Karen Pechilis

Gurumayi (Swami Chidvilasananda)

GIMUMAYI TIMELINE

1955 (June 24): Gurumayi mụrụ dị ka Malti Shetty na Bombay (Mumbai), India.

1982 (Eprel 26): onye isi nke Siddha Yoga, Swami Muktananda, bidoro ya nke ọma, dị ka onye na-agbaso ọdịnala ma degharịa Swami Chidvilasananda (aha Sanskrit a sụgharịrị "onye nkuzi okpukpe [swami] onye bụ obi ụtọ egwuregwu nke nsụhọ ”); Gurumayi, "nke miri emi na guru," bu ugwu di nma nke eji eme ihe adighi nma.

1982 (May 3): Ya na Swami Muktananda nwanne ya nwoke Swami Nityananada na-edo ya nsọ ka ọ bụrụ ndị ga-anọchi ya dị ka gurus nke Siddha Yoga.

1982 (October 2): Swami Muktananda nwụrụ na Swami Chidvilasananda na nwanne ya nwoke ghọrọ onye isi nke Siddha Yoga

1985 (November 10): Swami Chidvilasananda arụnyere dịka onye isi nke Siddha Yoga; o jikwa ọkwa a ruo taa.

BIOGRAPHY

Malti Shetty, onye a mụrụ June 24, 1955, bụ ọkpara nke onye na-eweghachi Bombay na nwunye ya. N'afọ sochirinụ, Swami Muktananda (1908-1982), onye Sanskrit aha ya pụtara "nnwere onwe nke nnwere onwe," na njedebe nke iri afọ nke omume ime mmụọ (sadhana), natara ikike iji mee ashram na Ganeshpuri, nke dị nso na Bombay (Mumbai) na ịkụziri ya site na guru, Bhagavan Nityananda ("onye dị elu nke na-enwe aṅụrị ebighi ebi"). Charismatic Swami Muktananda kpọrọ aha ya "Siddha Yoga" ma guzobe usoro mmemme izu ụka iji nyefee ike ime mmụọ site na guru nye onye na-eso ụzọ, shaktipat or shaktipat-diksha (shaktipat mbido), usoro nke dị iche na nke ụlọ obibi oge niile nke guru-na-eso ụzọ na nke nyere ohere maka nsonye nke ndị dịgasị iche iche na ihe omume ashram. Ndị nne Shetty ghọrọ ndị na-eso ụzọ, na site na 1960 ha na-akpọta ya, nwanne ya nwanyị na ụmụnne ya nwoke abụọ nwoke na ashram na ngwụsị izu.

The guru nyere nkà shaktipat mbido na Malti na 1969, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na anọ (Durgananda 1997: 64), ọ malitere ibi na ashram mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asatọ. Swami Muktananda "na-echebara onwe ya echiche banyere nri na usoro Malti ọ bụla, na-ahụ na ọ riri nri nke mere ka ntụgharị uche dị" (Durgananda 1997: 65). Malti dị ka ndị na-efe ofufe ndị ọzọ: N'adịghị ka ndị ọzọ na-efe ya, o mere ka ọganihu ime mmụọ ya site na ntinye onwe ya nye guru yana itinye aka na omume ime mmụọ siri ike (sadhana) dị ka ntụgharị uche. Ma nye Swami Muktananda, ọ kwụpụrụ iche, dịka na amụma ya nke 1969 na otu ụbọchị ọ ga-abụ ihe mgbama zuru ụwa ọnụ: “'You maara,' ka o kwuru, 'nwa agbọghọ ahụ Malti bụ ọkụ na-enwu ọkụ. Otu ụbọchị ọ ga-enwu gbaa ụwa dum '' (Durgananda 1997: 65).

Swami Muktananda guzobere njegharị ụwa iji gbasaa ozizi Siddha Yoga n'ihe o chere na ọ bụ "mgbanwe ntụgharị uche zuru ụwa ọnụ." Na 1975, ọ họpụtara Malti dị ka onye nsụgharị ya n'oge njem nleta nke abụọ ya na Oakland, California. N'ime afọ 1974-1975, Muktananda guzobere ọtụtụ atụmatụ nke usoro Siddha Yoga nke ga-abụ isi ihe nke ụzọ maka narị afọ nke ise sochirinụ, gụnyere guru onwe ya nyere shaktipat na ndị na-etinye aka na ngwụsị izu Ihe mmemme dị ọkụ, na-eguzobe ashrams n'ụwa nile, na ịmepụta ụkpụrụ nduzi maka nkuzi nkuzi na akụkụ nke omume Siddha Yoga na nkà mmụta okpukpe. Malti dị ka onye ndu bụ akụkụ nke ihe ndị a. Na 1980, Muktananda kwetara na Malti ga-ekwupụta okwu ọha na eze na Ashram na ehihie Sunday, na 1981, a họpụtara ya onyeisi oche ndị isi nke SYDA Foundation, usoro nhazi nke na-akwadoghị ihe omume (Pechilis 2004b: 224-29 ).

N'Abril 1982, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri abụọ na isii, Malti malitere ịmalite ụdị ndụ ahụ (sannyasa) site n'aka guru ya ma nye aha aha Swami Chidvilasananda ("obi ụtọ nke egwu"). Afọ iri mgbe nke a gasịrị, o dere banyere njirimara nke mgbanwe nke onye nwe ya na chi nke uwa (gosiputara dika O na Brahman na akwukwo) n'oge ememe ahu:

N'otu oge n'oge pattabhisheka, ememe nke nna Muktananda nyere m ike nke agbụrụ ya, o kwunyere So'ham [Ọ bụ m] na Aham Brahmāsmi [Abụ m Brahman] na ntị m. Enwetara m mantra dị ka ike dị ike dị egwu nke na-agba ọsọ ọsọ ọsọ na ọbara m nile ma mepụta ọgba aghara na usoro m dum. Enwere m ike ịmalite ụbụrụ na ngwa ngwa ma mara na ọdịiche niile dịka n'ime na n'èzí bụ ụgha na mgbakasị. Ihe niile bụ otu ihe ahụ; ihe dị n'ime m enweghịkwa ya. Echere m kpam kpam. Ọ bụ naanị nchọnchọ ịmara "Abụ m Nke ahụ," na-esite na nnukwu obi ụtọ na ìhè.

