Ntughari uche Vipassana

VIPASSANA MEDITATION AS SUR SN SITE SN GOENKA  


VIPASSANA MEDITATION AS ASZ TA SITE SN GOENKA TIMELINE

1915: Ledi Sayadaw họpụtara Saya Thetgyi dị ka onye nkuzi nkịtị ma nye ya ọrụ nke ịkụziri ndị nkịtị akwụkwọ.

1937: U Ba Khin, mgbe ahụ onye na - ahụ maka Akaụntụ nke Britain Burma, were Saya Thetgyi were ụbọchị iri vipassana ya.

1924: Goenka mụrụ n’ezinụlọ ndị India na British Burma.

1952: U Ba Khin guzobere International Meditation Center na Yangon wee kuziere ọha na eze na ndị ọdịda anyanwụ vipassana.

1955: Goenka gara ụbọchị iri nke mbụ ya na U Ba Khin na Yangon.

1969: U Ba Khin nyere Goenka ikike izi vipassana na India.

1971: U Ba Khin nwụrụ na Yangon, Burma.

1974: Goenka guzobere etiti vipassana mbụ na India, ugbu a isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, Dhamma Giri, Igatpuri, nke dịdebere Mumbai, India.

1979: Gobọchị iri nke mbụ nke Goenka vipassana na-abụghị India na Burma ẹkenịmde ke Gaillon, France.

1981: Ebe izizi vipassana dị na West ka etubere na Shelburne Massachusetts, US, na Blackheath, NSW, Australia.

1985: Vipassana Research Insita (VRI) hiwere na Igatpuri, India.

1994: Thelọ akwụkwọ kasị ukwuu nke vipassana n'ụlọ mkpọrọ bụ nke Goenka na onye na-enyere ya aka maka ndị nkụzi maka ihe karịrị 1,000 ndị mkpọrọ na harlọ Mkpọrọ Tihar, India.

2000 (Jenụwarị): Goenka kwuru na World Economic Forum na isiokwu nke 'Ọnọdụ Ime Mmụọ na Azụmaahịa' na Davos, Switzerland.

2000 (August): Goenka keere na Mgbakọ Millennium Peace Summit na United Nations, New York.

2002: A na-eduzi usoro vipassana mbụ na ụlọ mkpọrọ North America na Donaldson Correctional Facility na Alabama.

2008: Ewuchara Global Vipassana Pagoda, nke dị nso na Mumbai, India.

2012: Goenka natara onyinye Padma Bhushan n'aka gọọmentị India.

2012 (Disemba):  Akwụkwọ Akụkọ VRI bipụtara ndepụta zuru ezu nke Ndị Nkụzi Centerlọ Ọrụ na Onye Nchịkọba Mpaghara Goenka họpụtara.

2013: Goenka nwụrụ site na ihe ndị sitere n'okike na Mumbai, India.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Satya Narayan Goenka, nke akpọrọ SN Goenka (1924-2013) bụ onye ndu kacha adịbeghị anya na nnukwu mba ụwa. vipassana (nghọta) ntụgharị uche, nke a kacha mara amara mgbagha ụbọchị iri. Goenka, onye ọchụnta ego nke agbụrụ India, amụrụ na Jenụwarị 1924 na Britain Burma. Na 1955 na ịchụso ọgwụgwọ maka oke mpụga ya, Goenka gara ụbọchị iri nke vipassana ntụgharị uche ya na International Meditation Center (IMC) na Yangon, nke onye nkuzi ntụgharị uche U Ba Khin (1899-1971) kụziri. Ọ bụ ezie na U Ba Khin jụrụ izi ihe na Goenka naanị maka ịgwọ isi ọwụwa ya, Goenka ghọrọ otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ U Ba Khin kachasị nwee ọganiihu. N’agbata ụlọ ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ Goenka dị n’agbata 1964 na 1966 ka gọọmentị Goenka weghaara mgbe gọọmentị emere ọhụụ nke Myanmar (Burma) mere ka ụlọ ọrụ niile dị na mba ahụ pụta (Goenka 2014: 4-5). Dabere na Goenka, ọnọdụ ọhụrụ nyere ya ohere ilekwasị anya na omume ntụgharị uche ya n'okpuru nduzi nke onye nkuzi ya U Ba Khin. Mgbe afọ iri na anọ gachara, U Ba Khin nyere Goenka ikike ka ọ bụrụ onye nkuzi vipassana na 1969 wee họpụta ya ọrụ nke ịlaghachi vipassana gaa ala nke ebubo sitere na ya, India. Mgbe afọ iri nke nkuzi vipassana na India, Goenka malitere njem iji mezuo ọhụụ onye nkuzi ya gbasara ịgbasa vipassana ntụgharị uche zuru ụwa ọnụ. N'ime afọ iri na abụọ sochirinụ ọ na-aga mba ndị ọdịda anyanwụ mgbe niile, na-akụzi vipassana, na-eguzobe ebe ntụgharị uche, na ndị nkuzi na-enyere ndị nkuzi aka iduzi ọmụmụ ya.

