Peter Jan Margry Daniel Wojcik

John Coltrane Church

JOHN COLTRANE CHURCH TIMELINE

1921: E hibere Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa dị ka otu ụka maka ndị Episcopalians ojii. O kewapụrụ ya na Epka Episcopal nke Protestant oge ana ewepu ndi nwere agba site na oganihu na Episcopal Church.

1926 (September 23): John William Coltrane mụrụ na Hamlet, North Carolina.

1943 (June): Coltrane kwagara Philadelphia.

1943 (Septemba): Coltrane nne Alice zụtara ya Saxophone mbụ ya.

1945 (June 5): Coltrane hụrụ Charlie Parker na-egwu egwu oge mbụ wee gbanwee ("ọ kụrụ m aka n'etiti anya").

1945: Franzo Wayne King, onye guzobere òtù okpukpe Coltrane, amụrụ na St. Louis, Missouri.

1946: Marina Lynn Robinson, onye nchoputa nke otu Coltrane, amuru na Cleveland, Ohio.

1957: Coltrane nwetara edemede nke okpukpe nke nyeere ya aka ịkwụsị ị addictionụ ọgwụ ike heroin.

1963: Franzo King kwagara Chicago ka ọ gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ cosmetology ka ọ bụrụ onye na-edozi isi; o tinyere aka na ihe nkiri jazz ebe ahụ.

1964: Franzo King kwagara San Francisco.

1964 (Septemba): Franzo King na Marina Robinson lụrụ, n'ihi "akara aka ime mmụọ" ha.

1964 (Disemba): Coltrane mepụtara ọrụ egwu ya, album A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu , ngosipụta nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ ya na ịhụnanya maka Chineke.

1965 (Septemba 18): Franzo King na Marina King nwere ọhụụ mbụ ha ("ezigbo baptism") nke John Coltrane na Mmụọ Nsọ, dịka ọ rụrụ na ogbo na Jazz Workshop nightclub na San Francisco.

1966 (July 9): Coltrane zoro aka na ọchịchọ ịbụ onye nsọ, mgbe a jụrụ ya na N'ajụjụ ọnụ banyere ihe ọ ga-achọ ịbụ n'ọdịnihu.

1967: Franzo na Marina King bidoro na "ụlọ ọgwụ na-ege ntị" maka jazz n'ụlọ ha na Protrero Hills (San Francisco), dị ka oghere maka ịmụ banyere jazz, ọdịbendị ndị America, na ịchụso nghọta nke nkwa 1965 na-ada ụda kwere nkwa .

1967 (July 17): John Coltrane nwụrụ na Huntington Hospital na Long Island (NY) site na ọrịa cancer imeju.

1967 (Julaị 17): Franzo King nwere “ụda baptism” nke abụọ na 2 AM, ozugbo Coltrane nwụsịrị, na Jimbo's Bop City jazz club (ụlọ nsọ Templelọ Nsọ mgbe e mesịrị na Fillmore na Sutter Street, San Francisco).

1968: Ndi eze malitere ulo egwu jazz na-asọpụrụ Charlie Parker, nke akpọrọ Yardbird Club, n'okpuru ala nke 1529 Galvez Avenue na San Francisco.

1969: Franzo King bidoro ime mmụọ na ụlọ ya na Potrero Hills, a kpọkwara Yardbird Club thelọ Yardbird, na-elekwasị anya n'akụkụ dị nsọ nke jazz. Akụkụ nke ụlọ ahụ ghọrọ chapel.

1969: Aha Yardbird Temple gbanwere Yardbird Vanguard Revolutionary Church nke Hour.

1969-1971: Otu Coltrane jikọtara ya na Dr. Huey P. Newton na Black Panther Party wee were mmemme mmekọrịta ọha na eze na-ekwu maka agụụ, ịda ogbenye, na mkpa uwe. Ebum n’uche a sitere n’okpukpe nke nnwere onwe nnwere onwe na ọnọdụ ime mmụọ nke “ụwa” metụtara Coltrane: ịchọ iweghachi ndị mmadụ na Chineke site na mmụọ nsọ nke egwu Coltrane.

1971: Yardbird Vanguard Revolutionary Church of Hour gbanwere aha ya na One Mind Temple, nke na - adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, a gbatịkwuru ya na One Mind Temple Vanguard Revolutionary Church of the Hour, nke dị na 201 Sawyer Street, San Francisco.

1971: "Edochiri" John Coltrane dị ka Chineke zuru ụwa ọnụ ("mbugharị gbanwere") n'ime One Mind Temple Vanguard Revolutionary Church of the Hour.

1971: Chọọchị Coltrane malitere mmemme redio kwa izu a na-akpọ "Coltrane Uplift Broadcast" na ụlọ ọrụ redio San Francisco 89.5 FM KPOO, ozi redio nke na-agbasa awa anọ nke "egwu na amamihe nke St. John Coltrane" n'ehihie Tuesday ọ bụla.

1971-1972: Thetù ahụ gbanwere aha ya ọzọ, na mbụ na One Mind Temple Evolutionary Transition Church of the Hour (mesiri ike ugbu a na "mgbanwe" nke mmụọ abụghị mgbanwe), emesịa gaa na Otu Mind Temple Evolutionary Transition nke Kraịst, ma kwaga n'otu ụlọ ahịa dị na 351 Divisadero Street, San Francisco ebe ọ rụrụ ọrụ ruo na njedebe nke afọ ndị 1970 dị ka obodo mechiri emechi.

1972: Nne nwanyị “Onye Kachasị Elu” nke Franzo King, Phyllis Prudhomme (onye nwụrụ na Jenụwarị 2011 ma sonye na nzukọ Pentikọstal na California), bụ onye a kpọrọ “Nne Mmụọ Nsọ.” O gosipụtara nwa ya nwoke bụ Franzo dị ka bishọp na onye isi nke Holy Ghost Church jikọtara John Coltrane.

1974: Thetù ahụ gbanwere na ime mmụọ na omume Hindu, na Alice Coltrane's Vedantic Center na Agoura Hills, California.

1974-1981: Franzo King na obere ọgbakọ ya na-arịwanye elu na Alice Coltrane's Vedantic Center na ime mmụọ ọwụwa anyanwụ, na-ele Coltrane anya dị ka mmụọ nke "Blue Krishna" na Sufi mystic, onye egwu ya gafere ihe mgbochi ọdịbendị n'ụzọ ụwa. N'oge a, a na-akpọkwa Templelọ Nsọ Otu Obi dị ka Vedantic Center.

1978 (November 18): Ogbugbu-igbu onwe / igbu mmadụ nke 918 nke Jim Jones 'Peoples Temple commune na Guyana kpatara nkatọ ọha na eze banyere okpukpe na ịrọ òtù ndị ọzọ na San Francisco, gụnyere One Mind Temple na ntinye ya na Coltrane.

1981:  John Coltrane na-ekwu (mbipụta mbụ nwekwara Ịghọta Ọgụgụ) nke Franzo King bipụtara, nke na-ekwupụta ụda Coltrane dị ka nke Chukwu ma ọ bụ nke dị nsọ.

1981: Alice Coltrane gbara ụlọ nsọ nke One Mind maka $ 7,500,000 na-ekwu maka ịda iwu ikike na nrigbu na iji aha di ya eme ihe na-akwadoghị. A nabatara akwụkwọ iwu mba ahụ na isiokwu ndị dị ka "nwanyị di ya nwụrụ nke 'Chineke' na-agba ụka." N’ihi mkpọsa banyere ya, ndị nnọchianya sitere na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Russia na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa gakwuuru Franzo King wee nye Chọọchị Coltrane ọnọdụ ọnọdụ.

