n'otu ezinụlọ dị na Niu Yọk, ma nna ya nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na anọ hapụrụ ya dị ka onye na-enye ezinụlọ ya aka, gụnyere mama, ụmụnne nwanyị abụọ na-eto eto, na nwanna nwoke nke nwere ọrịa ụbụrụ. Josef onwe ya na-emekpa ahụ mgbu dị ukwuu.

Na 1925, ọ tụgharịrị na Christian Science, nwetara “ahụ ike ọgwụgwọ” dị ukwuu (Starr 1982: 2) wee bụrụ onye nọ na chọọchị ahụ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na ịnụ ọkụ n'obi (Solomon 1997). Akwụkwọ akụkọ Cornell (Caws 2000) mere ka o doo anya na Sayensị Ndị Kraịst ghọrọ ihe kacha mkpa na ndụ ya. O kwuputara Christian Science na "ike kachasi ike iji gboo mkpa mmadu" (Doss 2007: 122). Ọ tụgharịrị na nka na 1930s dị ka ụzọ iji gosipụta okwukwe ya, na "na 1951-1952 ọ tụlere ịhapụ nka, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ dị mkpa, iji kwado ọrụ ọzọ nke omume na nkwenkwe ya" (Starr 1982: 1). Ọ malitere ịkwadebe collages na "igbe" iji "hazie ụwa anụ ahụ (ụwa nke ihe) n'ime mpaghara echiche nke Christian Science kwadoro" (Doss 2007: 115).

Ntuzo maka ndi ozo banyere ihe ndi ozo banyere ya, tinyere ihe ngosi nke Surrealists na MoMA, Museum of Modern Art, na 1936, o degaara onye nduzi bu Alfred Barr (1902-1981) na ya abughi otu ma ghara "Na-ekere òkè n'echiche ndị ahụ na nrọ nrọ nke ndị Surrealists" (Starr 1982: 21). Nye onye Christian Scientist siri ike, ndị a dị ize ndụ na magnetism anụ. Igbe ya adịghị eme ememe ọgba aghara ma na-enye iwu na ya (lee Blair 1999).

Karịsịa n'oge nke narị afọ ncheta nke ọmụmụ ya (2003), ụfọdụ ndị nkatọ gbalịrị iwepụta ihe Ndị Kraịst Science element na Cornell na igbe ya. Ma n'eziokwu "ọrụ ya nile bụ ngbanwe nke otu isiokwu nke Christian Science metaphysics" (Starr 1982: 2), ọ bụghị nanị nye ndị ntụgharị okwu kama Cornell n'onwe ya. Ọ na-akọwa mgbe niile Sayensị na Ahụike dị ka akwụkwọ ya “kachasị agụ ya niile, exc. Bible ”(Starr 1982: 1). "Ikewaputa ihe omuma nke Cornell na echiche nke ihe omimi nke ha na-agba akaebe ya bu igbochi oru nke ike ya" (Starr 1982: 7).

Na mgbakọ nke ihe The Crystal Cage (1943), [Foto dị n'aka nri] Cornell gụnyere ntụgharị aka na Charles (Émile) Blondin (1824- 1897), French acrobat onye gafere ihe karịrị narị atọ na Niagara Falls na eriri siri ike. Edebere Blondin maka Cornell the Christian Science n'echiche na uche a zụrụ azụ nwere ike imeri erughị eru anụ ahụ na nke anụ ahụ. Echefuru Blondin na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, mana Cornell hụrụ ebe o zoro aka na Oriakụ Eddy Sayensị na Ahụike: "Ọ bụrụ na Blondin kwenyere na ọ gaghị ekwe omume ịga ijeChristianScienceVA14 ụdọ n'elu mmiri ala Niagara, ọ nweghị ike ịme ya. Nkwenye ya na ya nwere ike ime ya nyere echiche ya, nke a na-akpọ akwara, mgbanwe ha na ike nke ndị sayensị na-enweghị ike ịkọwa na mmanụ a na-ete mmanụ "(Eddy 1934: 199).