Taa, netwọ Goenka bụ nnukwu nzukọ vipassana zuru ụwa ọnụ na-enye onyinye, yana ihe karịrị ndị ọrụ 160 (yana ndị na-abụghị ndị gọọmentị 110) n'ụwa niile ("Dhamma" nd). Ebe kachasị ukwuu dị na India, ebe Goenka nwere mmetụta dị ịrịba ama naewebata vipassana nye ndi Hindu. Na mba ụfọdụ enwere vipassana ọmụmụ ihe ugbu a maka "ụmụ akwụkwọ praịmarị, nke sekọndrị, na nke sekọndrị, ndị mkpọrọ, ndị na-ahụ maka njikwa, ndị uwe ojii, ndị isi ọrụ, ndị na-enweghị ebe obibi, na ndị nwere nsogbu anya" (Goldberg 2014). Ihe ịga nke ọma Goenka zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ akụkụ n'ihi ike ya ịgba alụkwaghịm na-atụgharị uche nke vipassana site na ntọala okpukpe ya na Theravada Buddhist. Nkọwa ya banyere nkuzi Buddha (Dhamma) dị ka "eluigwe na ala," "ndị na-abụghị ndị otu," "ndị sayensị," na "nwere ezi uche" (Goldberg 2014), na-enyere ya aka ịkọghachị omume Buddha dịka nke dabara na ndị na-ege ya ntị n'oge a. N'ihi ya, ebe nrụọrụ weebụ nke nzukọ ("Dhamma" nd) na-ewebata omume ahụ dị ka usoro ndị a:

Vipassana, nke pụtara ịhụ ihe dị ka ọ dị n'ezie, bụ otu n'ime usoro ọrụ ntụgharị uche kacha ochie nke India. Ọ bụ Gotama Buddha chọpụtakwara ya ihe karịrị 2500 afọ gara aga, ọ kụzikwaara ya dịka ọgwụgwọ zuru ụwa ọnụ maka nsogbu ụwa niile, ya bụ, Art Of Living. Usoro a na-abụghị nke ịbe mmụọ na-achọ mkpochapụ mkpụmkpụ nke echiche uche na-eweta oke ọ highestụ nke nnwere onwe zuru oke.

Vipassana bu uzo ngbanwe nke onwe site nchoputa onwe onye. Ọ na-elekwasị anya na njikọ dị omimi dị n'etiti uche na ahụ, nke nwere ike ịnweta site na ịdọ aka ná ntị na mmetụta anụ ahụ nke na-etolite ndụ nke ahụ, yana na-ejikọ ma na-eme ka ndụ nke uche dịrị. Ọ bụ nyocha a dabere na ya, njem nyocha nke onwe ya na mgbọrọgwụ nke uche na ahụ na-agbaze adịghị ọcha nke uche, na-ebute uche ziri ezi jupụtara n'ịhụnanya na ọmịiko.

Iwu sayensị nke na-arụ ọrụ n'echiche, mmetụta, mkpebi na mmetụ mmadụ na-apụta ìhè. Site na ahụmịhe doro anya, ọdịdị nke otu mmadụ si eto ma ọ bụ na-alaghachi, otu esi ewepụta nhụjuanya ma ọ bụ hapụ onwe ya na nhụjuanya ka a ghọtara. A na - amata ndụ site na mmatawanye, enweghị echiche, njide onwe onye na udo.

Iji ghọta uto nke ntụgharị uche vipassana dị ka SN Goenka kụziri, ọ dị mkpa ịchọta ya na mbara ọhụụ. Ruo na njedebe nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, omume nke vipassana bụ nanị ndị mọnk a họpụtara ahọpụta. Mmalite nke usoro ọmụmụ nke ndị nkuzi na-abụghị ndị mọnk a họpụtara ahọpụta, na ndị kuziri vipassana nye ndị nkịtị, ụmụ nwanyị na ndị mba ọzọ na-anọchi anya mgbanwe nke oge a nke mba Theravada (Gombrich 1983; Jordt 2007; Cook 2010). Otu n'ime ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị mkpa nke metụrụ mgbanwe a bụ onye mọnk Burmese a ma ama, Ledi Sayadaw (1846-1923) (lee Braun 2013a). Ledi Sayadaw kwalitere popularization nke vipassana na ọ bụ otu n'ime ihe mbụ iji họpụta ndị nkuzi ntụgharị uche. A na-enyocha usoro ọmụmụ nke Goenka na nwa akwụkwọ Ledi Sayadaw bụ Saya Thetgyi, onye a jụrụ ajụ, (1873-1945), onye natara ikike Sayadaw ịkụziri vipassana na 1915. Saya Thetgyi n'aka nke ya nyefere onye ọrụ gọọmentị Burmese, U Ba Khin (1899-1971) onye kuziri ọtụtụ ndị ụlọ Burmese na ụmụ akwụkwọ mba ụwa n'oge ndụ ya, gụnyere Sayamagyi Daw Mya Thwin (nke a maara dị ka mama Sayamagyi), Ruth Deninson, John Coleman, Robert Hover, na SN Goenka (Rawlinson 1997: 593).