1982: Achịbishọp George Duncan Hinkson nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa, nke dị na Chicago, na-akpọkarị ọgbakọ Coltrane ka ọ sonyere ụka ya na-enwe olileanya ịgbasa alaka nke ụka ahụ na West Coast. A na-enyocha ụlọ nsọ ahụ ma doo ya nsọ na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa (AOC), na-enye nkwado ziri ezi maka òtù Coltrane. Akpọrọ aha ụlọ nsọ ahụ bụ One Mind Temple Episcopate nke Orthodoxka Ọtọdọks nke Africa nke West.

1982 (Septemba 19): John Coltrane bụ onye AOC Achịbishọp George Duncan Hinkson dere ma kpọọ ya "Saint John."

1982-1986: Bishop King na ndị ezinụlọ ya kwaga na Chicago ịga ọmụmụ ihe n'okpuru Achịbishọp Hinkson.

1984: Franzo King ka ekwere na ọ nata akara ugo “Doctor of Divinity” na Chicago ma bụrụ onye edoro anya nke ọma dị ka bishọp na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa.

1986: Coltù Coltrane gbanwere aha ya na St. John Will-I-Am Coltrane Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa.

1986-1989: Bishop King na ezinụlọ ya nọrọ oge na Chicago maka ọzụzụ na ọzụzụ mmụta mmụta kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ.

1989 (October 17): Ala ọmajiji ala Loma Prieta mere na San Francisco.

1989: Bishop King laghachiri San Francisco mgbe ala ọma jijiji ahụ gasịrị iji nye nduzi ime mmụọ, nkasi obi na enyemaka nye ndị ọdachi ahụ metụtara.

1989: “St. John Will-I-Am Coltrane Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa, "nke nwere" ọkwa ziri ezi, "guzobere na San Francisco.

1989: Bishọp King jikọtara Minista Christopher “X” Muhammed nke Nation of Islam, n'ebumnuche na ha bụ "ndị nche" okpukpe maka obodo ojii, na-anọchite anya ihe na-emetụ ya n'obi, ma na-enyere ndị Africa America aka na San Francisco

2000: Ogologo ego mgbazinye mere ka chọọchị ahụ pụọ na ọnọdụ Divisadero Street; ụka kwagara n'ụlọ elu nke St. Paulus Lutheran Church na 930 Gough Street, San Francisco.

2001 (March 10): Achịbishọp George Duncan Hinkson kwupụtara Bishop Franzo King ka ọ bụrụ Achịbishọp nke Orthodoxka Ọtọdọks nke Africa nke West.

2003 (July): Franzo King gara Ghana na Liberia na Africa.

2007: Chọọchị ahụ kwagara n'otu ebe nchekwa na 1286 Fillmore Street, nke dị nso n'akụkụ Eddy Street, n'etiti obi mpaghara Fillmore.

2007: E nyere John Coltrane onyinye Pulitzer pụrụ iche maka onyinye ya na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke jazz, "ezigbo mmezi ya," egwu kachasị egwu na ọnọdụ akara ngosi.

2008 (February 8): Franzo na Marina King, ya na ndị otu ụka, rụrụ egwu Coltrane na egwu na Paris.

2008: churchka batara na mmegharị “Occupy SF” metụtara nsogbu nnyefe ụlọ. Chọọchị ahụ gbasara usoro ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya.

2009: Nzuko ahụ malitere itinye aka na Òtù Oscar Grant, ọga n'ihu ọtụtụ afọ nke ime ihe ike, ugbu a na mmekorita ya na Mba nke Islam.

2009 (July): Chọọchị ahụ kwadoro atụmatụ maka oru ngo metụtara okike nke St. John Coltrane University of Arts and Social Justice (mana enweghi uche), dị ka ụlọ ọrụ mbụ maka agụmakwụkwọ ka elu nke ndị Africa America guzobere na West Coast .

2010 (Septemba 19): Ejiri Wanika Kristi King-Stephens dị ka onye ụkọchukwu nwanyị mbụ nke Churchka Ọtọdọks nke Africa, na-agbagha ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nwoke na nwanyị nke AOC.

2014: Nwa John Coltrane, saxophonist Ravi Coltrane, nyere nna ya Mark VI tenor saxophone maka ngosi na Smithsonian National Museum of American History.

2014 (Disemba 8): Chọọchị Coltrane mere ememme "Lovehụnanya nke Kasị Elu 50 Afọ," mmemme n'efu emere na Katidral Grace na Nob Hill.

2015: Onye otu ụka Nicholas Baham III, bipụtara akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Chọọchị Coltrane, dabere na nyocha akwụkwọ PhD (2001).

2016 (Jenụwarị): Mgbazinye ego akwụghachiri ụka ọzọ, nke kpatara arịrịọ na ntanetị, "Aka Off The Coltrane Church," nke eduzi na West Bay Conference Center, site na mgbanwe.org. Chọọchị ahụ kwuru na "Mmeri" mgbe ọ nwetachara ọnwa abụọ ọzọ iji nọrọ na ọnọdụ ya na Fillmore Street.

2016 (Eprel 24): Emere ọrụ ikpeazụ na ọnọdụ Fillmore Street. Ebe ọ bụ na enweghị ike ịkwụ ụgwọ ụlọ akwụgoro elu, a manyere ụka ahụ ịkwaga.

2016 (May 1): Chọọchị ahụ kwagara 2097 Turk Street, na-ejide ọrụ n'ime ụlọ ụlọ ụka St. Cyprian Episcopal.

2020: Chọọchị ahụ malitere ịmalite ọrụ Sunday ya na mgbasa ozi na redio John Coltrane amamihe na egwu.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Onye guzobere òtù Coltrane bụ Franzo Wayne King (1945), [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye sitere na St. Louis, mana a zụlitere ya na Los Angeles. O sitere na ezin’ulo ndi nkwusa (nzuko nke Chineke n’ime Kraist, ekpemekpe ndi Pentikostal n’Africa nke Amerika), ma azulite ya na omenaala nke ulo akwukwo ndi Pentikostal nke ndi homiletics ojii. Na mbu ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị iche iche na-adịghị mma, wee gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ iji bụrụ onye na-edozi isi. Akụkọ mmalite nke mmegharị ahụ amachaghị nke ọma, yana ozi na-emegiderịta onwe ya, dịka obere akwụkwọ dị adị.

Okpukpe a yiri ka ọ malitere n'oge nyocha nke mmụọ onwe onye maka Franzo King, nyocha banyere ihe egwu na nke mmụọ ya nwere ike igosi. King Jazz ịnụ ọkụ n'obi malitere na ya mbụ amalite a "na-ege ntị ụlọ ọgwụ" na mgbe ahụ a Jazz club n'ụlọ ya aha ya bụ saxophonist Charlie Parker; o doghi anya ihe kpatara nke a, dịka o kwuru na e mere ya baptism “site na ụda egwu John Coltrane. Agbanyeghị, King mechara kọwaa na a hụrụ Charlie Parker n'ime otu Coltrane dị ka otu ụzọ e si ele Jọn Baptist anya na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst n'ihe metụtara Kraịst. Ewere Parker dika onye amuma, onye bu uzo nke na-ekwuputa onye mesia nke John Coltrane, dika onye wetara nzoputa na ezi baptism, ma si otu a kpokuo Mo Nso. N'ime mmepe nke Chọọchị Coltrane, Eze anwawo iweta usoro a na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ndị na-eme ihe ike, na-ekwupụta ọmịiko ya na Black Panther Movement na ndị otu mgbagha ndị ọzọ. Chọọchị dị ezigbo njọ na mgbalị ya na mgbasa ozi obodo, mana ụfọdụ ndị na-ekwu okwu na-ewerekwa ya dị ka ihe dị egwu.