Mgbe uche m maliteghachiri ọrụ, ihe niile m nwere ike iche bụ "Gịnị bụ Nna? Ònye bụ onye a nke na-ele anya nkịtị, ma enwere ike ịnye ụdị ahụmahụ a? "

Amaara m na o doro anya na mantra bụ Chineke. Enwetụbeghị m ikike dị ike, ma n'otu oge ahụ na-atọ m ụtọ (Swami Chidvilasananda 1992: xxiii).

Izu abụọ ka e mesịrị, Swami Muktananda doro ya nsọ ma Swami Chidvilasananda na nwanne ya Swami Nityananda (b. 1962). N'oge gara aga, Subash Shetty, Nityananda bi na ashram wee malite sannyasa na 1980. Nraranye nke ụmụnne abụọ a juru ndị mmadụ anya n'ihi ntorobịa ha, mmata ha na ndị na-efe ofufe ebe ha tolitere na ashram, na eziokwu ahụ bụ na Siddha Yoga kụziri na mmadụ kwesịrị itinye onwe ya na otu guru (Williamson 2010: 119) ). Ọnwa ise ka nke ahụ gasịrị, ha abụọ ghọrọ ezigbo ụlọ nke Siddha Yoga, na Muktananda Samadhi ("Nmikpu n'ime ihe omuma ihe omuma," nke a na-ejikarị mee ihe na nke a iji gosipụta ọnwụ onye ndu ime mmụọ) na October 2, 1982.

Swami Chidvilasananda, bụ onye a na-akpọkarị Gurumayi ("mikpuru na guru"), nke gosipụtara nrara ọ raara onwe ya nye Muktananda, ghọrọ onye isi nke Siddha Yoga na November 10, 1985. Gurumayi duuru ndị Siddha Yoga site na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ihere, tinyere nke nwanne ya nwoke Nityananda na-apụ ma chọọ ịlọghachị mmekọrịta ("Onye bụbu SYDA Co-guru kọwara" 1986; Thursdayby 1991; Harris 1994: 93–94, 101-04; Durgananda 1997: 126–34 ; Healy 2010; Williamson 2010: 118-21); na site na ebubo nke pụtara obere oge mgbe guru nwụsịrị ma sie ike karịa afọ ole na ole Muktananda metọrọ ụmụ nwanyị na-efe ya ofufe (Rodarmor 1983; Caldwell 2001; Radha 2002; Shah 2010; Ụlọ Mmanya Ndị ọrụ 2010; Williamson 2010: 114-17).

Gurumayi nọgidere na-edu ndú Siddha Yoga site na ya nso na-agbaso omenala na omume ndị Guru Muktananda tinyere (ashrams, shaktipat, Mmemme kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ ngwụsị izu, nke a makwaara dị ka Intensive), yana ike kpakpando nke ya, ya na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na-achọsi ike ịhụ ya na ashram ma na-azọ oche dị n'akụkụ ya na mmemme mmemme ma ọ bụ Intensives (Williamson 2010: 124). Gurumayi guzobekwara mmemme ohuru, dịka ọmụmaatụ n'okwu Afọ Ọhụrụ nke gosipụtara Ozi afọ maka ntụgharị uche n'ime afọ na-abịanụ; ozi dị otú ahụ kwa afọ nwere nkebi ahịrịokwu dị mkpirikpi nke na-emesi ịdị ọcha nke uche ike, nkwenye n'ịhụnanya, na ihe ọmụma nke eziokwu ("Ozi Gurumayi na Ozi Artwork" 1991–2017). N'ime oge 1980s, ashram na South Fallsburg, New York karịrị okpukpu atọ n'ogo, na oge a n'ime mmalite 1990s a na-akpọ Golden Era nke Siddha Yoga Movement (Williamson 2010: 121). (Maka ihe ndị ọzọ gbasara ashdhams Siddha Yoga lee n'okpuru.) Na 1997, Gurumayi guzobere Muktabodha Indological Research Institute ("Banyere Muktabodha" 2017) na New Delhi, India, maka ọmụmụ na ichekwa akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke oge gboo nke India. Enwere ọtụtụ mbipụta site n'aka ndị gurus, swamis, na ndị ọkà mmụta nke Siddha Yoga na nkuzi na mmụọ nke mmụọ.

TEACHINGS / DOCTRINES

 Aghọtara ozizi ndị Swami Muktananda kpọrọ dịka Siddha Yoga site na nzukọ ahụ inwe mgbọrọgwụ miri emi na nkà mmụta okpukpe Hindu. A na-eji okwu bụ "siddha" mee ihe ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ na okpukpe ndị India na-ezo aka na "mmadụ zuru okè," ọ na-ejikọtakarị ya na ozizi nzuzo. Ụdị omenala Tamil South Indian na-achọpụta ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ nke siddhas (siddhars) ndị a ma ama site n'ikike nke ike anwụghị anwụ na ọgwụgwọ (Weiss 2009). A na-echeta guru mbụ na agbụrụ Yoga Siddha, Bhagavan Nityananda (1900-1961), dịka yogi dị ukwuu nke nwere ikike ọrụ ebube nke ịgwọ ọrịa, na ndị na-enweghị mkpa mmemme ememe n'ihi na ọ nwere ike ịnyefe shaktipat nye onye na-eso ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị site n'ìhè nke anya ya (Durgananda 1997: 11-22, esp. 19). N'iji na akụkụ na formulations na oge gboo Hindu nkà ihe ọmụma treatises, na Upanishads, Swami Muktananda nghọta nke okwu "siddha" mesiri ike nke ntụgharị uche iji mezuo amata nke dị n'etiti mmụọ mmadụ na nke Chukwu.