Nkwenye zuru ezu na akwụkwọ ndị dị ugbu a na-ejikọ ịrị elu nke vipassana ntụgharị uche dị ka omume laicised na European colonialism nke Ndịda Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia nke mere na njedebe nke narị afọ nke 19 (Braun 2013a; Gombrich na Obeyesekere 1988; Sharf 1995). Dabere na Sharf (1995: 252), Theravada Buddhist n'oge a nwetara usoro mgbanwe dị iche iche, nke gosipụtara ụkpụrụ nke mmadụ iche iche; ịjụ ikike ndị ụkọchukwu; ezi uche na "ihe eji eme ihe" maka ozizi Buddha; ojuju nke okpukperechi Buddha ma ju na ememe “efu”; echiche nke “uwa niile” ya na nsi ike na Buddha bu “ihe omuma” karia “okpukpe.” Ya mere, mgbe a na-enyocha ihe Goenka na-ekwu na ọ bụghị ịrọ òtù megidere usoro akụkọ ihe mere eme a, ọ bịara doo anya na ọdịnala ya na-agbaso otu usoro a na-akpọkarị "Buddhist modernism" (Bechert 1984, 1994) ma ọ bụ "Buddhist Protestant" (Gombrich na Obeyesekere 1988). Ihe nnọchianya "sayensị" na "ndị na-abụghị òtù" nke vipassana site n'aka ndị nkuzi ntụgharị uche dịka Goenka, enyela aka n'ọtụtụ echiche nke oge a banyere ntụgharị uche dịka ọrụ na-abụghị nke okpukpe (Braun 2013b, "Trycicle" nd). Ọzọkwa, ọchịchọ Goenka iji nọgide na-enwe sayensị, na njirimara na-eme ka ọ dị mma na mgbalị ya iji guzobe Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) na 1985, otu nzukọ na-echekarị banyere ibipụta nsụgharị nke akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ Pali, na ime nnyocha banyere ngwa vipassana ntụgharị uche na ndụ kwa ụbọchị ("Vipassana Research Institute" nd).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Goenka na-eji ozizi Buddhist bụ isi nke eziokwu anọ ahụ magburu onwe ya na ụzọ dị mma nke asatọ iji kwado echiche omume vipassana. Otú ọ dị, ọ na-ajụ ịkpọ ozizi ya Buddha ma jiri Pali okwu Dhamma, nke pụtara ozizi Buddha.

Dịka ụlọ akwụkwọ vipassana ndị ọzọ dị ugbu a, nkuzi Goenka nke vipassana dabere na nkọwa nke Satipatthana Sutta in ìhè nke ederede seminal Theravada, "Pzọ ​​nke Ọcha," na Abhidhamma. Ọ na-ekwusi ike na nkwenye na impermanence (anicca), na-ata ahụhụ (dukkha ), na ọ bụghị onwe (anatta) bụ ezigbo njirimara nke ihe niile gbasara ahụ na echiche. Dị ka Goenka si kwuo, ndụ mmadụ anyị bụ nke nhụjuanya, na-esite na mgbakwunye na nhụjuanya nke ihe ndị na-adịghị adịgide adịgide. Iji nweta nnwere onwe ma wepụ nhụjuanya site na ndụ mmadụ, mmadụ ga-aghọtarịrị isi mmalite nke nhụjuanya a na ọkwa nnwale. Enwere ike inweta nghọta a, dị ka Goenka si kwuo, site na idebe Buda Noble Eightfold Path, nke kewara ụzọ atọ: omume ( s .la ), ịta (Samādhi), na amamihe (paññā). A na-ahazi usoro vipassana ụbọchị iri na ụma iji rụọ ọrụ ụzọ atọ a nke ụzọ Noble Eightfold iji mepee nghọta banyere njirimara nke eziokwu, dịka a ghọtara ya na ọdịnala Buddhist Theravada (Pagis 10a).

Usoro vipassana nke Goenka na-akụzi dabere na nkọwa pụrụ iche nke Satipatthana Sutta . Na Satipatthana Sutta , Buddha na-enye ihe anọ maka omume nke uche: ahụ, mmetụta, uche, na ihe uche. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ vipassana na-akụzi na ha na-echebara ahụ na uche echiche, usoro Goenka (ịgbaso nkuzi nke U Ba Khin) na-etinyekwu mmesi ike na ị na-echebara mmetụta anụ ahụ echiche ma na-agụnye usoro ịme anụ ahụ.