Maka onye ihere n'ụzọ na-adịghị mma, Cornell, otu ikike nke imeri ụjọ echiche gosipụtara site na mgbanwe nke ballerinas na ndị na-eme ihe nkiri n'ihu ndị na-ege ntị. Balet gosipụtara, karịsịa maka Cornell “mgbanwe na ike nke ikike iche echiche a na-akpọ akwara” nke Oriakụ Eddy kwuru. Ọ bụ ezigbo onye nchịkọta ihe balet. Ka oge na-aga, Cornell nwere ezigbo mmasị na Marilyn Monroe (1926-1962). Ọ malitere ịkwado ya "dossier" mgbe ọ matara na a zụlitere ya Christian Scientist, nke mbụ (n'oge na-adịghị anya) site na nne ya Gladys Baker (1902-1984) wee ruo afọ ise site na "nwanne mama Ana", ya bụ Ana E Lower (1880-1948), onye Christian Science na-arụ ọrụ onye ya na ya biri n'etiti 1938 na 1942. Dịka Monroe toro, ọ hapụrụ okwukwe ahụ. Ọ dịghị mgbe ọ kwetara nnata nke igbe Cornell zigara ya. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị ọnwụ, onye omenkà, n'okwu nke aka ya, "nwetara mkpughe kpamkpam na-atụghị anya ya." Ọ nwetara nnabata ọhụrụ nke okwukwe "Christian Science na enweghị oke nke uche Chukwu, n'ọnwụ dị ka ụzọ nke ndụ ebighi ebi" wee kwenye na Monroe nwetara ọnwụ "ụzọ mgbapụ site na ụwa ụwa nke ihe; mmeri nke mmụọ Chineke ”(Doss 2007: 134-35).

A ma ama Cornell igbe, Obosara Igwe (1946-1950) bu ihe narutu aka akuko ura di nma (na balet). Ada eze na-eteta mgbe ụra narị afọ gasịrị, mana ọ ka bụ nwa agbọghọ ma maa mma. Nye Cornell, nke a metụtara nkuzi Christian Science banyere "njehie nke iche na anyị na-aka nká, na uru nke ibibi echiche ahụ" (Eddy 1934: 245). Oriakụ Eddy kọrọ akụkọ banyere otu nwaada onye Britain onye, ​​"onye ihe masịrị ya na ịhụnanya ya na nwata, […] ghọrọ onye ara na onye enweghịzi oge. N’ikwere na ọ ka bi n’otu oge awa ahụ nke kewara ya na onye hụrụ ya n’anya, n’agaghị ama ọtụtụ afọ, ọ na-eguzo kwa ụbọchị n’ihu windo na-ele anya maka onye ọ hụrụ n’anya. N'ime ọnọdụ uche a, ọ bụ nwata. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ maghị oge, ọ gafere nká ”(Eddy 1934: 245). “Ọtụtụ afọ emebeghị agadi, n'ihi na ọ maghị oge ịgafe ma ọ bụ chee na ya emeela agadi. Ihe o metara n’onwe ya n’ihi nkwenye ya na ọ bụ nwata gosipụtara nkwenkwe okwukwe dị otú ahụ. O nweghị ike ịka nká mgbe ọ kwenyere na ya bụ nwata, n'ihi na ọnọdụ ọgụgụ isi na-achị anụ ahụ ”(Eddy 1934: 245).

Ihe osise Cornell mechara mepụta “obí eze” nke enweghị oke nke okwu a na uche na-anwụ anwụ, ebe ọnọdụ ọgụgụ isi na-achịkwa anụ ahụ. Ikekwe, nke a bụ ezi ebumnuche nke ndị sayensị Christian Science niile. Agbanyeghi na enweghi "Christian Science art" dika asusu nwere nka, enwere otutu ihe omuma banyere ndi nka nile ndi nwere ike ma obu ndi nwere mmuta. Ọ bụ n'echiche na ụwa dị iche dị, ụwa nke Obi Chineke (ka a ghara inwe mgbagwoju anya na uche mmadụ nwere ike ịdaba), yana ndị omenkà nọ n'ọnọdụ pụrụ iche maka ịrụkọ ọrụ nnukwu ọrụ Eddy site na ịkọwa ọrụ ha, n'agbanyeghị site na njedebe doro anya nke ngwa ọrụ ha jiri, ma ọ dịkarịa ala ihe na-ezo aka na ụwa a dị elu.

Foto**
** Ihe oyiyi niile nwere njikọ dị ichiiche iji gosipụta ya.

Image #1: Chọọchị Nne, Boston.

Image #2: James Franklin Gilman, ihe atụ maka Kraịst na Christmas na mgbanwe ndị Mary Baker Eddy kwadoro. Site n'ikike nke Mary Baker Eddy Library, Boston.

Image #3: Violet Oakley, Mary Baker Eddy, kpuchie ihe maka Akwụkwọ bụ Christian Science Journal. Site n'ikike nke Mary Baker Eddy Library, Boston.

Foto #4: Winifred Nicholson, Amamihe (1980).

Image #5: Maurice Chabas, Amaokwu l'au-delà - Na-aga abụọ, ụbọchị amaghị.

Image #6: Lawren Harris, Christian Scientist (1920).

Image #7: Joseph Cornell, Penny Arcade (1962).

References

Andreae, Christopher. 2002. Winifred Nicholson. Farnham, United Kingdom na Burlington, VT: Lund Humphries.

Blair, Lindsay. 1999. Ọhụụ nke Joseph Cornell nke Usoro Ime Mmụọ. London: Reaktion Books.

