Małgorzata Alicja Dulska Karolina Maria Hess

Zbigniew Makowski

Oge ZBIGNIEW MAKOWSKI 

1930 (Jenụwarị 31): Zbigniew Makowski mụrụ na Warsaw, Poland.

1950: Makowski kwetara na Academy of Fine Arts na Warsaw.

1956: Makowski nwetara diplọma ya mgbe ọ rụchara ọrụ na K. Tomorowicz na Warsaw.

1957: Ihe ngosi nke onye ọhụụ nke onye na-ese ihe mere na Hybrids ụmụ akwụkwọ na Warsaw.

1958/1959: Makowski kere akwụkwọ mbụ ya na-enwu gbaa, nke mepere usoro ihe karịrị narị abụọ nke ụdị a. Iji mepụta ya, ọ rụrụ ọrụ na akwụkwọ Theosophist Annie Besant, na-ede na eserese na otu ya.

1962: Makowski gara Paris, ebe ọ zutere André Breton wee sonye na ọrụ nka.

1965/1966: Makowski rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye nkuzi na National Higher School of Fine Arts (site na 1996 a kpọrọ University of Fine Arts) na Poznań, Poland.

1973: Makowski natara ugwu Polish Art Critique's Prize.

1982–1988: Makowski kwụsịrị ezumike ngosi nka.

1991: Ihe osise nke onye na-ese ihe Mirabilitas secundum diversos modos gafere ike a ịba (nke e sere n’agbata afọ 1973–1980) nke ndị Gọọmentị Poland nyefere n’aka thelọ Ọrụ nke United Nations na Geneva.

1992: Makowski natara ugwu Polish Jan Cybis Award maka mmeri nke ndu ya.

1995: Ihe akpọrọ “Ihe ngosi Blue” nke onye na-ese ihe, nke a haziri maka afọ iri ise nke United Nations, mere na Zachęta Gallery na Warsaw.

2010: Makowski natara Onyinye Pụrụ Iche nke Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage.

2010-2019: Makowski gara n'ihu ibi na ọrụ na Warsaw

2019 (August 19): Zbigniew Makowski nwụrụ.

BIOGRAPHY

Zbigniew Makowski bụ otu n’ime ndị Poland kacha mkpa ese ihe n’oge a. Ihe osise ya gụnyere ihe osise na akwụkwọ ọkụ. Ndị nkatọ na-ahụ maka ọrụ kpọrọ ọrụ ya "eserese ihe atụ" ma ọ bụ "geometry romantic," n'ihi ụdị ọ na-eji na eserese ya, nke gụnyere ọnụ ọgụgụ geometric na nzụlite dị egwu na ihe ndị na-enweghị atụ, nke na-emepụta ihe omimi, ọhụụ nrọ. A na-akpọkarị ọrụ Makowski ederede ka ọ bụrụ akwụkwọ karịa eserese, n'ihi na onye edemede dere ha okwu ma ọ bụ ahịrị nke obere mkpụrụedemede n'ụdị dị iche iche, na-echetara ndị na-ese ihe na usoro ọgwụ. Nka ya bu ihe edeturu aka na omenaala nke Western Esotericism. Enwere nkwenye siri ike na Theosophy, mana ọtụtụ ndị esoteric na-emetụta Makowski.

A mụrụ Zbigniew Makowski na 1930 na Warsaw, Poland. Site na 1950Makowski 1ruo 1956, ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ na Academy of Fine Arts na Warsaw. O nwetara diplọma site na ịmụ akwụkwọ na ogbako nke Kazimierz Tomorowicz (1897-1961), onye na-ese ihe odide ala na onye nnọchi anya Polish Formism, ọfụma nka na-adị ugbu a na-emesi ụdị ọdịnaya ike. Makowski pụtara dị ka onye na-ese ihe n'etiti 1950s. Ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Poland mgbe Agha IIwa nke Abụọ na ọchịchị ndị ọchịchị Kọmunist na-apụta nwere mmetụta na mmepe nke nka ya. Makowski esoghị usoro ndị gọọmentị nyere iwu, yana site na mmalite nke ọrụ ya malitere ịchọ ụdị ngosipụta ndị na-abụghị usoro.