Nkọwa maka omume vipassana nke oge a, nkọwa Goenka nke ozizi Buddha na-emetụta nnukwu ahụmịhe onwe onye. Ọ bụ site na njirimara nke ahụmịhe nke onwe gị ka Goenka ji dị iche na ọdịnala ya na "okpukperechi," "nkwenye kpuru ìsì," na nkwenkwe. Goenka na-ekwusi ike na, “Nkwenkwe na-abụkarị ịrọ òtù. Dhamma enweghị nkwenye. Na Dhamma ị na-enwe, mgbe ahụ ị kwenyere. Enweghị nkwenye doro anya na Dhamma. Ga-enwerịrị ahụ wee kwenye naanị ihe ọ bụla ị nwetere ”(“ Vipassana Research Institute ”nd). Ya mere, n'agbanyeghị eziokwu ahụ Goenka tinyere ozizi dị iche iche nke Buddhist n'ime nkuzi ya, ọ gbasiri mbọ ike ịkụziri ụmụ akwụkwọ ya ịnakwere ha "n'adịghị anya". Kama nke ahụ, a gwara ụmụ akwụkwọ ka ha nabata ha naanị ma ọ bụrụ na ha emeela nke ọma n'isiokwu ndị a maka onwe ha (Pagis 2010a). N'ịgbaso mmụọ a, usoro ntụgharị uche gụnyere obere echiche ma dabere na ọzụzụ ntụgharị uche (yabụ, kwa ụbọchị, usoro ntụgharị uche iri na otu na okwu elekere otu awa). Naanị otu usoro dị elu gụnyere ịgụ ederede, Satipatthana Sutta, yana ịgụ na ịkọwa akụkụ ederede abụghị ihe a na-ahụkarị na ọmụmụ ma ọ bụ nnọkọ otu. Tụkwasị na nke ahụ, a na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ webata usoro iwu nke vipassana dịka ọkwa nke omume. A na-ekpughere ụmụ akwụkwọ novice akụkụ ndị ahọpụtara na akụkụ pere mpe nke nkuzi Buddha, ebe usoro ntụgharị uche dị elu na-ewebata usoro mmụta, gụnyere Buddhist cosmology.


RITUALS / PRACTICES

Nzukọ Goenka na-enye ọtụtụ usoro ọmụmụ dịgasị iche iche, ọ bụ ezie na ịlaghachi ụbọchị iri bụ nke a na-ejikarị eme ihe na nke kacha mma. Ebumnuche nke usoro ụbọchị iri ka ejiri nlezianya hazie ma yie ihe zuru oke n'ụwa niile. Usoro a na-esote usoro mmemme siri ike yana ntụgharị uche ọtụtụ oge na-amalite site na 4: 30 n'ụtụtụ wee kwụsị na 21: 00 kwa ụbọchị. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-agba nkuzi ahụ n'okpuru nlekọta nke ndị nkuzi enyemaka, a na-akụzi ntuziaka ntụgharị uche niile site na ndekọ ọdịyo na vidiyo vidiyo nke Goenka n'onwe ya. Ojiji teknụzụ a na-enyere nkuzi a aka etu o siri dị, ka Goenka na-enye ntuziaka ntụgharị uche n'asụsụ Bekee wee sụgharịa ya n'asụsụ mpaghara.

N'oge nkuzi ntụgharị uche, achọrọ ndị niile sonyere na ha ga-agbachi nkịtị, nke a maara dị ka Silence Noble, nke na-egbochi a nwa akwukwo site na ikwuputa umu akwukwo ibe ya ma obu okwu, mmeghari aka, asusu ndi ogbi ma obu ihe edere ede. N'ezie, a na-etinye mgbochi ndị ọzọ n'ime mgbalị iji belata mmegharị mpụga. Ndị a gụnyere: nkewa zuru oke n'etiti ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị, kọntaktị n'èzí, mmekọrịta anụ ahụ, ịnwe ihe okpukpe, omume nke okpukpe ma ọ bụ omume okpukpe ndị ọzọ, ịge egwu, ịgụ ma ọ bụ ide. N'ezie, gburugburu ebe obibi niile, site na agba ruo uto, site na ụda iji metụ aka, belata iji mepụta mkpali dị ntakịrị maka ndị na-eme ihe (Pagis 2010b, 2015).

Iji mee ihe izizi nke ofzọ Noble asatọ, ụzọ omume (s .la), ụmụ akwụkwọ ga-ekwe nkwa idobe iwu ise maka oge agụmakwụkwọ ahụ. Ndị a gụnyere ịghara igbu mmadụ ọ bụla, izere izu ohi, izere ụdị mmekọahụ ọ bụla, ịghara ịgha ụgha, izere ịantsụbiga mmanya ókè. Achọrọ iwu atọ ọzọ n'aka ụmụ akwụkwọ tozuru etozu: Izere iri nri ehihie, izere ntụrụndụ anụ ahụ na ịchọ mma nke anụ ahụ, ịghara iji akwa dị elu ma ọ bụ nke mara mma.

Eachbọchị ọ bụla na-amalite site na nkeji iri atọ nke ederede ọdịyo edere nke Goenka na-esi na ya Tipitaka na Pali maka ebumnuche nke imepụta “ezigbo ịma jijiji,” wee mechie otu awa nke okwu ya, bụ nke ọ na-akọwa echiche Buddha nke metụtara usoro a na asụsụ dị mfe ma na-atọ ọchị.