Mgbe o guzobere òtù Coltrane, na mgbe ahụ na-eche ihe ịma aka nye chọọchị ya ihu, Eze nakweere ọkpụkpọ òkù ahụ ka o kwe ka e webata òtù ahụ na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa. Na 1980s, ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ na ndị isi ụka ahụ na Chicago. Mgbe ọ natachara akara mmụta dị iche iche nke Dọkịta, ọ laghachiri San Francisco wee malitegharia usoro ya na aha nke Saint John Will-I-Am Coltrane Church Orthodox Church. N'agbanyeghị na aha dị iche iche gbanwere kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, arụmọrụ nke egwu Coltrane anọgidewo bụrụ isi ihe na-eme site na mmalite ya, Eze bụ onye saxophonist nwere ahụmahụ nke na-aga n'ihu na-eduzi ọrụ ofufe.

Ọrụ nke St. John Coltrane Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa abụghị maka ịkọwa mma nke egwu ahụ. Bishọp King na-echetara ọgbakọ ahụ "ọ nweghị onye ga-abịa mgbe John Coltrane gasịrị." Kama ozi nke ụka bụ gbasara ịgbasawanye ohere ime mmụọ nke ụda ma na-agbaso ụzọ dị omimi maka nkwukọrịta na Chineke site na ụda, ụzọ nke St. John Coltrane mepụtara.

N’agbata afọ 1970 na 1980s, Eze (onye kpọrọ onwe ya nwa oge Ramakrishna Haqq) na ọgbakọ ya fere Coltrane anya dịka “mbido ụwa nke Chukwu” na ọbịbịa nke abụọ nke Kraịst, mana lere ya anya dịka ngosipụta nke Hindu Lord Krishna (“the enchanted ọkpụkpọ nke ọjà ”). Ha muru akwukwo nso Vedide na akwukwo nso di iche iche site na omenaala okpukpere chi di iche iche, ihe omumu nke nnwere onwe nke nnwere onwe na nmekorita ha na Alice Coltrane na ntinye ya nye onye isi ochichi India bu Sathya Sai Baba. Vestiges nke mmetụta ndị a ka pụtara ìhè na weebụsaịtị nke ụka na ibe Facebook, nke na-ezo aka na "dị ike mystic" Coltrane dị ka Sri Rama Ohnedaruth, aha ime mmụọ nke Hindu nke Alice Coltrane nyere ya mgbe ọ nwụsịrị. Dika ihu akwukwo Facebook nke St John Will-I-Am Coltrane Church Orthodox Church kwuru, si:

Anyị na-ekele Chineke maka ụda e tere mmanụ nke e tere mmanụ nke si n'elu uche gbagoo si n'ocheeze nke eluigwe pụọ na uche nke Chineke ma tinye n'ime Sri Rama Ohnedaruth bụ dike nke a maara dịka Saint John Will-I-Am Coltrane. E weghaara otu ụda ọgwụ ahụ ma dekọọ na ụda ụda na wiil dị n'etiti wiil (mkpọ ụda ụda). Egwú nwere ike ime ka ndị ọzọ nwee obi ụtọ, nyefee na ịtọhapụ uche, obi na mkpụrụ obi nke onye gee ntị nke ọma. Otuto niile nye Chineke. Otu Mind, A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu (John John m ga-abata Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa-ikike West Facebook peeji nke nd).

N'ime oge 1970s, oge nyocha ime mmụọ, King's One Mind Temple dị n'akụkụ ole na ole site na ụlọ nsọ ọzọ, Jim Jones Peoples Temple. Mgbe Templelọ Nzukọ Mba ahụ kwagara Jonestown (Guyana) wee kwụsị ebe ahụ na 1978 na igbu onwe / igbu ọchụ, ndị okpukpe okpukpe dịgasị iche iche na-eme nke ọma na San Francisco n'oge ahụ ka a nyochara ma maa ha ikpe. A hụkwara ụlọ nsọ Coltrane dị ka "ihe ọzọ" ma katọọ ụfọdụ maka ofufe "òtù nzuzo" nke Coltrane. Nke a rụpụtara njikọ ha na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa, na-ebugharị nke mere ka ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nwee ụlọ ọrụ nke gosipụtara na ọ dị mma na nke na-adịghị ahụkebe.

Isi mmalite a sitere na Franzo na Marina King [Foto dị n'aka nri] nke onwe ha "ezigbo baptism" na mgbanwe nke mmụọ nke mere n'oge ọrụ ndụ nke Coltrane na-ewu ewu jazz club dị na San Francisco na 1965. Ahụmịhe ha banyere egwu Coltrane gbanwere ndụ ha ruo mgbe ebighi ebi, ahụmahụ nke ha na ịdị adị nke Mmụọ Nsọ, na-eme ka obi ha jupụta n'ịhụnanya nke Chineke. Ndị ọzọ akọwaala ahụmịhe mgbanwe yiri nke na-eme n'ihi egwu Coltrane. Dị ka ihe atụ, ọkà mmụta saxophonist Robert Haven (nke a na-akpọkwa Roberto DeHaven), onye ghọrọ onye ozi chọọchị, kwuru na

Maka m, Coltrane nwere mmetụta a dị ike na ọ dị ka m, ọ na-eji heroin na-a drinkingụ mmanya, mana ọ kwụsịrị. Mgbe ahụ ọ gara n’ihu inyefe Chineke egwu ya. M ga-anọdụ n'ime ụlọ m na-ebe ákwá na-ege Coltrane solos. . . . Anọ m kpamkpam n'okpuru okwu Coltrane (nke e hotara na Gilma na Swimmer 1996).

Nye onye nchịkọta Jon Ingle, egwu Coltrane weghachiri nkwenkwe okpukpe ya:

M tolitere na Texas, ma ruo ogologo oge m nwere obere agha a na Chineke. . . M wezuga onwe m na mmụọ m. John Coltrane emeela ka m laghachi azụ. Ya mere, ọ dị m ka mmụọ nke John Coltrane emeela ka m nwekwuo mmezu ná ndụ m karịa ka m gaara echetụ n'echiche (nke e kwuru na Gilma na Swimmer 1996).

Na 1981, afọ atọ mgbe nsogbu nke Jonestown dị ka igbu ọchụ / igbu onwe ya, Alice Coltrane gbara Chọọchị Coltrane akwụkwọ maka $ 7,500,000, na-ebo ya ebubo nke iji aha di ya na imebi iwu nwebisiinka. Ikpe ahụ natara uche mba mgbe San Francisco Chronicle kpuchiri esemokwu ahụ na isiokwu bụ “Di ya nwụrụ nke Churchka 'Chineke' Sues Church” (Boulware 2000). N'ime esemokwu a na nyocha a na-enyo enyo, ndị otu ụka Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa bịarutere Chọọchị Coltrane, obere ụka na-achọ ndị ọhụrụ na mmụba nke nzukọ ọhụrụ ya. Na nzaghachi maka nkwuputa na nkwado ndị a, Eze gbasoro ọnọdụ ka dabara adaba na mpaghara okpukpe, na 1982, e webatara nzukọ Coltrane na-ezighi ezi ma ọ bụ "nkịtị" na Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa. Coltrane bu onye isi na September 19, 1982 site na Achịbishọp George Duncan Hinkson ma kpọọ Saint John. Na 1984, nnupụisi ahụ bụ Hinkson hapụrụ Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa wee mepụta ikike nke aka ya, Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa nke West, na-edo Franzo King dị ka Bishọp.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Site na 1969 ruo 1971, n'oge mmepe mbụ nke mmegharị ahụ na ụdị ọrụ ya dị iche iche (dịka, Yardbird Vanguard Revolutionary Church of the Hour; Otu Mind Temple Vanguard Revolutionary Church nke Hour; Otu Mind Temple Evolutionary Church nke Hour; Otu Mind Temple Otu Ntughari Mgbanwe nke Christ), obere ọgbakọ achọghị ndị ọhụrụ, mana ọ ga-emechi ọnụ ụzọ ụka wee mechie windo ya, ebe ndị a na-efe ofufe nọ nso na-enyocha ọdịdị Kraịst nke John Coltrane, na-ekwupụta Coltrane dị ka ngosipụta nke Kraịst. "Have ga-aghọta nke ahụ maka anyị," ka Bishọp King na-ekwu, "John Coltrane bụ Chineke, bụ onye e tere mmanụ, mmụọ nke Chineke, bụ Blue Krishna. Echere m, Coltrane dere abụ na-agwa anyị banyere 'Evolution' na 'Transition' na 'Meditation 4 am' Ndị a niile na-enyere anyị aka ịghọ mmụọ dị elu karịa, yabụ anyị matara na John Coltrane nwere ikike inyere anyị aka na anyị na-emezigharị ”(Baham 2015: 247).