Carter, Alice A. 2002. The Red Rose Girls: Akụkọ Na-enweghị Atụ nke Art na Ịhụnanya. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Caws, Mary Ann, ed. 2000. Cornlọ ihe nkiri nke Joseph Cornell nke Mind: Akwụkwọ edemede, Akwụkwọ Ozi, na Faịlụ ndị ahọpụtara. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Chandley, Paul FS 1994. "Cyril Meir Scott na Theosophical Symbolism: A Biographical na Nkà Ihe Ọmụma Ihe." Egwuregwu Egwuregwu Egwuregwu. Kansas City, MO: Mahadum nke Missouri - Kansas City.

Clarke, Gill. 2006. Evelyn Dunbar: Agha na Mba. Bristol: Sansom na Ụlọ ọrụ.

Curtis, Penelope - Christ Stephens, ụmụ nwoke. 2015. Barbara Hepworth: Ọkpụkpụ maka Ụwa nke Oge. London: Tate Publishing.

Doss, Erika. 2007. "Joseph Cornell na Science Ndị Kraịst." Pp. 113-35 na Joseph Cornell: Imepe igbe ahụ, nke Jason Edwards na Stephanie L. Taylor dere. Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang.

Eddy, Mary Baker. 1934. Science na Ahụ Ike na Ihe Dị n'Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society.

Eddy, Mary Baker. 1924. Ihe edemede di iche iche 1883-1896. Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society.

Gilman, James F. 1935. Ihe ncheta nke Mary Baker Eddy, Onye nchọpụta na Onye guzobere Sayensị Ndị Kraịst, dị ka echekwara na Diary Records nke James F. Gilman Edere n'oge ofme Ihe Nlereanya maka Oriakụ Eddy's Poem, Christ na Christmas, na 1893. Ntughari. Freehold, NJ: Akwụkwọ Dị Mfe.

Gottschalk, Stephen. 1973. Mmetụta nke Science Ndị Kraịst na American Religious Life. Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

Introvigne, Massimo. 2016. "Lawren Harris na Theosophical Appropriation of the Traditional Culture in Canada." Pp. 355-86 na Usoro Kwesịrị Ekwesị: Kabbalah, Western Esotericism and Transformation of Tradition, nke Boaz Huss na Julie Chajes dere. Be'er Sheva, Israel: Ben Gurion University Press.

Introvigne, Massimo. 2014. "Site na Mondrian ka Charmion von Wiegand: Neoplasticism, Theosophy na Buddha." Pp. 47-59 na 0 nyo Black: Territory, nke Judith Noble dere, Dominic Shepherd na Robert Ansell. London, England: Fulgur Esoterica.

Ivey, Paul Eli. 1999. Ekpere na Nkume: Christian Science Architecture na United States 1894-1930. Urbana, IL: Mahadum nke Illinois Press.

Kent, Lucy. 2015. "Uche na-adịghị Anwụ Anwụ: Christian Science na Ben Nicholson's Work of the 1930s." The Magazine Burlington 1348 / 157: 474-81.

Mason, Roger Burford. Akwa Anya Maka Otuto: A Ndụ nke Franz Johnston. Toronto, Canada: Dundurn Press.

Ihe osise a: Mary Baker Eddy na James F. Gilman Na-egosi Kraịst na Krismas. 1998. Boston: The Christian Science Publication Society.

Mills, Sally. 1984. Violet Oakley: Ịchọ Mma nke Ụlọ Ndị Na - ebi Ndụ Ụlọ. Poughkeepsie, NY: Vassar College Art Gallery.

Nicholson, Winifred. 1954. "Achọrọ M Ịnwe Foto na Ụlọ M." The Christian Science Monitor, November 9.

Pinkham, Margaret M. 2009. Ihe Ebube na Nkume: Akụkọ nke Iwu Ụlọ Nne Mbụ, Chọọchị mbụ nke Kraịst, Scientist, na Boston, Massachusetts, 1894. Nke 2. Santa Barbara, CA: Nebbadoon Press.

Reiss-de Palma, Myriam. 2004. “Maurice Chabas (1862-1947): Du Symbolisme à l'Abstraction. Essai et katalọgụ raisonné. ”Ph.D. Ntughari. Paris, France: Mahadum nke Paris IV - Sorbonne.

Solomon, Debora. 1997. Ulo oru ulo oru: The Life and Work of Joseph Cornell. Boston: MFA Publications.

Starr, Sandra Leonard. 1982. Joseph Cornell: Art na Metaphysics. New York: Castelli, Feigen, Corcoran.

Kọmitii Nchebe nke Capitol Pennsylvania. 2002. Ihe Ịgba Aka Dị Nsọ: Violet Oakley na Pennsylvania Capitol Mural. Harrisburg, PA: Kọmitii Ụlọ Nche Pennsylvania.

Thomas, Allison. 1999. Art nke Hilda Carline: Nwaanyị Stanley Spencer. Farnham, England: Lund Humphries.

Ụbọchị Post:
18 December 2016

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