Firstbọchị atọ nke usoro ihe ọmụmụ a raara nye ànapāna ntụgharị uche nke bụ usoro nyocha ume na-eme ka uche nke uche bawanye. Ihe omumu nke ànapāna , nke gunyere uzo nke abuo nke uzo Noble asatọ afọ, gụnyere ilekwasị anya na ntị nke imi na egbugbere ọnụ elu, n'okpuru imi imi, na-ele mmetụta nke ikuku ka mmadụ na-eku ume ma na-apụ (Sole-Leris 1986: 46).

Site n 'ụbọchị gawa, ụmụ akwụkwọ na-amụta omume vipassana, iji zụlite nghọta ma ọ bụ amamihe (paññā), nke atọ na nke ikpeazụ nke ụzọ Noble asatọ. Ntughari uche Vipassana na ọdịnala Goenka, gụnyere mmepe nke mmata na nkwekọ na mmetụta niile nke anụ ahụ. (Pagis 2009; Goldberg 2014). Studentsmụ akwụkwọ na-amụta iji nlezianya na-ahụ mmetụta anụ ahụ niile (nke na-atọ ụtọ na nke na-adịghị mma) nke na-ebili n'ime usoro nke ahụ ha na-enweghị mmeghachi omume, n'ụzọ ebumnuche. Isi okwu a bụ ịzụlite echiche dịpụrụ adịpụ nke onye na-eme ya ghọtara ma hụ ọdịdị na-adịgide adịgide nke mmetụta ndị a. Ekwuru na site na omume a mmadụ bidoro jiri nwayọ gbanwee “omume” nke uche nke mmeghachi isi na, n'ihi ya, na-enweta ọnọdụ nke "udo na nkwekọrita" sitere na "uche zuru oke" ("Vipassana Research Institute" nd).

The Noble Silence na eze na-agwụ na ụbọchị ikpeazụ nke ụkpụrụ ụbọchị iri, ụmụ akwụkwọ nwere ike ịkekọrịta ahụmịhe ha na ibe ha mgbe ụbọchị itoolu nke nyocha siri ike. N'ụbọchị a, a na-eme ka ụmụ akwụkwọ mata usoro ntụgharị uche ọhụrụ, ya bụ metta-bhāvanā ma ọ bụ ntụgharị uche nke obiọma ịhụnanya, nke bụ ihe dị mkpa n'okpukpe Buddhist na-atọhapụ. A na-akuziri ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ ka ha mechie vipassana ọ bụla otu elekere nọ ọdụ na nkeji ole na ole metta ntụgharị uche.

Ebe ọ bụ na a na-enye nkuzi vipassana niile n'efu, gụnyere nri na ebe obibi, nkuzi na ọrụ ndị ọzọ, a na-agba ụmụ akwụkwọ mezuru nke ọma ume inye dị ka ọ dịịrị ha mma "na-atụghị anya ihe ọ bụla, [return] ka ndị ọzọ wee nweta elele nke Dhamma ma nwee ike ịpụta na nhụjuanya ha ”(nchịkọta okwu VRI). Ndị chọrọ ime nke a ga-enwe ohere na ngwụcha akwụkwọ ahụ iji nye onyinye ma ọ bụ zụta akwụkwọ ma ọ bụ ihe ọdịyo / vidiyo site n'ọtụtụ akwụkwọ VRI na ngosi. Ọzọkwa, a gbara ụmụ akwụkwọ ume ịlaghachi na ogige ahụ wee wepụta onwe ha n'afọ ofufo na ọrụ ha na isi nri, nhicha, nchịkwa na ihe ndị ọzọ, dị ka ụdị dána , nke a maara dị ka ọrụ zuru ezu. Nke a, dị ka Goenka si kwuo, a ghọtara dị ka ohere bara uru, ọ gbasakwara n'ozuzu ya na "dāna nke ọrụ Dhamma dị elu karịa dna nke ego" ("Vipassana Research Institute" nd).

Ná ngwụsị nke usoro ntụgharị uche ahụ, a na-atụ aro ụmụ akwụkwọ ka ha gaa n'ihu na omume ha kwa ụbọchị nke vipassana (otu elekere n'ụtụtụ na otu elekere na mgbede) mgbe ha laghachiri na ndụ ha. Na mgbakwunye, ọ bụ ezie na nkuzi ụbọchị iri bụ otu, a na-agba ụmụ akwụkwọ ume ịlaghachi na nkuzi ụbọchị iri opekata mpe otu ugboro n'afọ. Ha nwekwara ike isonye na nkuzi ụbọchị atọ, nkuzi otu ụbọchị na nnọkọ otu izu na-ahazi na mpaghara nke ndị ọkachamara toro eto. Na mgbakwunye, nzukọ Goenka na-enye ọtụtụ usoro mmụta dị elu, site na Satipatthana ụbọchị asatọ, ruo iri abụọ, iri atọ, iri anọ na ise na ọbụlagodi ụbọchị isii. Ikere na nkuzi ndị a bụ naanị maka ụmụ akwụkwọ tozuru etozu ndị mezuru ụfọdụ ihe achọrọ, gụnyere ịmecha ọmụmụ ihe na-aga n'ihu na omume vipassana kwa ụbọchị.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Nzukọ Goenka zuru ụwa ọnụ na-enye ihe niile vipassana ọmụmụ n'efu maka onye ọ bụla. Ndị otu ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-anaghị akwụ ụgwọ site na nzukọ a na-achịkwa ma na-arụ ọrụ ndị a. Nke a, dị ka Goenka si kwuo, na-eme ka ịdị ọcha nke Dhamma dị. Nzukọ ahụ na-akwado onwe ya site na onyinye ndị mmadụ nwetara site na onyinye ndị gụchara ma ọ dịkarịa ala ụbọchị iri vipassana. Onyinye ndị a na-akwụ ụgwọ maka ọmụmụ ihe n'ọdịnihu na nlekọta nke ogige ndị ahụ. Agbanyeghị, n'agbanyeghị usoro izugbe nke iji ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo maka nlekọta na ndozi nke ebe a, ọ bụghị ihe ọhụrụ maka ụfọdụ ebe iji ndị ọrụ na-akwụ ụgwọ oge na-akwụ ụgwọ maka ọrụ ndị ọzọ.