Ọ ghọrọ onye otu ndị otu mba nke akpọrọ Phases, nke amuru na mbido 1950s na France. Onye guzobere usoro a site n'aka onye edemede French na onye nkatọ criticdouard Jaguer (1924-2006), ọ bụghị dị ka otu ìgwè kama ọ bụ dịka ọrụ mmekọrịta nke ndị na-ese ihe na-arụ ọrụ dị iche iche. Usoro anaghị ebipụta ihe ngosi, mana ihe jikọrọ ndị omenkà ya bụ mkpa ọ dị n'echiche (Dąbkowska-Zydroń 1994: 9-15, 118-20). Makowski tinyere aka na otu a site na 1962 gawa. O zutere ụzọ izizi n'oge njem ya na Paris, emesia ọ gosipụtara ọrụ ya ugboro ugboro yana ndị omenkà ndị ọzọ so na njem ahụ. Na Paris, Makowski zutere nna nke Surrealism, André Breton (1896-1966), onye nyocha ọrụ nka ghọrọ ihe dị mkpa sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nye ya (Szafkowska 2015: 11-16).

Na oge mbụ nke ọrụ nkà ya (1965-1960), Makowski nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu site na ngosipụta na ịdị adị. N'oge ahụ, ọ na-arụkarị ọrụ ezi uche dị na ya: ndị ka dị ndụ, ọdịdị ala, na eserese. Agbanyeghị, ọ malitere ngwa ngwa ịkwaga Surrealism na Informalism. Na mbu 1960s, enwere ike gosiputa nka ya dika nkpuchi ihe ndi ozo, site na iji ihe di mfe, na nke geometric na ndo nke oji, ọcha na isi awọ. Na ọkara nke mbụ nke afọ 1960 ọrụ ya jupụtara na ahịrị (kwụ ọtọ, vetikal, mgbe ụfọdụ, okirikiri  Makowski ma ọ bụ parabolic), eserese gafee akara na akara ngosi, leta, ma ọ bụ ahịrịokwu niile (Sowińska 1980: 2-5). [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'oge a, a maara onye na-ese ihe nke ọma maka ihe ndekọ oku ya, nke ya onwe ya kpọrọ "akwụkwọ ozi ndị edere na ndị na-amaghị ama" (Makowski 1965: 8).

N’etiti afọ ndị 1960, ihe ịrịba ama na akara, na-agabiga oge na-agawanyewanye ma dịgasị iche iche, etinyebere na mbara ala nkewa ụzọ abụọ nke ụwa na ikuku. N'ebe a, Makowski tinyere mkpịsị ugodi ya kachasị amasị ya, ubube ya, steepụ ya, ọdịdị geometrical, akwụkwọ ozi, ciphers, amaokwu, na labyrinth. Emere ihe ndị a n'eziokwu mana ha arụghị ọrụ nkọwa, Kama nke ahụ, ha ghọrọ akara ngosi nwere ihe nzuzo, n'ime usoro otu asụsụ nka na esoteric nke Makowski ji wee kọwaara ndị na-ege ya ntị. Ọ bụ asụsụ a ka ndị nkatọ kpọrọ “geometry romantic”. N'akụkụ nke abụọ nke 1960 na na mbido afọ ndị 1970, onye na-ese ihe hapụrụ ụdị a, mana ọ laghachiri na 1980s (Sowińska 1980: 2-5).

Enyere Makowski ọtụtụ onyinye Polish a na-asọpụrụ, tinyere ndị ọzọ onyinye Cyprian Kamil Norwid nke Art Critique na 1973, Onyinye Jan Cybis na 1992, na Onyinye Pụrụ Iche nke Ministri Omenala na Ihe Nketa Mba na 2010 (Szafkowska 2015: 11–16) . Otu n'ime ihe osise Makowski, Mirabilitas secundum diversos modos gafere ike a ịba, (esere n’agbata afọ 1973 na 1980) dị ka onyinye sitere n’aka gọọmentị Poland nye Office of the United Nations na Geneva. Ọrụ Makowski dị ugbu a na ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie kachasị mkpa na Poland, yana nnukwu nnakọta dị na National Museum na Wroclaw, na gburugburu ụwa, gụnyere na Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) na New York. N'ime ogologo oge ya niile, onye na-ese ihe kere òkè n'ihe karịrị narị ihe ngosi ihe ngosi abụọ na ihe ruru otu narị (Szafkowska 2015: 11-16).