Franzo King doro anya gbasara Coltrane na-abụghị nke ụka na nke mmeghe na nke ime mmụọ: “Anyị anaghị enwe naanị otu John Coltrane. John bụ onye nsọ n'etiti ndị Buddha; ọ bu onye nsọ n'etiti Moslems. Ọ bụ onye nsọ n’etiti ndị Juu. Echere m na enwere ụfọdụ ndị na-ekweghị na Chineke na-adabere na ụda ahụ e tere mmanụ "(Cox 1995: 154). Yabụ na ụka bụ ebe a na-ekerịta maka echiche abụọ ahụ, dịka Eze n'onwe ya ghotara na enwere okwu okpukpe dị iche iche dị ugbu a: Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Afrịka na-abụghị nke a na-ahụkarị ma ọ bụ nke a na-ahụkarị na nke a na-emeghe ma na-egosi nke ọma " ndị na-abụghị ndị AOC na-efe ofufe Coltrane sitere n'akụkụ ụwa niile nwere ike ịnwe ahụmịhe mgbanwe gbanwere naanị site na arụmọrụ nke egwu Coltrane. Eze dere, sị:

Anyị maara nke ọma na egwu na nkà ihe ọmụma John Coltrane, na mmụọ ya na ihe nketa ya ruru ma metụ ndụ nke ọtụtụ ndị okwukwe, nkwenye, na okpukpe dị iche iche. Otu osila dị, n’oge a na ebe a, anyị nwere ekele maka ohere ebuli aha nke Jizọs Kraịst site na egwu Jọn, n’amara site na ahụmịhe nke onwe na akaebe, na kwa igwe ojii nke ndị aka ebe, na Mmụọ nke Onye-nwe-anyị nọ n’ime Praiseda otuto dị ka esi na-esite n'eluigwe site n'aka John (St John Will-I-Am Coltrane Church Orthodox Church nke Facebook Page nd)

N'ụzọ yiri nke a, alaka ụlọ ọrụ St. Coltrane pụrụ iche nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa nwere nnwere onwe siri ike ma na-eziga ozi abụọ: Onye Kraịst na Coltranist. Ozi nke Coltrane Church nọgidere na-ejupụta ụwa nile: "iji mechie ya ụwa na ozi nke A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu, na n'ime nke a na-akwalite ịdị n'otu zuru ụwa ọnụ, udo n'elu ụwa, na ịmara otu ezi Chineke ahụ dị ndụ ”(St John Coltrane website nd). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ ezie na e gosipụtara ozi a n'ime nkwenkwe okpukpe Ndị Kraịst nke okpukpe nke otu okpukpe, ọ na-akwalitekwa echiche ime mmụọ na nke zuru oke nke na-ejikọ ndị njem nlegharị anya, ndị na-efe jazz, na ndị si n'okpukpe okpukpe ndị ọzọ na nzube ya. Dị ka Achịbishọp King kwupụtara n'oge na-adịbeghị anya n'otu okwuchukwu anyị gara, "Anyị bụ akụkụ nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa, mana anyị [Coltranists] bụ ụka zuru ụwa ọnụ, ụka na-agbanwe agbanwe," na okwuchukwu nke King na Reverend King-Stephens kwusiri ike ugboro ugboro na ụka onye na-eme ihe ike na okike, tinyere ntụaka Buddha, okpukpe Hindu, Bob Marley, Dalai Lama, Plato, Martin Luther King, Jr., na Coltrane na-achọ “eziokwu okpukpe” karịa otu ọdịnala ime mmụọ.

Chọọchị Saint John Coltrane na-egosipụta ozizi atọ atọ: 1) echiche echiche nke Coltrane n'onwe ya, nke egosiri na ihe odide ya, egwu, na egwu egwu; 2) usoro ekele nke Eze na nwunye ya Marina kere n'oge afọ nke Chọọchị Coltrane, ka ha nyochagharị ngosipụta dị iche iche nke okpukpe ọwụwa anyanwụ na ụdị nke ime mmụọ ọzọ; na 3) usoro izizi nke etinyere na mgbakwunye, n'ihi nsonye nke mmegharị ahụ n'ime obodo Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa.

Ihe omuma ihe omuma a maka ogugu a, onye ozo John Coltrane, toro na omenala Episcopal Zion. Nkwalite nke okpukpe ya mere na 1957, n'oge o na-agbanye mmanya na mmanya na heroin. Ahụmahụ ahụ gbanwee ndụ ya na nlegharị egwu egwu. Dika o mechara dee ihe edere maka ihe A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu (1965): “Site n’amara Chineke, enwetara m edemede mmụọ nke ga-eduga m na ndụ bara ọgaranya, jupụta, ma baa ụba. N'oge ahụ, iji ekele, eji m obi umeala rịọ ka e nye m ohere na ihe ùgwù iji mee ka ndị ọzọ nwee obi ụtọ site na egwu. ” Coltrane nakweere echiche doro anya nke na-ekweghị n'okpukpe dị iche iche nke Chineke nke nabatara okpukpe niile, o lere egwu ya anya dị ka ngosipụta nke mmụọ nke ụwa niile: “Ebumnuche m bụ ibi ndụ nke okpukpe n'ezie ma gosipụta ya na egwu m . . . Ọ ga-amasị m ịrụtụ ndị mmadụ aka Chukwu n’olu egwu karịrị akarị. Achọrọ m ịgwa mkpụrụ obi ha okwu ”(Porter 1998: 232).

Ọ bụ n'ihi nnukwu ihe ịga nke ọma n'akwụkwọ album ya A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu (nke e dekọrọ na Disemba 1964 ma wepụ ya na 1965), echiche ya banyere ọganihu egwu egwu dịgasị iche iche dị iche iche mara nnọọ mma na njedebe 1960s. Nbido ya nke oge ndi ozo nke ime anyanwu bu ihe puru iche n'eme ihe di ka Om (1965) na eche n'echiche (1966), mgbe ya Ascension album (1966) na-egosi na ọ na-agafe n'ememme ahụ na ndị mmadụ, na-eweta "ike dị ike nke ikwughachi ya."