Ezi Siddha ahutawo ezi ihe nke onwe ya site na ntụgharị uche na ihe omuma ma wepu ego ya ma bido otu nime Mo Nso. O jikọrọ ya na Shiva ma ghọọ Shiva n'onwe Ya. Ọ bụ ezi Siddha, ezigbo Siddha. Siddha dị otú ahụ bụ Ramakrishna, onye dị otú a bụ Sai Baba nke Shirdi, na Siddha bụ Nityananda Nna [Bhagavan Nityananda]; ha nile malitere Shiva ma ghọọ Shiva (Muktananda 1974: 173, nke e dere na Muller-Ortega 1997: 169).

Na Siddha Yoga, e nwere usoro ọmụmụ atọ: Bhagavan Nityananda, Swami Muktananda, na Swami Chidvilasananda, onye ọ bụla na-aghọta na ọ bụ mmadụ zuru oke.

N'ihe banyere definition nke "guru" bụ na ya ma ọ bụ ọ na-ezipụ ikike nke ezi nghọta onwe onye nye onye na-eso ụzọ. A na-emepụta nnyefe a n'ụzọ dị iche iche, gụnyere: nnyefe nke shaktipat site na guru gaa onye na-eso ụzọ, nke bụ ngosipụta nke uche guru (mara) nke na - abụkarị edemede mbụ; onyinye nke guru nke mantra ma obu ihe edere n'onu; amara nke guru; nke guru bu okwu onu na nke edere ede; na ọhụụ nke guru dị ka a hụrụ (darshan) onye na-eso ụzọ (Mahoney 1997). Site na omume ndị a, onye ahụ na - eso ụzọ na - abịa ghọta site na ihe atụ nke guru na Chineke dị n'ime ya n'onwe ya.

Onye guru na-eme ka onye na-eso ụzọ zute ma ghọta ozizi site na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ Hindu na-akpali akpali nke na-ezo aka na Chineke n'ime - site na amaokwu ndị e kpughere dị ka Vedas (nke ndị Upanishads bụ akụkụ) iji cheta ihe odide dị ka Bhagavad Gita, na-esi na ụlọ akwụkwọ nkà mmụta sayensị nke Advaita Vedanta na Kashmiri Shaivism, na-abụ abụ na nkuzi (Brooks 1997). N'akwụkwọ ha na okwu ha, Swami Muktananda na Gurumayi na-esite na nnukwu ihe nketa ime mmụọ a: "Ebe Siddha Yoga gurus abụghị ndị na-akwado ụdị ofufe ọ bụla (siddhānta), ha anaghị etinye aka na 'ụlọ akwụkwọ' ọdịnala nke echiche ma ọ bụ ihe omimi nke amamihe "(Brooks 1997: 291). Ndị na-efe Siddha Yoga na-enweta akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, gụnyere okwu site n'aka ndị guru, ọmụmụ ihe na nlọghachi, na usoro ọmụmụ Siddha Yoga Home Study.

Otu ederede karịsịa, nke Guru Gita ("Song of the Guru"), ihe dị iche iche ebe ọ bụ ederede nke ndị Siddha Yoga na-agụ kwa ụbọchị. Dịka nkọwa nke Muktananda kọwara:

Ọ bụrụ na onye ọ bụla ga-ajụ m nke bụ otu ederede dị oké mkpa, m ga-aza, "The Guru Gita"Nke a bụ ihe dị nsọ kachasị nsọ na ọ na-eme ka ndị na-amaghị ihe mụtara, ndị nwere akụ na ụba na ndị ọkà mmụta. Na Guru Gita bụ abụ kachasị abụ nke Shiva, nke nzọpụta. Ọ bụ ezigbo osimiri nke obi ụtọ n'ụwa a. Ọ na-agụnye sayensị nke zuru oke, yoga nke Onwe. Ọ na-enye ndụ dị mkpa. Ọ bụ ihe jikọrọ ya; ya na 182 stanzas n'amaokwu di iche iche n'amaokwu di iche iche na-akowa ihe di nkpa nke ofufe nye Guru, oru ya, ọdịdị ya na ọdịiche ya. Ọ bụrụ na onye na-ege ntị na Guru na-abụ abụ a, ọ na-enweta ike niile, nghọta na ihe ọmụma, na-emezu nzube nke yoga (Muktananda 1983: xiv).

The Guru Gita ederede dị ka e biri ebi Nectar nke Ịkụ abụ nwere ike na-egbu onwe ya; ebe sitere na amaokwu 182 ya bụ ụbọchị a amaghị: "Ekwuru na ọ dị n'ime Skanda Purāṇa, ma ọ bụ, ọ na-adịkarị, nke Padma Purāṇa. . .amaokwu ụfọdụ na-egosikwa na n'ime Kulārṇava Tantra na ndị ọzọ Tantric isi mmalite. . . .Ndị a dị ka nke a na - adịghị ahụkebe maka isi mmalite nke yoga. . "(Brooks 1997: 291). E nwere ike ide Muktananda n'onwe ya ihe ederede nke a na-eme kwa ụbọchị na Siddha Yoga.