N'oge ndụ ya, Goenka ji aka ya jigide ọrụ nke ikike dị elu n'ime nzukọ ya ma ahọpụtaghị onye ga-anọchi ya tupu ọ nwụọ. Na 1982, na-anwa igbochi ndiiche site na usoro ya na nkuzi ya, Goenka malitere oru na-ewe oge nke idekọ ntuziaka na nkuzi ya niile. Ndekọ ndị a nyere ya ohere ịhọpụta onye enyemaka ndị nkuzi ka ọ duzie ọmụmụ ihe n'aha ya. Ka oge na-aga, Goenka kwalitere ndị osote onye nkuzi n'ọkwa dị elu, ndị okenye ndị dị otu a. Na mkpokọta, ndị nkuzi niile na-akụzi na ogige ndị bụ akụkụ nke nzukọ ahụ enweghị ikike ịme / kuziere onwe ha ma ga-agbaso usoro iwu na ntuziaka nke Goenka (Melnikova 2014: 52).

Ọ bụ ezie na Goenka eguzobewo ụkpụrụ nduzi zuru ezu maka nzukọ ya, ọ gbakwara ndị mmadụ ume ka ha na-elekọta onwe ha, ọ bụ ezie na ụlọ ọrụ niile nwere njikọ ụfọdụ na VRI na Dhamma Giri. Ruo 2012, otu kọmitii na-elekọta ụlọ ọrụ ọ bụla ma otu ndị nkuzi duziri ya. Agbanyeghị, na 2012 Goenka rụzigharị usoro nzukọ a. Nke a gụnyere iwebata ọkwa abụọ nke Center-Teacher and Co-ordinator Area Teacher. Dabere na nhazi ọhụrụ ahụ, otu Center-Onye Ozizi (mgbe ụfọdụ abụọ) na-eduzi etiti ọ bụla bụ ndị ọrụ ha gụnyere ịhọpụta Ndị Nlekọta na ịlele ihe omume ha na-achịkwa n'oge na dịka ntuziaka nke Goenka setịpụrụ; ijikwa ọmụmụ ihe ntụgharị uche; ọzụzụ sava Dhamma; na izipu ozi kwa ọnwa na Onye Nchịkọba Gburugburu na VRI (“Vipassana Research Institute” nd).

N'aka nke ya, a na-enye ndị nkuzi mpaghara Co-ordinator Area, ndị a họpụtara mpaghara (dịka, South Africa, Central na Northern Africa, Upper Africa, na Ezumike nke Africa) n'etiti ọtụtụ ọrụ ndị ọzọ ọrụ igbasa vipassana ma hụ na nzukọ ahụ a na-asụgharị akwụkwọ n'asụsụ obodo dị iche iche. Karịsịa, Onye Nchịkwa Mpaghara na-ahụ maka ngalaba na-ahụ maka ijide ọrụ niile nke vipassana emmepe kwekọrọ na ntuziaka Goenka. E bipụtara ọnọdụ zuru ezu nke ụkpụrụ nduzi Goenka na Akwụkwọ akụkọ VRI kwa ọnwa na Disemba 2012 (“Akwụkwọ Akụkọ Vipassana” nd). Ihe kachasị mkpa nke ntuziaka ndị a na-egosi nchegbu Goenka na nchekwa nke nkuzi ya na ngwa nkuzi ya niile ụdị ntuziaka na modul ọzụzụ). Kemgbe ọnwụ ya, ebe ndị ahụ na-aga n'ihu na-eduzi ọmụmụ vipassana, na-azụ ndị ọrụ dhama na ndị nkuzi enyemaka ọhụrụ dabere na ngwa nkuzi ndị edepụtara na Goenka.