Nwunye nke abụọ nke Coltrane bụ Alice [Foto dị n'aka nri] rụrụ ọrụ ike n'ụzọ ọ malitere inyocha ihe ime mmụọ na-abụghị nke ọdịda anyanwụ na ịchọ “ezigbo onwe ya,” dịka o Bhagavad Gita, Ihe odide Theosophical, nke Akwụkwọ Tibet nke Ndị Nwụrụ Anwụ, Krishnamurti, Yogananda, Kabbalah, yoga, astrology, na myfiọk Sufi. Na 1965, ọ na-atụgharị uche kwa ụbọchị wee malite ịnwale LSD (Berkman 2007: 44-45, 55; Nisenson 1995: 166-67). Ọchịchọ ime mmụọ ọ chọrọ ịmara site n'egwú bụ ụzọ na-ezighị ezi iji mee ka okpukpe dị iche iche na-esite na nkwenkwe okpukpe ndị a zụlitere, ịnwa iji jazz dịka ụgbọ elu zuru ụwa ọnụ maka nghọta nke ime mmụọ nke oge a. The album Amamihe nke uwa wepụtara na 1971 site na nwanyị di ya nwụrụ bụ Alice Coltrane mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na 1967 bụ ihe atụ nke nchụso ime mmụọ ahụ.

N'ime akwụkwọ iwu nke St. John Coltrane Church, a na-akpọkarị Coltrane a na-edozi nsọ ya na aha mbụ ya dịka "Saint John Will-I-Am," bụ nke a na-akpọ Exodus 3: 14 nke Chineke gwara Moses si osisi ohia na-ere ọkụ: "ABỤ M ABỤ: O wee sị, Otú a ka ị ga-agwa ụmụ Israel, Mụ onwe M ezitewo m ka m bịakwute gị."

Utu aha nke Coltrane dika "Risen Trane," bu ihe arutu aka na John Coltrane gbanwere n'ime mmuo "post-1957," mgbe o merisiri odogwu heroin ya na mmanya ike. Ọ na-arụtụ aka n'otu ọnọdụ Ndị Kraịst doro anya, n'otu aka na nlọghachi nke Coltrane dị ka onye na-emeri omume ọjọọ nke mmadụ na n'aka nke ọzọ na-atụ aro ntụnyere ya na Kraịst ahụ e mere ka o si n'ọnwụ bilie. Dika akwukwo na akwukwo Facebook nke ulo uka John John Coltrane na akowa:

Ịrịgoro nke St. Jọn Coltrane na Chineke bụ ihe anyị na-akpọ dịka okporo ụzọ bilitere. N'ihe banyere Saint, John Coltrane, anyị anaghị emeso John John nwoke kama St. John ụda na St. John Baptist na Sound Baptist, bụ ndị mere ka ha na Chineke dị n'otu site na ụda. Site na nkọwa nke biography nke John Coltrane, Risen Trane bụ post-1957 John Coltrane. Onye sitere na ọgwụ ọjọọ riri ahụ na-ebute ụzọ nke ime ka a kpọlite ​​ndị mmadụ n'ụzọ ime mmụọ, bụ ndị gbara akaebe na ike na ike nke amara nke Chineke na ndụ ya na Abụ Ọma ya A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu, na n'egwú ya mgbe e mesịrị. . . . Anyị onwe anyị kwa, mgbe a na-emetụ ụda olu a e tere mmanụ aka na ịbụ onye Mmụọ Nsọ na-akpọ ma họrọ, gbalịsie ike iburu ihe dị nsọ na ihe mgbakwasị ụkwụ nke baptizim dị mma na St John Coltrane (Saint John. M Ga-eme Kwanyere Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Afrịka-Ọchịchị West Facebook peeji nke nd).

N’ikwekọ n’ozizi nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa, dị ka Achịbishọp King si kọwaa, a nabatara Coltrane n’ozizi Ndị Kraịst na-eme ka ọ dị ala, ọ bụghịkwa onye dị nsọ na-asọpụrụ Chineke: “Anyị wedara Coltrane ịbụ Chineke. Mana nkwekọrịta ahụ bụ na ọ nwere ike ịbido ndị senti wee bụrụ onye nchebe nke ụka anyị ”(Freedman 2007). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọnọdụ dị nsọ na nke nsọpụrụ Chineke nke Coltrane ka yiri ka ọ pụtara ìhè, njikọ nke nkwenkwe, dịka akọwara na ibe weebụ Facebook nke Churchka n'ụdị ngwakọ ngwakọ:

Ihe kachasị anyị mkpa na St John Will-I-Am Coltrane Chọọchị Okpukpe Ọtọdọks nke Afrịka bụ ime ka mkpụrụ obi bịakwute Kraịst; ịmara ụda dị ka amamihe dị nsọ nke Chineke, na ịghọta ụdị ọdịdị Chineke nke onye nsọ anyị na-ekwu banyere ọbịbịa ya dịka mkpụrụ obi dị elu na ịdị na Chineke site na ụda. Na otuto anyị onwe anyị na-achọkwa mmekọrịta dị otú ahụ na Chineke. Anyị abiala ghọta John Coltrane n'ihe banyere ụda olu ya ma dị ka ụda na mmekọrịta nke Chineke na - atụgharị uche ((John John, M Ga - ejikọta Chọọchị Okpukpe Ọtọdọks nke Afrịka-ikike nke West Facebook peeji nke).

N'ụzọ dị otú a, a na-ezo aka na Coltrane dị ka onye dị nsọ nke Chineke ma rịgoro elu ya na onye ogbugbo dị nsọ iji weta ndị mmadụ na Kraist, yana ụda egwu nke Coltrane kọwara dị ka ngosipụta nke Chineke n'onwe ya, ọbụlagodi "amamihe na-aga n'ihu" nke Chineke.

Dika emeputara otu a dika ulo uka John John Will-I-Am Coltrane nke ndi Africa, a na-efe Chineke ofufe site na olu, ha na-asọpuru kwa Coltrane dika onye nwere nghọta nke rutere n'otu ihe omimi nke Chineke ma weputa nke a site na egwu ya . N'ebe a, jazz na-emezighị emezi n'onwe ya na-aghọ ụgbọ maka mgbanwe mgbanwe nke dị nsọ. E mejupụtara ihe Coltrane, nke a na-asọpụrụ dị ka ihe dị nsọ na nke sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ Chineke ruo n'ogo nke abụ dị nsọ nke edobere maka ụdị egwu ọdịnala ndị ọzọ. Na ọkwa, isi ụkpụrụ ụka bụzi kọwapụtara ma dabere na ofufe nke Onye Kraịst Kraịst, ya na ebumnuche “iweta mkpụrụ obi nye Kraịst.” Ma ọ bụ dịka Eze kwupụtara ya ozugbo, "mgbe ị na-ege John Coltrane ntị, ị ghọrọ onye na-eso ụzọ nke ndị Chineke tere mmanụ" (Freedman 2007).

Ndị na-ege ntị kwa izu na Chọọchị Coltrane na-egosi nnọchite ala ụwa niile nke ndị hụrụ jazz na ndị omeiwu na ọtụtụ ndị kwere ekwe sitere n'okike okpukpe na nke mmụọ. Agbanyeghi na edeputara ya ugbua na AOC, Achịbishọp King na ndi otu ndi uka ozo n’etughari ihe omuma ime mmuta, n’uzo nke nwere ike idobere onye obula ma obu jazz. N'ajụjụ ọnụ a gbara na 2000, King tụgharịrị uche na oke mmụọ nke Coltrane na nkọwa ya: “Aghọtara m na egwu John Coltrane na-anọchite anya ọdịbendị… Na ọ bụghị naanị ọdịbendị ma ọ bụ agbụrụ. Ọ bụ ihe dị elu. " Maka King, ụka ma ọkachasị mkpọsa ụda nke St John bụ "mkpụrụ edemede" nke usoro nkwenkwe kwenyere Coltrane. Ka ọ na-ekwu ya, n'otu oge, “ị na-amalite ịhụ Chineke n’ ụda ahụ. Ọ bụ isi okwu nke mkpughe, ọ bụghị ihe na-eme n'ụzọ doro anya, mana ọ na-amalite mgbanwe, ma ọ bụ mgbanwe, ma ọ bụ usoro. Ihe omuma, uzo ahu, na agbanwe. Baptizim bụ ihe ọ bụ ”(Boulware 2000).