Swami Muktananda nwere ọdịdị ọdịdị nke ụzọ Siddha Yoga. N'ịbụ onye ọhụụ zuru ụwa ọnụ kpaliri, o guzobere usoro na usoro ntụziaka iji mee ka usoro nhazi site na guru nye onye na-eso ụzọ na " shaktipat mbido nwere ike ịnweta ndị na-ege ntị n'ụwa niile (Jain 2014: 199); onye na-anọchi ya, Gurumayi, nọgidere na-enwe ma na-eme ka ụlọ ọrụ ndị a na usoro nke ntụziaka ime mmụọ dịkwuo mma. Umu ahihia nke Siddha Yoga kachasị mma bụ Swami Muktananda, gụnyere Siddha Yoga ashram, Gurudev Siddha Peeth, nke dị nso n'obodo Ganeshpuri na steeti Maharashtra, India (nke bụ 1956); Ashdo Yoga Ashram na Oakland, California (bụ April 28, 1975); na Shree Muktananda Ashram na South Fallsburg, New York (bụ. 1978-1979). O mekwara usoro mmemme kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ izu ụka, nke ndị nnọchiteanya na-ezukọ na obibi ashram iji gụọ egwu, na-ege ntị na nkuzi ndị guru ma ọ bụ ndị nkuzi Siddha Yoga nwere nkwenye, ndị ntinye uche ọzọ,seva), ma soro na nkuzi na nkuzi; dabere na onye so na ya, ihe omume ndị a nwere ike ime ka ahụmahụ nke shaktipat. Ọ bụ ezie na e doro anya na ọdịnala Hindu na-etinye aka na Hindu isi (dịka ọmụmaatụ, Guru Gita a na-abụ abụ na Sanskrit) Muktananda na-atụ anya na Siddha Yoga ga-abụ ụzọ zuru ụwa ọnụ na Gurumayi ka na-aga n'ihu. Okwu nhụwa nke Yddha Yoga na-akọwa ụzọ dị ka:

Maka onye ọ bụla, n'ebe nile,
iji ghọta na Chineke dị
n'ime onwe ha na okike,
nkwụsị nke nhụjuanya niile na nhụjuanya,
na inweta oke obi ụtọ
("Nkwupụta Ahụhụ Siddha Yoga" 2016).

Na Siddha Yoga, usoro nile nke nnweta nwere ike ịkọwa ọdịnala: "Onye Hindu" si otú a mee ka a mara ụzọ Siddha Yoga karịa "okpukpe Hindu."

Gurumayi ejirila ozizi na ihe omume nke Muktananda na-eme ihe, gụnyere nke a na-akpọzi "Shaktipat Intensive" ("Ajụjụ na Azịza" 2016). Otú ọ dị, ọ wetawo ihe ndị ọ na-eme na ụzọ onwe ya na usoro e guzobere. Ndị na-ekiri ihe na-amụ ihe na-atụ aro ọtụtụ ụzọ iji mara ozizi ya; dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọrụ site n'omume achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị: "Ọ bụrụ na enwere ike ịkọwa ihe gbasara ụkpụrụ omume iji mara ozi ya, ọ bụ ozizi nke achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị. Afọ ndị a kemgbe 1982 ahụwo mgbalị siri ike ịmalite ịkpụzi nsụgharị Siddha Yoga n'ime njikọta nke ndị mmadụ na ụlọ ọrụ ndị na-ekwupụta ozi ahụ. "Gurumayi n'onwe ya ekwuola," Ozi m bụ 'do ọ! '”(Durgananda 1997: 136, 138). O tinyekwuola uche na ndị na-eso ụzọ na-eme omume (sadhana) kwa ụbọchị na ha onwe ha dị ka ozizi ndị a na-eduzi kwa ụbọchị, yana ọrụ ndị ọzọ ("PRASAD Project" 2016; "Ụlọ Mkpọrọ Ụlọ Mkpọrọ" 2016).

Ebumnuche Gurumayi nwere ike ịdị iche na nke guru Muktananda, na-esite na ọdịiche Richard Gombrich mere: Muktananda bụ "soteriological" na-elekwasị anya ebe Gurumayi bụ "obodo":

Okpukpe nke Soteriological na-emesi omume na nkwenkwe ike dị mkpa iji nweta nzọpụta — na iru ya ngwa ngwa. Okpukpe ndi mmadu na-ekwusi ike na omume na nkwenkwe nke na-eme ka ndu mmadu na-aga n'ihu. . . . Otutu nkuzi [Gurumayi] bu ihe a na-eme maka ihe bara uru, ihe obula nke ibi n'uwa. . . . Agbanyeghị na omume ndị Hindu nke ịgụ abụ Sanskrit na ife ofufe (puja) ka na-eme na Siddha Yoga, Gurumayi mesiri ike na-achọpụta amamihe nke onwe ya site na ịtụgharị uche na ahụmịhe kwa ụbọchị n'ime akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ma ọ bụ okwu Gurumayi ma ọ bụ Muktananda (Williamson 2005: 154, 155, 156).

Ihe omuma nke oma nke uzo Siddha Yoga n'uzo taa neme ka omuma ihe omuma na omuma nke onwe ya n'uwa, ime ka ihe nke mbu na ime ka ihe nke ugha di. Otu akụkụ nke mmesi ike a n'itinye nkuzi ndị ahụ n'ọrụ, ibi ndụ kwa ụbọchị n'ụwa bụ usoro ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ Siddha Yoga, nke bụ "usoro anọ e mere iji mee ka ịkwado ma kwado gị sadhana”Iji“ tinye aka na ọmụmụ ihe na itinye nkuzi nke nkuzi Siddha Yoga ”(“ SIDDHA YOGA® Home Study Course ”2017).