Nzukọ Goenka enweela ihe ịga nke ọma n'ịmepụta vipassana n'ọtụtụ mpaghara ụwa, gụnyere azụmahịa na ụlọ mkpọrọ. A na-ahazi Usoro Nchịkwa aha maka ndị isi azụmaahịa na ndị ọrụ gọọmentị ("Vipassana Meditation Course for Business Executives" nd). Ọdịdị nke usoro a fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ usoro nke ụbọchị 10. Nanị ihe dị iche bụ na Goenka, dịka onye ọchụnta ego nwere ahụmahụ, na-enyekwu okwu na nduzi na itinye ụkpụrụ nke vipassana aka na nsogbu na nrụgide nke ụwa azụmaahịa ("Vipassana Research Institute" nd). Dabere na weebụsaịtị Vipassana Research Institute, Executive Courses enweela na Texas, Massachusetts, Washington State, California, Belgium, United Kingdom, Australia / New Zealand na India kemgbe 2002.

Ikekwe ihe kacha mma ikwughachi ihe ịga nke ọma Goenka bụ ebumnuche ya nke ịkwalite ọmụmụ vipassana dị ka “ngwa ọrụ nhazi” n'ime ụlọ mkpọrọn'ọtụtụ mba, gụnyere India, Israel, Mongolia, New Zealand, Taiwan, Thailand, UK, Myanmar na United States ("Vipassana Meditation Courses for Correction Facility" nd). Usoro ọmụmụ ndị a dị ka usoro ọmụmụ ụbọchị iri maka nkuzi, nhazi na ụkpụrụ omume. Agbanyeghị, ọ dị ka ha etinye atụmatụ dị iche na nke a: iji belata iwe na ime ihe ike, belata ma chịkwaa ahụ riri ahụ na mbelata nlọghachi n'etiti ndị mkpọrọ.

N'ikpeazụ, ọ bụ ezie na nzukọ ahụ kwusiri ike na mgbasa nke vipassana na okwu ndị na-abụghị okpukpe, ọ gụnyere na-ewu Buddhist ncheta. N’afọ 2008, ọgbakọ Goenka wuchara nke Global Vipassana Pagoda (GVP) nke dịdebere Mumbai, India (“Global Vipassana Pagoda” nd). Pagoda a, nke nwere ikike ịnọdụ ala karịa ndị na-atụgharị uche 8,000, na-azọrọ na ya bụ "ihe owuwu nkume kachasị elu nke ụwa nwere ihe ndị Buddha" ("Global Vipassana Pagoda" nd). Dabere na nzukọ vipassana, ezigbo ihe ncheta nke Gautama Buddha dị na nkume mkpọchi nke nnukwu dome Pagoda. Ebumnuche nke idebe ihe Buddha, dị ka Goenka rụrụ ụka, bụ na "ọ bụrụ na mmadụ na-atụgharị uche n'ihe ndị Buddha, nke nwere ụdị ịma jijiji dị otú ahụ, ọ na-aga n'ihu n'ụzọ dị mfe karị" ("Vipassana Research Institute" nd). GVP, oyiri nke Shwedagon Pagoda na Yangoon, ka ekwuru na ewulitere ya ka o gosipụta obi ekele nye Buddha, nkuzi ya, na U Ba Khin, onye na-ahụ maka ịlaghachi vipassana n'ala nne ya, India (Goldberg na Décary) 2012: 333).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Nzukọ Goenka vipassana na-enwekarị aha ọma. Nzukọ ahụ anabataghị mmegide mpụga na mpụga nkatọ sitere na ụfọdụ ndị obodo Buddha Ọtọdọks (Melnikova 2014: 57).

Isi mmegide nke nzukọ ahụ chere ihu sitere n'aka ndị òtù mbụ na-ajụ ịgbaso nduzi Goenka, nke ha ghọtara dị oke nlezianya. Ọ bụ ezie na Goenka kwetara na nsụgharị vipassana dị iche iche na ụzọ dị iche iche maka nnwere onwe, ọ siri ọnwụ na onye ọ bụla na-ahọrọ otu ụzọ ma na-emegide ụdị ọ bụla nke ịgbaziri na ịgwakọta ọdịnala. Yabụ, ndị mmadụ na-aga n'ihu ma na-eme ọdịnala ntụgharị uche ndị ọzọ n'akụkụ Goenka's vipassana, anaghị enye ha ikike isonye na usoro mmụta dị elu. Na mgbakwunye, ntuziaka ya maka ọmụmụ vipassana na-agbaso ọdịnala na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe nke South-East Asia, gụnyere, n'etiti ndị ọzọ, nkewa n'etiti ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị na koodu ejiji dị mma.

Fọdụ ndị bụbu ụmụ akwụkwọ nke Goenka agbagharịwo site na nkuzi ya wee mepee ebe ntụgharị uche nke metụtara nkuzi vipassana ndị ọzọ yana ụkpụrụ ọdịda anyanwụ gbasara uwe na agwakọta nwoke na nwanyị. Mgbe Goenka nwụsịrị, ọchịchọ a nkewapụ nwere ike ịbawanye elu, yabụ nnukwu nsogbu ịma aka nzukọ a na-eche ihu taa bụ ike ya ịga n'ihu na ịgbaso nkuzi na ntuziaka Goenka. Ihe ịma aka a iji nọgide na-emekọ ihe ọnụ na-esiwanye ike site na Goenka kwupụtara ndị nkụzi niile na ndị nkuzi n'ọdịnihu na nzukọ ahụ ka ha bụrụ ndị na-anọchi ya wee si otú a gbochie ịrị elu nke onye ndu ọzọ.