Dịka e kwuru, “baptizim a dara ụda” na onye ọzọ na-eme Jọn baptizim na Kristian, mana ọ na-atụ aka ebe a maka ịdị egwu nke egwu Coltrane iji metụ ma jide obi na uche nke ndị na-ege ntị na ịghọta mgbanwe. Na otu a, na ụka John Sttrane na-echekwa ihe abụọ nke ahụmịhe okpukpe ka enwere ike ịghọta n'otu ebe, na-anọchite anya n'ezie simultanaeum nke ọrụ ndị Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa rụrụ dị na chọọchị John Coltrane na n'otu oge ahụ na ngalaba Coltranist nke mmụọ na-emeghe nke na-enye ahụmahụ nke egwu dị egwu, na -emepụta mmetụta nke mmụọ, nkwupụta zuru oke nke okpukpe, n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị ndị ọbịa na ndị obodo na-amaghị ihe gbasara ozizi nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

A ga-amalite ọrụ ofufe na Saint John Coltrane African Orthodox Church [Foto dị n'aka nri] ịmalite na elekere iri na abụọ (iji kwado usoro nhazi oge nke ndị egwu jazz na-ehi ụra n'isi ụtụtụ). Ọrụ ndị a na-ewe ma ọ dịkarịa ala awa atọ. Isi ọgbakọ a bụ ngwakọta nke ndị Amerịka na ndị na-eto eto na ndị agadi nọ na obere ndị egwu na ndị ọcha na ndị ụka dị iche iche. Ọtụtụ na-eji ejiji ejiji, ụfọdụ na uwe ma ọ bụ uwe sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ sitere n'Africa, ụfọdụ n'ime ha na-akpọ ezinụlọ ha dum bịa ọrụ ahụ, ụmụaka na-agagharị n'ụlọ ahụ kpamkpam ma na-ekere òkè na ọrụ ahụ. Ndị otu a na - esonye na Sọnde ọ bụla site na ndị na - anụ ọkụ nke jazz, ndị na - eme njem, ndị njem ime mmụọ, ndị obodo chọrọ ịmata ihe, na ndị njem si n'akụkụ ụwa niile ndị nụrụ maka ofufe, ndị ndị na - anụ ọkụ n'obi maara na ịkwalite ụwa niile maka ụdị ndụ ha na omume ha. nke egwu Coltrane. Ọbịbịa kwa izu na-abụkarị ihe dị n'etiti mmadụ iri na iri abụọ, yana ndị bịaranụ na-eru mmadụ iri anọ na iri isii n'oge ọkọchị, gụnyere ndị ọbịa obodo na mba ụwa. N’afọ 2000, a jụrụ ndị na-ege ntị ka ole n’ime ha bụ ndị bi n’obodo ahụ. N'ime ihe dị ka mmadụ iri isii nọ, naanị mmadụ atọ weliri aka ha, yana ihe karịrị pasent iri itoolu nke ọgbakọ si ebe ọzọ, yana ndị ọbịa si Arizona, Texas, Spain, France, New Zealand, Ireland, Denmark, na Sweden (Boulware 2000). N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, enwere ndị njem karịa ndị ọgbakọ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị òtù nke Chọọchị Coltrane bụ n'ezie ndị pere mpe, na ọgbakọ ndị isi dị iche na ndị ụka iri na ise na iri abụọ na ise n'ime afọ.

Na ịga ọrụ na Chọọchị Coltrane, o yiri ka ọ nweghị ọdịiche dị n'etiti ebumnuche okpukpe, dị ka ma ọ bụ onye na-abịachi anya ma ọ bụ onye ọhụụ nke chọrọ isonye na mpaghara ime mmụọ-egwu nke ụda Chineke. A na-agba ndị niile sonyere ume ka ha weta akụrụngwa ha iji nye aka na ọrụ a, a na-enyekwa ndị otu na-ege ntị obere ịgbà ma gwa ha ka ha kere òkè ka mmụọ nsọ na-akpali ha, na-agba egwu na “ịgba akaebe” nke onwe na-eme na warawara. Otu nzukọ ụka ahụ, Ohnedaruth (nke a na-akpọkwa "ndị ozi uda") na otu ndị otu egwu egwu a kpọrọ "Olu nke ọmịiko" (nke bụbu "Sista nke Ọmịiko") na-edu ndị ụka na ihe ha kpọrọ "Coltrane Liturgy," nke na-amalite site na nnọkọ jam nke fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ awa abụọ. Ọ na-ejikọ usoro ofufe nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa na nkwekọrịta, abụ olu ụtọ, na ụda olu nke okwu egwu egwu nke Coltrane ma ọ bụ “ekpere” A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu, yana Coltrane ndị ọzọ na - arụ ọrụ dịka “Africa” na ballad “Lonnie’s Lament.” Mgbe mkpokọta ahụ na-egwu "Nkwupụta" site na A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu, ndi ukwe ukwe gere Abụ Ọma nke iri abụọ na atọ (“Onyenwe anyị bụ onye ọzụzụ atụrụ m..”) ndị isi ọgbakọ na ndị ọbịa na-abụ abụ n'otu. Na nmekorita yiri nke a nke nmekorita na egwu nke Coltrane, ndi ukwe ukwe Ekpere nke Onye-nwe-ayi mgbe akuru egwu nke “Spiritual”. Sundaybọchị Sọnde ọ bụla, Achịbishọp King, dị ka onye ọkpụkpọ saxophone, na-arụsi ọrụ ike na-akpọ oku okpukpe ya, ya na ndị ọzọ nwere ịnụ ọkụ n'obi na-eme ihe nkiri, bụ ndị na-achụ onwe ha n'àjà n'elu ebe ịchụàjà nke ụda egwu na-enwupụta. Ndị na-eme ihe nkiri na-esokarị mama Marina na-abụ abụ otuto na ndị na-ahụkarị mkpụrụ obi bụ Reverend Wanika na bass eletrik na Reverend Max Ha'qq na alto sax, tinyere ndị òtù ezinụlọ ndị ọzọ na ndị nwere nkà na-esonyere ya.