Ihe na-eme ka ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ ụlọ ga-ekwe omume bụ iji nkà na ụzụ Gurumayi eme ihe (Pechilis 2004b: 233-36). Taa, enyere ya na ndị gurus nwere webusaịtị nke ha ga-esi kọwaa ma kwalite nkuzi ha, mana Gurumayi bụ onye ọsụ ụzọ n'iji teknụzụ eme ihe dị ka usoro mgbasa ozi zuru ụwa ọnụ, bido na 1989, “mgbe izizi 'Satellite' Intensives izizi gburugburu ụwa, [na] okwu ahụ bụ 'ụwa dum shaktipat' malitere ịpụta ihe pụtara n'ụzọ nkịtị "(Durgananda 1997: 150). Dị ka Swami Durgananda si akọwa:

Na 1994, a na-agbasa ozi kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ site na ntanetị gaa na obere obere ụlọ Siddha Yoga dị na St. Petersburg, Russia. N'afọ sochirinụ, otu nwa akwụkwọ onye France gara njem na Russia, na njedebe nke njem ya, nọrọ oge ụfọdụ n'ebe obibi ndị mọnk nke ndị Ọtọdọks Russia. Abbot ahụ hụrụ foto nwata akwụkwọ Gurumayi. Abbott ahụ kwuru, sị, "Oh, gị na Gurumayi nọ." Nwata akwụkwọ ahụ juru ya anya, sị, "Olee otu ị si mara Gurumayi?" “Onye ọ bụla maara Gurumayi,” ka abbot ahụ zara, na-akọwa na aha ya na foto ya gbasara na mpaghara ime mmụọ nke Russia-ihe ịrụ ụka adịghị ya na ụmụ akwụkwọ ndị werela Intensive ahụ (Durgananda 1997: 150–51).

Site na 2002, a na-eji mgbasa ozi satellite zuru ụwa ọnụ mee ihe maka Mmetụta, nkwupụta nke ozi Shiod Siddha Yoga kwa afọ na "usoro ọmụmụ ụwa zuru ụwa ọnụ mbụ nke zuru ụwa ọnụ na-elekwasị anya na Ozi Siddha Yoga," usoro ọmụmụ nke Siddha Yoga. A kọwara ha dị ka ohere iji "na-ekerekọ ọnụ dị ka ndị na-agba egwú n'ụwa nile" (Pechilis 2004b: 236). Site na satịlaịtị, guru nwere ike ịnọ n'otu ebe na n'ọtụtụ ebe n'otu oge ahụ. Ọ bụ na ọ bụ postmodern ngosi nke simultaneity nke eluigwe na ala na karịsịa nke jupụtara Siddha Yoga: Ụzọ dị ka ma Hindu na enwe ike ịnweta ya; onye guru ma onye nke aka ya na ihe omuma nke uwa; onye guru dị ka ma ugbu a na abiaghi. Ihe gbara ya gburugburu bụ nnukwu ọrụ nke ihe oyiyi nke guru na-arụ na nnọchite Siddha Yoga nke ịnweta guru. “Na South Fallsburg [ashram], foto nke guru — ya na ihu ọchị ya, na anya ya abụọ, na nkọ ya mara mma nke ukwuu — chọrọ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbidi nile, ebe a na-edekọ ego, ebe a na-ere ahịa n'ụlọ ahịa, na shelf, tinyere ndị na-efe ya na-atụgharị uche na nzuzo. ebe ịchụàjà na ọtụtụ ụgbọ ala ha ”(Harris 1994: 92). Ha na-edozi mgbidi ashram, a na-ere ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ashram na ntanetị na ntanetị, a na-ejikwa ha achịkwa dị ka ugbo ala nke ịkpọtụrụ guru. Ihe onyonyo dị ndụ nke guru n'oge kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ ma ọ bụ mkpughe nke Ozi Afọ, dị ka ọ dị na ọnọdụ a dị mkpa banyere onyinyo guru, bụ nkwupụta nke njikọ teknụzụ dị ka mmekọrịta chiri anya (Pechilis 2004b). Ihe oyiyi ndị a na-achịkwawanye achịkwa gosipụtara site na nkwụsị na 2013 nke nnweta ọha na eze na Ozi Gurumayi nke Afọ na ihe osise ("Ozi Gurumayi na Ozi Artwork" 1991-2017). Ugbu a devotee ga-abanye iji nwee ike ịlele (“inwe darshan ”) Nke Gurumayi’s Message Artwork (“ Darshan nke Gurumayi Ozi Artwork for 2016 ”2016).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Siddha Yoga ghotara ashrams isii na ọtụtụ ndị na-atụgharị uche na ndị na-abụ abụ n'ụwa niile ("Siddha Yoga Ashrams" 2016). Ashrams nwere ọnọdụ pụrụ iche, ebe ọ bụ na ha bụ "ike" dị ike nke guru (Gold 1995), ha dịkwa ọtụtụ, mgbe ụfọdụ, ebe a na-ahụkarị maka ebe a na-ahụ maka ụzọ; e wuola ụfọdụ ashrams dị ka usoro nke sayensị Hindu si arụ ọrụ (vastu shastra or vāstu śāstra). Ashrams isii ahụ dị na Melbourne na Sydney, Australia; Ganeshpuri, India; Oakland, California; Boston, Massachusetts; na South Fallsburg, New York. A na-ahọpụta ebe ntụgharị uche oghere nhazi, na-abụkarị n'obodo ndị bụ isi. A na-eme otu egwu na ntụgharị uche n'ime ụlọ ụmụ akwụkwọ Siddha Yoga.