Makowski bụ onye na-ese akwụkwọ ọgụgụ isi, nke sitere na akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọ bụghị naanị site na akụkọ ihe mere eme, kamakwa site na akwụkwọ, nkà ihe ọmụma, na ọdịnala nke ọdịbendị na okpukperechi gburugburu ụwa. N'iji mmụọ nsọ ndị ahụ, o kere akụkọ ifo mbụ nke sitere na ahụmịhe, mmetụta, na echiche nke onwe ya. Ọ gbalịrị imetụta ọ bụghị naanị echiche mara mma nke ndị na-ege ya ntị, kamakwa mmetụta uche ha, uche ha, na ọgụgụ isi ha, na-agbanwe ọrụ nka ya na ahụmịhe ime mmụọ dị iche iche (Nastulanka 1978: 6). Ihe osise nke eserese ya na-echetara gị kapeeti a na-acha uhie uhie ma ọ bụ nkwonkwo mara mma nke ukwuu, nke nwere echiche baroque nke egwu egwu (Szafkowska 2015: 11–16).

Makowski makwaara maka ịmepụta ọrụ nka nke enwere ike ịkpọ "akwụkwọ ọkụ" na ọdịnala William Blake (1757-1827). Makowski kere ihe karịrị narị abụọ ọrụ nke ụdị a (Szafkowska 2015: 11), na-enyocha ụdị na ọrụ nke akwụkwọ. Akwụkwọ ndị a na-enye ìhè bụ isi ihe iji ghọta nghọta ya, ma na-abụkarị ihe ndabere maka ịdepụta n'ọdịnihu. A na-emegharị akwụkwọ ndị ahụ ọtụtụ oge: onye na-ese ihe na-agụnye eserese na eserese na ha na pensụl, ink, gouache, ma ọ bụ agba mmiri, na-egbutu ma ọ bụ na-adụ ha, na-agbakwụnye ihe ndetu ya, amaokwu ya, na uri ya. Ha na-aghọ ụdị grimoires anwansi, nke edere ya na asụsụ ezoro ezo, nke ọtụtụ ndị na-amaghị ihe ga-achọpụta ngwa ngwa (Bartnik 2008: 7–16). Ndabere maka "akwụkwọ ọkụ" nke mbụ bụ otu n'ime ọrụ Annie Besant (1847-1933), onye isi oche nke abụọ nke Theosophical Society. Ihe osise ahụ malitere site n'akwụkwọ e biri ebi wee dee ihe na ya na ya. Otú ọ dị, Makowski mgbe ụfọdụ kere akwụkwọ nke ya site na mmalite, na-eji akwụkwọ ejiri aka mee ma na-akọwa ibe ọ bụla (Szafkowska 2015: 15).

Makowski jikọtara ide na ịse ihe, na-eme ka nkọwa nke Makowski 3ọrụ ya na-eme ka ha dịtụ hermetic na ike toread. Ọnụnọ ederede bụ ọdịdị mbụ nke eserese Makowski. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Onye na-ese ihe na-ejikarị ọ bụghị naanị ederede nke aka ya, kamakwa ahịrịokwu n'asụsụ dị iche iche, n'etiti ndị ọzọ Greek na Latin oge ochie, amaokwu sitere na akwụkwọ edemede, akwụkwọ uri, wdg. E nwere njirimara njirimara nke ederede gburugburu nke pụtara n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ya ma yie mandala. Mgbe ụfọdụ, Makowski na-ezipụ ihe edeturu ya; ụfọdụ n'ime ha nwere ike ịgụ naanị na enyo, ndị ọzọ na-ama ụma ehichapụ (Bartnik 2008: 8). Otu n'ime nkwalite mmụọ maka "Lettrism" a bụ ọrụ nke Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia (1240–91), otu n'ime ndị isi Kabbalist nke Middle Ages, yana ndị ụkọchukwu onye Italiantali, onye omimi na onye na-ese ihe na narị afọ nke iri na anọ, Opicinus de Canistris (1296 – c.1353), nke a makwaara dị ka Anicin Ticinensis, onye okike nke a na-akpọ map anthropomorphic (Baranowa 2011: 72-79).