Mgbe emechara egwu ahụ, a na-ewebata ihe ọmụmụ ndị ọzọ nke Ndị Kraịst, dị ka ịgụ akwụkwọ sitere na Epistles na Oziọma, Nkwenkwe Ndịozi, onyinye, yana okwuchukwu ahụ. Chọọchị na-agbaso mgbe ahụ n'ụzọ kwekọrọ n'ụkpụrụ okwukwe nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa (ngwakọta nke akwụkwọ ọwụwa anyanwụ na ọdịda anyanwụ na nkuzi Katọlik ọdịnala). Ọrụ Pentikọstal na-emetụta ọrụ ndị a, na-ekwusi ike na ọnụnọ nke Mmụọ Nsọ, na-eti mkpu n'emeghị ihe ọ bụla, na-akụ aka, na-achụpụ ndị mmụọ ọjọọ (site na egwu), na ozi ọma na-agba ọkụ nke Archbishop King.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Otu Coltrane, nke amụrụ site na ahụmịhe okpukpe nke Franzo na Marina King na 1965, adịla n'ụdị dị iche iche ugbu a ruo afọ iri ise ma nọrọ n'ọtụtụ ebe dị ka ụlọ ụka na-echekwa afọ. N'oge nyocha anyị site na 2009-2016, chọọchị ahụ dị na ụlọ ọrụ larịị, ọnụ ụzọ iko ya na-enweghị isi na-ele anya dị ka ọnụ ụzọ azụmahịa. A na-amata ụlọ ụka ahụ naanị site na windo windo nke obe sitere na saxophones iri na abụọ na obere akara nke e dere "Coltrane Lives." Gbanye ụbọchị ofufe, a na-etinye ihe ịrịba ama ụzọ ụkwụ dị ukwuu n'okporo ámá. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Thelọ ụka ahụ dị na obere oghere dị mfe ma dị obere nke ruru mmadụ iri ise, na ahịrị nke oche oche ndị na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na-eche ihu na ngwakọta / ebe ịchụàjà jikọtara ya na ngwongwo zuru ezu, keyboards, bass standup, saxophones, igwe okwu, igwe okwu, na ngwa ndị ọzọ. Spacelọ ọrụ a gbanwere na-enwu gbaa enweghị ihe yiri ebe mgbakọ jazz dị ka ọ nwere ike ịnweta ugbu a ma ọ bụ dịka echere n'echiche klọb jazz nke oge Coltrane. Ejiri nnukwu ihe osise mara mma nke ọwụwa anyanwụ-Ọtọdọks chọọ ụka Deacon Mark Dukes ji chọọ ya mma, werekwa onyogho nke osisi nke ndụ, ndị mmụọ na-acha uhie uhie nwere mmụọ na-acha uhie uhie, Meri na Nwanyị a gọziri agọzi na nwa, na Jizọs na-atụ ụjọ nọ ọdụ n'ocheeze. , ihe niile e gosipụtara dị ka onye gbara ọchịchịrị n'ọdịnala ọdịnala nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N’aka ekpe nke ebe ịchụàjà ahụ, e nwere onyinyo ụkwụ asatọ nke onye nchebe dị nsọ Coltrane nọ ọdụ n’ocheeze Africa, yi uwe mgbokwasị okpukpe, nke ejiri ọla edo na-acha odo odo, na-ejide saxophone na-afụ ọkụ nsọ na akwụkwọ mpịakọta nke nwere okwu sitere na na liner ndetu nke A Ịhụnanya Kasị Elu. Ihe ngosi Batik nke Coltrane na ihe ndi ozo di iche iche nke Afrika bu ndi anakpo banner tinyere uko ulo na imegide mgbidi ya, ma emere ihe oyiyi Che Guevara nke oma na ihe eji egwu egwu. Otu obere tebụl dị n’azụ chọọchị ahụ nwere akwụkwọ ndị ọbịa, akwụkwọ nta nke isiokwu ya bụ “Yoù Na-eri Ahụ?” na ihe ole na ole maka ire ere, dịka T-shirts nke Coltrane Church, ihe nsure ọkụ na-esi ísì ụtọ, akwa ekpere, na akwụkwọ ozi akara ngosi. Gbanye n'elu tebụl bụ akara ngosi a na-edegharị ugboro ugboro nke Coltrane, nke dị nsọ na nke ụwa na-egosipụta, na jaket velvet na-acha akwụkwọ ndụ, na-ejide saxophone na-enwu ọkụ.

Na mgbakwunye na Franzo na Marina King dịka ndị isi ụka hiwere, bụ ndị a matara ugbu a dị ka Eze Achịbishọp na Reverend Mother King n'ihe metụtara Churchka Ọtọdọks nke Africa, a họpụtakwara ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ ndị ọzọ, ndị dikọn, na ndị dikọn, gụnyere ndị Ndị ezinaụlọ ndị otu Wanika King-Stephens, Makeda King Nueckel, Franzo Wayne King, Jr. na Marlee-I Mystic tinyere ndị ọzọ. Ndị na-egwu egwu na ụka kpọkọtara Ohnedaruth (Sanskrit maka "ọmịiko" yana dịka e kwuru, otu n'ime aha ime mmụọ nke Coltrane) abụrụla ndị a na-akwanyere ùgwù na ndị ụkọchukwu.

E nwere ndị ọzọ na-eje ozi na-enyere aka na ọrụ ndị ahụ ma na-ekere òkè na nnọkọ sessions, gụnyere ndị ozi abụọ nke ịgba egwú. Dị ka Archbishop King si kwuo, "a mụrụ site n'egwú, onyinye nke Chineke," na-arụ ọrụ iji "wepụ ihe nkwekọrịta" ma "mee ka ndị mmadụ nọrọ n'ọnọdụ dị mma, nwee ịhụnanya kachasị elu" (nke e hotara na Gilma na Swimmer 1996 ).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ugbua na-aga n'ihu ugbu a ma na-enwe nsogbu mgbe nile n'akụkọ ihe mere eme ya. N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya enwere nsogbu nke inwe ego, omume na obodo ukwu, tinyere ihe gbasara ịga n'ihu na izisa ozi ọma.

N'ihi usoro nke mmepe obodo, ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ na ịba ụba na mpaghara San Francisco, yana yana enweghị ụkọ ego na-aga n'ihu, mmegharị Coltrane enweghị ike ịtọ ntọala na saịtị mbụ ya, n'ime ọnọdụ mmekọrịta ya. A manyere mmeghari ahu ịhapụ agbata obi ya, ya mere o nweghi ihe jikọrọ ya na ndi American American obodo, ma ndi mmadu adighi ebe ozo. Ọtụtụ oge a na-achụpụ njem a na ohere nke ụka ya n'ihi mmụba nke mgbazinye ma ọ bụ ụlọ obibi na-ekwesịghị ekwesị. Na 2015, Reverend King kwupụtara ọzọ nhụsianya ya banyere ọnọdụ ahụ, na-akwa arịrị banyere ọpụpụ nke obodo ndị Africa America na enweghịkwa ọdịbendị obodo na mpaghara Western mgbakwunye na Fillmore: “Ihe na-eme dị mkpụmkpụ nke mgbukpọ. Ọ bụ mpụ, jiri echiche ọjọọ na echiche buru ụzọ chee echiche, ịchụpụ obodo Africa-America na San Francisco. Anyị anwaala iguzo megide eziokwu a na ọ nwere obere ihe ịga nke ọma ”(MacDonald 2015).

Mbughari nke Chọọchị Coltrane gaa n'ọtụtụ ebe abụghị naanị na ọnwụ nke ndị otu mpaghara, kamakwa ọnwụ nke ndị njem na ndị ọbịa si mba ọzọ, ma ndị na-efe Coltrane dị egwu ma ọ bụ ndị njem na-achọ ịmata ihe, bụ ndị na-enweghị ike ịchọta adreesị kwesịrị ekwesị. nke ụlọ ụka ọhụrụ, na-agagharị agagharị. N'akụkụ a, ọbịbịa na onyinye nke ndị njem na ndị na-apụ n'obodo na-adịkarị mkpa maka ịga n'ihu ụka, nke na-adịkarị mgbe ọ na-achọ ịda mba. Otu ụzọ chọọchị ahụ si chọọ ịbawanye mmasị na nleta bụ oge ngagharị nke ọrụ Sunday na Facebook (Coltrane Facebook peeji nke nd) na mgbasa ozi elekere iri abụọ na anọ na-aga n'ihu nke John Coltrane egwu na amamihe na ntanetị Coltrane Consciousness Radio dị na ịntanetị ( Mgbasa Ozi nke Mgbasa Ozi nd).

Nchegbu ọzọ dị ukwuu bụ eziokwu ahụ bụ na onye ndu otu ahụ, Franzo King, agafela afọ iri asaa, na ọdịnihu n’ọchịchị nke ụka edoghị anya.

Ihe ọzọ bụ na Jọn Coltrane Church yiri ka ọ bụ ihe dị iche iche na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ụlọ ọrụ ndị Ọtọdọks n'Africa. Ọ bụ ya mere o doro anya na ihe ga-eme mgbe onye isi nke òtù ahụ agaghị enwe ike ịkwado oche ahụ n'ọdịnihu. Ndi AOC ga-ewepu usoro a ma tinye ya n 'uz o karia, ma o bu ya, dika Fremdkörper (a "aru mba ọzọ"), ka etinye ya n'èzí AOC?