References

Bechert, Heinz. 1994. Okpukpe Buddha. Na: Buddha na Afọ 2000. Bangkok: ntọala Dhammakaya.

Bechert, Heinz. 1984. "Buddha Revival na East na West." Pp. 273-85 n'ime Ofwa nke Buddha: Buddha Monks na Nuns na Society na Omenala, nke Heinz Bechert na Richard Gombrich dere. London Thames na Hudson.

Braun, Erik. 2013a. Ọmụmụ nke Insight: Ntụgharị uche, Buddha oge a, na Burmese Monk Ledi Sayadaw. Chicago: University nke Chicago Pịa.

Braun, Eric. 2013b, "SN Goenka, Pioneer of Secular Meditation Movement, nwụrụ na 90." Ugboro. Nweta site na http://www.tricycle.com/blog/s-n-goenka-pioneer-secular-meditation-movement-dies-90 na 10 March 2015.

Cook, J. 2010. Tụgharị uche na Buddha oge a: Nweghachi na mgbanwe na ndụ ndị mọnk Thai. Cambridge: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press Cambridge.

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Goenka, SN 2014. Na-atụgharị uche Ugbu a: Udo nke Obi Site na Amamihe Ime. Onalaska, WA: Pariyatti.

Goldberg, Kory. 2014. "Maka Uru nke Ọtụtụ: SN Goenka's Vipassana Meditation Movement na Canada." Pp.79-100 na Ifuru n'elu Oké Nkume: Buda na Global Buddha na Canada, nke John S. Harding, Victor Sōgen Hori, na Alexander Soucy dere. Montreal: Akwụkwọ McGill-Queen.

Goldberg, Kory, na Michelle Décary. 2012. Na Pzọ: Onye Ntụgharị Uche na Ala Buddha. Onalaska, WA: Pariyatti.

Gombrich, Richard. 1983. "Site na ebe obibi ndị mọnk gaa na Ebe Ntụgharị uche: Lay Meditation in Contemporary Sri Lanka." Pp. 20-34 n'ime Buddhist Studies Oge Ochie na Oge A, nke Philip Denwood na Alexander Piatigorsky dere. London: Curzon Pịa.

Gombrich, Richard na Obeyesekere, Gananath. 1988. Buddha Gbanwere: Mgbanwe Okpukpe na Sri Lanka. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Jordt, Ingrid. 2007. Burma's Mass Lay Meditation Movement: Buddha na Ọdịbendị nke Ike. Athens: Mahadum Ohio University.

Melnikova, Nora. 2014. "Schoollọ Akwụkwọ nke Vipassana nke Oge A - Omenala Buddha?" Ph.D. akwukwo. Brno: Mahadum Masaryk.

Pagis, Michal. 2015. "Nkwupụta Nkwupụta Obi: Mmekọrịta Nkịtị na Vipassana Meditation Retreats." Ọdịmma sociology 38: 39-56.

Pagis, Michal. 2010a. "Site Abstract Concepts na Ahụmahụ Ihe Ọmụma: Embodying Enlightenment in a Meditation Center." Ọdịmma sociology 33: 469-89.

Pagis, Michal. 2010b. "Ducingmịpụta Ntinye Aka na Ngbachi: Otu Ethnography nke Ọrụ Ntụgharị uche." Ihe omumu 11: 309-28.

Pagis, Michal. 2009. "bomegharị Onwe-Mgbanwe Onwe Onye." Social Psychology nkeji iri na ise 72: 265-83.

Rawlinson, Andrew. 1997. Akwụkwọ nke Nna-ukwu Ọkachamara: Ndị Nkụzi Ọdịda Anyanwụ na Omenala Ọwụwa Anyanwụ. Chicago: Courtlọikpe na-emeghe.

Sharf, Robert H. 1995. "Buddhist Modernism na Rhetoric nke Na-atụgharị uche na Ahụmahụ." Ọnụ ọgụgụ 42: 228-83.

Uzo-Leris, A.1986. Okwu mmalite maka ersdị Ochie nke Buddha Ntụgharị uche: Obi iru ala na nghọta. London: Onye na-agba ịnyịnya.

"Vipassana Ntụgharị uche Course maka Business Executive." nd Nweta site na http://www.executive.dhamma.org/en/ na 16 March 2015.

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"Vipassana Research Institute." nd Nweta site na http://www.vridhamma.org/uploadedfiles/BenefitofMany.pdf na 20 March 2015.

NKWUKWỤKWỌ ANYỊ

Cook, J. 2010. Tụgharị uche na Buddha oge a: Nweghachi na mgbanwe na ndụ ndị mọnk Thai. Cambridge: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press Cambridge.

Jordt, Ingrid. 2007. Burma's Mass Lay Meditation Movement: Buddha na Ọdịbendị nke Ike. Athens: Mahadum Ohio University.

Authors:
Masoumeh Rahmani
Michal Pagis

Ụbọchị Post:
5 May 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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