Na mgbakwunye na ntụnye ndị a, anyị hụrụ na ọrụ Makowski ọtụtụ akara akara, na-abịa site na ọdịnala esoteric Western na Eastern. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ihe kacha amasị ya bụ igodo, nnụnụ ojii, ụlọ nyocha, steepụ, ubube, bevels, ọnụ ụzọ ámá na ọnụ ụzọ ámá, gburugburu, iko, mma agha, ihe ndị dị na platonic, kaadị Tarot na-etinye na otu Mkpochi4.pngndabere. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ebumnuche ọ na-ejikarị bụ eserese nwanyị (nwanyị nke oge a kamakwa chi nwanyị, nwanyị Renaissance, ma ọ bụ Madonna ochie), na-egosi ebe anyị na-atụghị anya ya. Ọ dịghị ihe ọ bụla dị ka ọ dị na mbụ anya. Ostensibly ezi uche ihe na-aghọ archetypical ụdị, na-eke “mystical rebuses” (Szafkowska 2015: 11–16).

Otutu ọdịnala esoteric Western dị n'ọtụtụ n'ime eserese Makowski na akwụkwọ ọkụ. Ntughari esoteric abughi nani na oru ha, kama ekwuputara ya nke oma na ihe edere ya na ihe ncheta ya. Iji maa atụ, Makowski kwuru maka nloghachi ya na Warsaw na 1945, obodo mebiri emebi ozugbo agha ahụ bisịrị. Ọ dị afọ iri na ise, yana ya na mmepụtaghachi agba ya nke eserese Joseph MW Turner (1775-1851) na ndị Pre-Raphaelites, na ihe osise ya, o wetara akwụkwọ site n'aka Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925), onye guzobere Anthroposophy , na site n'aka Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), onye ngalaba ngalaba nke Theosophical Society. Na nke ya Autobiography, Makowski kwuru mmasị o nwere n’ebe onye Ọstrịa na-ede akwụkwọ ọgụgụ n’Austria nọ, Gustav Meyrink (1868–1932), na ndị Poland bụ́ ndị ọkà ihe ọmụma mesịa. Ọ nwere mmasị pụrụ iche na echiche nke otu onye nke abụọ, Józef Maria Hoene-Wroński (1776–1853), ọ bụ ezie na o kwenyeghị na ha. Ọ gụkwara onye Polish Hegelian ọkà ihe ọmụma, August Cieszkowski (1814-1894), wee nwee ọ inụ na ọrụ nke otu onye Poland kachasị mkpa ịhụnanya, Juliusz Słowacki (1809-1849), n'onwe ya abụghị onye esotericism. N'etiti nkwenye ya kwenyere, o hotara akwụkwọ Theosophical dịka Onye Ukwu Na-amalite, onye French Theosophist Édouard Schuré (1841–1929), na Akwukwo nke Chineke di ndu, nke onye edemede German na onye na-ese ihe osise Joseph Anton Schneiderfranken, nke a maara dị ka Bô Yin Râ (18761–943) (Makowski 1978: 79–90).

Sourceszọ ndị ọzọ dị mkpa maka Makowski bụ ndị ode akwụkwọ ochie nke Western esotericism: Paracelsus (1493-1541), Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499), phaliphas Lévi (1810-1875) (Bartnik 2008: 7-11), na William Blake (Szafkowska 2015) (11). Dị ka ndị ọzọ na-ese ihe nwere mmasị na esotericism, akparamaagwa nke Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) metụtakwara Makowski (Makowski 2007: 66). Na mgbakwunye na Hermeticism, na ihe omimi oge ochie, onye na-ese ihe bụkwa nwa akwụkwọ na-anụ ọkụ n'obi nke Kabbalah, ọkachasị dị ka ndị ọkà ihe ọmụma Ndị Kraịst dịka Ramon Llull (ihe dị ka 1232-ca. 1315) na Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) si kọwaa. Banyere Bruno, onye onye Katọlik Katọlik gbara ọkụ na osisi na Rome na 1600 maka echiche ya na-ekwekọghị n'okike, Makowski dere, sị: "Eji m ya ụgwọ na m dị ndụ, na enwere m obi ike iche" (Makowski 1978: 60 ).