Otu olile anya maka ọdịnihu nke ngagharị bụ ọrụ na-arịwanye elu nke Archpriest na Reverend Wanika King-Stephens [na-eduga na ọrụ ofufe]. Mgbalị ya sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ, ya na nke ndị ọzọ raara onwe ha nye ọgbakọ, mgbe ejikọtara ya na nkwado ịnụ ọkụ n'obi nke ndị mmụọ Coltrane n'ụwa niile, na-enye ohere dị ekwe ekwe na thatka St. John Coltrane, dị ka ihe okpukpe pụrụ iche nke bụrụ akụkụ nke ọdịbendị ọdịbendị nke San Francisco, yana mgbasawanye mba ụwa na-agbasawanye, ga-adị ndụ na afọ ndị dị n'ihu.

Foto

Foto #1: Foto nke Achịbishọp Franzo Wayne King.
Image #2: Foto nke Marina King.
Foto # 3: Foto nke ọba egwu John Coltrane nke 1965, "Lovehụnanya Kasị Elu."
Foto # 4: Foto nke nwunye John Coltrane, Alice Coltrane na piano.
Foto #5: Foto nke nzukọ na Coltrane Church.
Foto #6: Foto nke ụzọ ụzọ ụkwụ na-aga n'ihu ụlọ ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ nke Coltrane Church dị.
Foto #7: Foto nke ihe ngosi mgbidi dị mma na Coltrane Church.
Image #8: Foto nke Wanika King-Stephens.

Ntụgharịgharị *

* Ọ gwụla ma ọ bụrụ na edeghị ya ọzọ, ihe dị na profaịlụ a sitere na Margry na Wojcik (2016), Baham (2015), Bivins (2015), na Boulware (2000).

Baham, Nicholas Louis, III. 2015. The Coltrane Church: Ndị ụda nke ụda, ndị ọrụ ikpe ziri ezi. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Berkman, Franya J. 2007. "Kwesịrị Ịkụzi Ihe Niile: Coltranes na 1960s Ime Mmụọ." Nnyocha American 48: 41-62.

Bivins, Jason C. 2015. Ndị Mmụọ Na-aṅụrị Ọṅụ! Jazz na okpukpe ndị America. New York: Oxford University Press.

Boulware, Jack. 2000. "Achọrọ ka Kasị Elu Chọọchị." SF kwa izu, January 26. Nweta site na http://m.sfweekly.com/sanfrancisco/requiem-for-a-church-supreme/Content?oid=2137874 on November 6, 2016.

Coltrane Consciousness Radio. nd Nweta site na https://live365.com/station/Coltrane-Conciousness-Radio–a57377 na 1 October 2020.

Akwụkwọ Coltrane Facebook. nd Saint John Will I Am Coltrane African Orthodox Church-ikike West. Nweta site na https://www.facebook.com/ColtraneChurch na 1 October 2020.

Cox, Harvey. 1995. Ọkụ si n'eluigwe: The Mbilite n'ọnwụ nke Pentikọstal Ime Mmụọ na Reshaping nke Okpukpe na Narị Afọ Iri na Abụọ. Ịgụ, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Freedman, Samuel G. 2007. “Okpukpe Sunday, nke sitere na Saturday Saturday.” New York Times, December 1. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2007/ 12/01/us/01religion.html?r=0 on November 20, 2016.

Gilma, Gayle na Jeff Swimmer. 1996. Chọọchị Saint John Coltrane. Igwe Nwepu.

Margry, Peter Jan na Daniel Wojcik. 2016. "Chineke Saxophone: Inweta Ike Mgbanwe nke Jazz Saint John Coltrane na San Francisco's Fillmore District." Pp. 169-94 na Ime Mmụọ nke Obodo: Agency na Resilience of the Urbanesque Habitat (Routledge Studies in Urbanism and City), nke Victoria Hegner na Peter Jan Margry dere. London na New York: Ntugharị.

MacDonald, Ila. 2015. "Na-ewere Pulse nke Reillmore." San Francisco Foghorn, February 11. Nweta site na http://sffoghorn.org/2015/02/11/taking-the-pulse-of-the-fillmore na 16 June 2016.

Nisenson, Eric. 1995. Ascension: John Coltrane na Nchọgharị ya. New York: Da Capo.

Porter, Lewis. 1998. John Coltrane: Ndụ ya na egwu ya. Ann Arbor: Mahadum nke Michigan Press.

John John-a-M-Coltrane Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa Facebook Page. n "Ihe." Anatara na https://www. facebook.com/stjohncoltranechurchwest/about/ .

Ụlọ ọrụ St. John Coltrane Church. nweta nnweta site na http://www.coltranechurch.org/ na 27 November 2016.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Baham, Nicholas Louis, III. 2001. Site n'ụwa a. Nyocha nke Anthropology nke edemede na ọhụrụ na Coltrane Consciousness. Otu Ethnography nke St John Ga-m na-akpakọrịta Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa. Ph.D. Ntughari. Bloomington: Mahadum Indiana.

Berliner, Paul. 1994. Iche echiche na Jazz: Artless Infinite Art of Improvisation. Chicago, IL: Mahadum nke Chicago Press.

Brandreth, Henry RT 1987 [1947]. Episcopi Vagantes na Chọọchị Anglịkan. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press.

Brown, Leonard L., ed. 2010. John Coltrane na Black America na-achọ nnwere onwe: Ọnọdụ ime mmụọ na egwu. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fischlin, Daniel, Ajay Heble na George Lipsitz. 2013. Nsogbu dị ngwa nke ugbu a: mmelite, ikike, na ụkpụrụ omume nke Cocreation. Durham, NC: Mahadum Duke University Press.

Floyd, Samuel A. 1996. Ike nke Black Music: Ịkọwa Akụkọ Ya site n'Africa ruo United States. New York: Oxford University Press.

Howison, Jamie. 2012. Uche Chineke na Egwu Ahụ: Nchọpụta Ọchịchị site na Egwu nke John Coltrane. Eugene, OR: Cascade Books.

[King, Franzo W.], ed. 1981. John Coltrane na-ekwu. San Francisco: Akwụkwọ akụkọ SunShip, Nke abụọ Edition.

Leonard, Neil. 1987. Jazz: Ụgha na Okpukpe. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peretti, Burton W. 1997. Jazz na American Culture. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.

Peretti, Burton W. 1992. Okike nke Jazz: Music, Race, Culture na Urban America. Urbana: Mahadum nke Illinois Press.

Porter, Eric. 2002. Kedu ihe a bụ ihe a na-akpọ Jazz? Ndị American American Musicians dị ka Artists, Critics, na Activists. Berkeley, CA: Mahadum California Press.

Pruter, Karl. 2006. "Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Africa." Pp. 81-85 na Ochie Chọọchị Katọlik. Rockville, MD: Wildside Press.

Sọl, Scott. 2003. Nnwere onwe bụ, Nnwere onwe abụghị: Jazz na Ime nke isii. Cambridge, MA: Mahadum Harvard University.

Stowe, David W. 2004. Lee Ụda Ụda Ụtọ: Music na Ndụ Ime Mmụọ nke ndị America. Cambridge: Mahadum Harvard.

Whyton, Tony. 2013. E wezụga ịhụnanya ịhụnanya: John Coltrane na Legacy nke Album. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woideck, Carl. 1998. The John Coltrane Companion: Iri ise nke Commentary. New York: Akwụkwọ Schirmer.

Ụbọchị Post:
2 December 2016

 

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