Ozi ntanetị site na weebụsaịtị Siddha Yoga banyere ashrams na-ekpughe ọtụtụ ụdị dị iche iche nke omume na - aga n'ihu na - emeghị ememe. Akara ashraya nke Australian na Sydney na Melbourne na-enwekarị mgbakọ obodo (satsang, kọwakwara ụlọ ọrụ) na recitation nke Guru Gita na Satọde na Sọnde, ọ dị ka ebe obibi maka izu ọrụ nke ndị na-efe ofufe. Na-ebute ihe ndị a na-eme ná ngwụcha izu, usoro ihe omume ahụ na Oakland, California ashram nwere usoro na-aga n'ihu nke ịkọ egwu, ịnabata usoro maka ndị ọhụrụ na ụzọ Siddha Yoga, ntụgharị uche na nzukọ ọmụmụ. Ganeshpuri ashram na South Fallsburg ashram nwere ike ịnweta naanị maka ndị otu aka Siddha Yoga, site na ngwa, maka ọrụ ọrụ ogologo oge kwa ụbọchị; na Boston ashram bụ ebe mgbaba. Ogologo oge seva (ndị na-efe ofufe) ndị bi na ashrams ga-agbaso usoro ihe omume kwa ụbọchị dịka: ntụgharị uche nke ụtụtụ ma na-abụ abụ na 3: 00 n'ụtụtụ, na-esote nnọkọ ọzọ na 4: 30 n'ụtụtụ, nke Guru Gita na-abụ abụ; mgbe ahụ nri ụtụtụ; esochi ụtụtụ seva, n'oge nke onye nwere ike inye aka ọcha ashram ma ọ bụ rụọ ọrụ n'èzí; ehihie na-abụ abụ; n'ehihie seva; na n'ikpeazu nri abalị, abụ ụbọ abalị, na 10: 00 na mgbede. A na-ewere nri ndị anaghị eri anụ Sevites, na e nwere iche iche n'etiti ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị na-arụ ọrụ maka ebe obibi na ebe obibi maka ịkụ abụ na ntụgharị uche.

Ndị dị otú ahụ na-ebi ogologo oge na ndị bi na Siddha Yoga dị ọkụ, n'oge nke guru bestows shakti (ike ime mmụọ ma ọ bụ ume) na ndị na-efe ofufe. Baba Muktananda nwere ọtụtụ otu ụbọchị ma ọ bụ ụbọchị abụọ n'ime afọ kalenda enyere, wee rue 2005, Gurumayi mere. Na 2006, o kwupụtara na a ga-enwe otu Global Siddha Yoga Shaktipat kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ kwa afọ, na Ọktọba, ka o kwekọọ na nke Baba Muktananda. mahasamadhi ma ọ bụ omume nke maara nke ọma ma hapụ ọchịchọ ya (nke na-akpata ọnwụ). Dị ka Siddha Yoga kọwara: "Mgbe mahasamadhi, na shakti nke ihe omuma a na-aga n'ihu na-adị ma na-emetụta ụwa niile, na-ewuli ụwa elu na-enye ndụ nke ndị na-efe ya. . . . [Oge] oge dị nsọ na - eme ka ike omume mmadụ ”(“ Ajụjụ na Azịza ”2016).

Kedu afọ nke ezumike, kwa afọ, mgbe a na-atụ anya ka ndị otu obodo na-ezukọta na ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu, bụ oge "ụbọchị nsọ," ihe ka ọtụtụ na-elekwasị anya na Siddha Yoga gurus, nke na-enye ọnọdụ dị mma maka omume. Ụbọchị na 2017 bụ:

Jenụwarị 1: Yearbọchị Afọ Ọhụrụ (mgbe Gurumayi wepụtara Ozi Ya Kwa Afọ).

February 24: Mahashivaratri (nnukwu Night nke Shiva, na-eme na February / March).

Mee 10: Emume ncheta ọnwa nke Baba Muktananda.

June 24: Gurumayi Chidvilasananda Birthbọchị ọmụmụ.

July 8: Gurupurnima (ụbọchị ọnwa zuru ezu n'ọnwa Ashadha (July-August); ụbọchị iji sọpụrụ guru mmadụ).

August 8: Bhagavan Nityananda nke Solar Punyatithi (ncheta ọnwụ).

August 15: Baba Muktananda's Divya Diksha (ụbọchị Baba natara nnabata sitere n'aka Guru, Bhagavan Nityananda).

Ọktọba 5: Baba Muktananda's Lunar Mahasamadhi (omume ịmụrụ anya na ụma hapụ ahụ ya).

“Na mgbakwunye na ezumike ndị a, Pitru Paksha bụ ememe Siddha Yoga. Oge a dị nsọ sitere na ọdịnala ndị India bụ maka ncheta ndị nna nna. Na 2017, Pitru Paksha bụ Septemba 6-19 ”(“ Siddha Yoga Holidays and Celebrations 2017 ”2017).

NDỤ

Akparita uka banyere ma o bu umuaka nwanyi taa, na Gurumayi nke oma, enwere ike iwere na ndi nwanyi na-eme ihe di iche iche maka ma megide (Wessinger 1993; Sered 1994; Puttick 1997; Pechilis 2011). Otutu ihe omumu akwukwo a mere ka o doo anya uzo ndi Hindu nwanyi ma obu ndi Hindu ji mee ka ha gbanwee usoro ndi guru na nwoke. sannyasin (ascetic), nke nwere ike inyekwu ihe omuma maka nyocha ndị dị otú ahụ. Isi okwu bụ ụzọ e si ewepụta guru na ndụ ndị ọzọ. Na ọdịnala, otu ihe dị mkpa na ịrị elu ụmụ nwanyị na ikike nke okpukpe bụ ịjụ alụmdi na nwunye. Renunciation nke alụmdi na nwunye bụ ihe na-ewu na-ewu nke nwoke ikike ime mmụọ, nke dabeere na renunciation nke nkịtị na-elekọta mmadụ na-arụ na nchegbu; agbanyeghi, nwoke gurus lụrụ di na nwunye ma nwekwaa ike gwụ ike ya na nwunye ya ịnọ n’ọhịa, agbanyeghị ụdị nke sannyasin a kọwara dị ka nwoke na-alụbeghị di na-agagharị agagharị. Maka ụmụ nwanyị, karịsịa, atụmanya alụmdi na nwunye na ịmụ nwa ka ekwupụtawo na nke India. Dị ka Meena Khandelwal si kọwaa, n'ihi ọtụtụ ihe omume ọdịbendị na nrụgide ndị inyom ka ukwuu:

N'iburu mkpa alụmdi na nwunye nwoke na nwanyị na ịmụ nwa na ọdịbendị South Asia n'ozuzu ya, ọ ga-abụ na mmegide sitere na ezinụlọ na ọha mmadụ ga-ezute mkpebi nwoke ịhapụ ndụ ezinụlọ. nke a bụ eziokwu karịsịa ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ nwata ma ọ lụbeghị di ma ọ bụ nwunye ma ọ bụ lụrụ di ma ọ bụ nwunye yana ndị dabere na ezinụlọ. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, enwere ụkpụrụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ, akụkọ ihe mere eme, na oge dị iche iche maka ịhapụ nwoke ịhapụ afọ ọ bụla, yabụ a na-ahụta ya ụzọ ziri ezi maka ụmụ nwoke ọbụlagodi na ndị ikwu na-akụda mmụọ. Alụmdi na nwunye dịkarịrị mkpa maka ụmụ nwanyị, n'ihi nke a, ọtụtụ nnyocha banyere ụmụ nwanyị South Asia lekwasịrị anya na ndụ ụlọ ha. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị nọ na South Asia na-achọ inweta ezigbo di, ndị ọgọ na ụmụ nwere ahụ ike, ndị na-anaghị enwe ike nrụgide kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ iji kwekọọ "(Khandelwal 2009: 1005).

Ihe Sondra Hausner na Meena Khandelwal na-ekwu banyere nwanyi na-ebikarị na nwanyi na-ekwu banyere nwanyi: "Ndi mmadu nile echeela ma ha ga-aluru di ma obu nwunye, luta di na nwunye, ma obu di na nwunye. nwunye "(Hausner na Khandelwal 2006: 3). Akụkọ ọdịnala banyere ụkwụ ụmụ nwanyị na omenala Hindu na-eme ka ha bụrụ nwunye; na oge a, nwanyi na-ekwu ihe dịgasị iche iche banyere mbipụta (Pechilis 2004a: 7, 15, 28-29, 34), gụnyere ịlụ di ma ọ bụ nwunye, ịhapụ di ma ọ bụ di, ma ọ bụ ịjụ ịjụ di na nwunye. Maka ụfọdụ, tinyere Gurumayi, nsogbu nke alụmdi na nwunye apụtaghị na akụkọ ndụ.

Ihe e mesiri ike na ahụmịhe nke onwe bụ ihe ọzọ mara mma nke ụmụ nwanyị na akụkọ ihe mere eme na taa (Pechilis 2011; Pechilis 2012), a pụkwara ịhụ na Gurumayi mesiri ike na sadhana (omume ime mmụọ). Ọ bụ ezie na o doro anya na onye guru ya bụ Baba Muktananda hụrụ ihe pụrụ iche na ya, ihe Gurumayi na-ekwusi ike na ndekọ nke aka ya nke afọ ole na ole tupu ọ bụrụ onye guru bụ na omume kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ ya ji nke nta nke nta mee ka uche ya guru (Pechilis 2004b: 226-27). Banyere ndị na-efe ya ' sadhana, na ngwụcha 1990s Gurumayi rụpụtara mgbanwe dị mkpa site na guru ya Swami Muktananda na omume nke ya na ndị na-efe ofufe na-emekọrịta ihe, ọkachasị na ngwụcha izu mmemme. Ebumnuche a ma ama maka inwe guru na obibi mgbe niile, ndị na-efe ofufe nwere ike ịbịaru guru ma nata mmetụ dị mma na nku peacock wand na isi ha. Kama nke ahụ, onye guru malitere ịnọ na Intensives; ọ bụrụ na ọ pụtara, ọ bụ site na nnyefe vidiyo satellite. Mkparịta ụka nke mgbanwe na akwụkwọ Siddha Yoga gbara ume na na enweghị ya, guru chọrọ ịgba ndị na-efe ofufe ume ka ha lekwasị anya ha omume nke ozizi kama na ya ọnụnọ (Pechilis 2004b: 229-33).