Makowski kwuru ugboro ugboro banyere akwụkwọ akụkọ Llull Ezigbo Magna (ihe dị ka 1305), akụkụ nke ọrụ amamihe ya N'ozuzu ahia, ma kwukwara ndị Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1467), enigmatic narị afọ nke iri na ise ọrụ esoteric ọrụ eleghị anya dere site Francesco Colonna (c.1433-1527). Na njedebe, Otú ọ dị, ọ gaghị ekwe omume ịdepụta mkpali esoteric niile nke Makowski, dịka ọ gaghị ekwe omume ịkọwa ya na usoro ọ bụla ma ọ bụ nke dị ugbu a (Janicka 1973: 226). Makowski gara n'ihu na-eduzi ụlọ ọrụ nka ya na Warsaw ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 2019. Ọrụ ya ka bụ ihe akaebe maka mmetụta zuru oke nke esotericism Western na nka na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na iri abụọ na otu.

Foto**
** Ihe oyiyi niile nwere njikọ dị ichiiche iji gosipụta ya.

Image # 1: Zbigniew Makowski, foto nke Mirosław R. Makowski, c. 1974 (n'azụ azụ: eserese onwe onye dabere na foto site na nwata site na nwata).
Image # 2: Zbigniew Makowski, Które były krajobrazy ostateczne [Ndị ahụ bụ njedebe ikpeazụ] (1963). Site n'ikike nke Agra-Art Auction House, Warsaw, Poland.
Image # 3: Zbigniew Makowski, Labyrinth (1963–1972). Site n'ikike nke Agra-Art Auction House, Warsaw, Poland.
Image # 4: Zbigniew Makowski, Mirabilita (1995). Site n'ikike nke Agra-Art Auction House, Warsaw, Poland.

References

Baranowa, Anna. 2012. "Zbigniew Makowski." Pp. 28–34 mu Arttak - Sztuki Piekne, mba. 3

Baranowa, Anna. 2011. "Ars Magna." Pp. 73–79 mu Dekada Literacka, ee e. 516.

Bartnik, Krystyna. 2008. Zbigniew Makowski. Wrocław: Muzeum Narodowe anyị Wrocławiu.

Dąbkowska-Zydroń, Jolanta. 1994. Surrealizm po surrealizmie. Międzynarodowy Ruch, PHASES. ” Warszawa: Instytut Kultury.

Hermansdorfer, Mariusz. 1995. "Sztuka Zbigniewa Makowskiego." Pp. 4-7 na katalọgụ ahụ Błękitna Wystawa. Warszawa: Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej Zachęta.

Janicka, Krystyna. 1973. Surrealizm. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Filmowe na Artystyczne.

Kuczyńska, Agnieszka na Krzysztof Cichoń. 2008. Wąski Dunaj No 5. Ze Zbigniewem Makowskim rozmawiają Agnieszka Kuczyńska i Krzysztof Cichoń. Lọ: Atlas Sztuki.

Makowski, Zbigniew. 1978. "Autobiografia (fragbi)." Pp. 79–90 mu Zbigniew Makowski (Katalog wystawy). Wrocław: Muzeum Narodowe, na Łódź: Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych.

Makowski, Zbigniew. 1965. “Artysta o sobie.” P. 8 n'ime Współczesność, ee e. 9.

Makowski, Zbigniew. nd “Korespondencja z Jackiem Waltosiem na temat 'Wesela' Stanisława Wyspiańskiego.” Pp. 66–68 mu Zeszyty naukowo-artystyczne Wydziału Malarstwa Akademii Sztuk Pieknych w Krakowie, ee e. 8.

Nastulanka, Krystyna. 1978. “Gdzie czekają niespodzianki. Rozmowa ze Zbigniewem Makowskim. ” Pp. 8 n'ime Polityka, ee e. 51.

Sowińska, Teresa. 1980. "Wyobraźnia bez granic." Pp. 2-5 n’ime Zbigniew Makowski. Zeichnungen, Gouchen na Aquarelle. Berlin: Ośrodek Informacji na Kultury Polskiej Leipzig.

Szafkowska, Magdalena. 2015. "Księgi artystyczne Zbigniewa Makowskiego." Pp. 11–16 mu Polia 10.VI.1946, nke M. Szafkowska dere. Wrocław: Muzeum Narodowe anyị Wrocławiu.

Ọrụ Zbigniew Makowski na NYC Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Nweta site na https://www.moma.org/artists/3706?locale=en&page=1&direction = na 20 February 2017.

Ụbọchị Post:
20 February 2017

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