Ọnụnọ na enweghị Gurumayi na-atụgharị uche na-atọ ụtọ dị n'etiti mmekọrịta chiri anya na anya na ụzọ nke gurus nwanyị (Pechilis 2015). N'ihe banyere mmekọrịta na guru, otu ihe atụ bụ “mmekọrịta chiri anya” nke etolite site na oge akọwapụtara nke guru na nnọkọ mmemme, nke na-ebutekarị teknụzụ iji gbatịa iru; Otú ọ dị, ọtụtụ n'ime ọrụ ime mmụọ nke ndị na-eso ụzọ na-ewepụ ọnụnọ guru, n'adịghị ka ọdịnala ebelata sistemụ nke ụmụ akwụkwọ bi na guru. Mmekọrịta mmekọrịta a gosipụtara njirimara onye ndú Gurumayi. Modeldị dị iche bụ na ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị guru-ascetics na-arụ ọrụ na mpaghara mpaghara, ebe ha nwere ahụmịhe onwe ha na ndị na-eso ụzọ ha kwa ụbọchị; ha na-enye ohere maka mkpakọrịta chiri anya kwa ụbọchị. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, onye guru-ascetic dị n'ebe ugwu India na-enwe nzukọ nzukọ obere oge na ndị na-efe ya nke ọ na-akọ akụkọ banyere mkparịta ụka kwa ụbọchị nke na-akọwa isiokwu nke ọrụ, akara aka, na ntinye, nke na-eme ka okwu banyere ụdị ịgbazigharị nke nwoke na nwanyị nwere. na etiti ya echiche nke itinye aka, asceticism (DeNapoli 2014). N'ezie, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị na-efe ofufe na nhazi usoro bụ ihe ndị dị ebe a: Siddha Yoga bụ nzukọ zuru ụwa ọnụ nke ghọgoro nke ọma, nzukọ kwụ ọtọ nke ndị hierarchies jikwaa akụkụ dị iche iche nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, gụnyere nkuzi ime mmụọ, ego, na nyocha. O meela mgbalị ndị na-adịbeghị anya iji lekwasị anya na ndị na-etinye aka n'ụzọ ahụ, na ịhapụ ndị ọzọ; iji maa atụ, imechi Shree Muktananda Ashram na South Fallsburg na ụmụ akwụkwọ niile mana ogologo oge; ime ka ọnọdụ mpaghara mpaghara dịkwuo mma site na ijidekwu, gụnyere mmemme “ụwa niile” na ha; na-akwalite usoro ọmụmụ-ụlọ; na-ejide ezumike maka ụmụ akwụkwọ iri abụọ na ise; na ịme ụfọdụ ozi na weebụsaịtị Siddha Yoga nwere ike ịnweta naanị site na ịbanye.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ihe kachasị mkpa iji ghọta ụdị onye guru dị na Western Western bụ ihe ndị mmadụ na-eche banyere ọdịdị omenala, na-adabere na enweghị echiche nke "mmadụ zuru okè" na ọdịna anyanwụ nke Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ. Omenala ndị sitere na South Asia nwere akụkọ ogologo oge nke iche echiche ma na-ekwusi ike na ọ bụ mmadụ zuru okè, na Buddha akụkọ nwere ike ịbụ ihe a kacha mara amara n'ụwa nile. Ịsọ oyi nke onye dị ndụ nwere ike ịgụ dị ka "òtù nzuzo" na Western na-ekwu na omenala ndị a ma ama na West na-egosipụta ọtụtụ nhụta. Na omenala ndị dị na South Asia, ịkwado na iguzosi ike n'ihe bụ n'ihi guru, nke na-eme ka ọ dịkwuo mfe nke onye na-esote ya n'ime mmekọrịta dị n'ọtụtụ ụzọ iji tụnyere ike dị iche iche (nne na nna, nwatakịrị-nkuzi, onye ọrụ-ọrụ). Ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyi na-eme ka ha ghara imebi nsogbu a nke onye na-esite na ya site n'inye nne na-azụlite, gosipụtara na utu aha ha (ma, ma) na omume (dika Ammachi na-amakụ), nakwa site na ọha ọha ha na-azụlite, dị ka ọhụụ, nnweta, ọrụ, na nkuzi na weebụsaịtị ha. Akụkụ esemokwu nke ụzọ nwoke gurus nke ewu ewu na West na 1960s, dị ka ogige emechiri emechi na nzuzo. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ruo ókè guru onye na-arụ ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ na ikike aka ya na nzaghachi nke onye na-etinye aka na guru na-eme ka onye guru nwee ikike maka ya ma ọ bụ maka ya ọ dị mkpa ka enyocha ya, ebe ọ bụ na enwere ike maka onye ahụ nwere ike ijikọ mmekọrịta ahụ. (Cornille 1991: 23-30; Kramer na Alstad 1993; Storr 1997). Ọbụna nyocha ịntanetị na-egosi na enwere ndị otu olu nke ndị na-efebu Siddha Yoga ndị chere na Siddha Yoga gurus raara ya nye.

N'ụzọ dị mkpa, enwere obi abụọ dị mma nke guru na ọdịnala ndị India, ọkachasị n'okwu gbasara inweta ego na ịkwa iko (Narayan 1989; Kang 2016). Ọzọkwa, ọ bara uru icheta na, na usoro ọdịnala, ọmụmụ na guru kwadebere nwoke ịkwaga n'ime ndụ dị mma, nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya bara uru nke ọrụ na alụmdi na nwunye; ọ bụghị n'ozuzu na-ekwu na njedebe n'onwe ya. Nuances ndị a, yana nke nwanyi na-ekwusi ike na ahụmịhe ndụ, na-amalite ugbu a ịkọwa echiche Western maka ahụmịhe nke ụzọ guru. Ihe anyi huru na-aputa bu ihe nlere anya di nkpa nke n’emeghari karie nke oma na ebe ndi guru, ndi dere akwukwo ndi chetara ihe ha na guru dere banyere ogologo echiche banyere mgbanwe ha. ahụmahụ ndụ; Akpọrọ m ndị a "okwu mmechuihu na-ewuli elu" (Pechilis 2012: 127). Echiche ndị dị otú a apụtawo karịsịa n'akụkụ ụmụ nwanyị, gụnyere Gurumayi nke Siddha Yoga (Caldwell 2001; Szabo 2009). Ọ ka ga-ahụ ma ọ bụrụ na mmekọrịta ndị guru na-eso ụzọ, ọbụlagodi na mbibi ya, nwere ike iduga n'ịmepụta mkparịta ụka oge a banyere ịdabere na mmekọrịta mmadụ na mmụọ.

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Ụbọchị Post:
7 March 2017

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