Stephanie Edelman David G. Bromley

Universal Life Church


UWA N'ULU UWA (ULC)

1911 (July 23): A mụrụ Kirby J. Hensley.

1959: Hensley guzobere "Life Church."

1962: Ejikọtara Universal Life Church.

1999: Nwunye Hensley, Lida, ghọrọ onyeisi oche nke ụka ahụ.

2006: Nwa nwoke Hensley, Andre, weere onyeisi oche chọọchị na Lida Hensley nwụrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Kirby J. Hensley akamana ke July 23, 1911 ke obot North Carolina. A zụlitere ya n'ezinụlọ Baptist. Hensley kwụsịrị ịga akwụkwọ mgbe ọ gụsịrị klas nke atọ ma ọ mụtaghị ịgụ na ide, mana ọ gara n'ihu na-amụ banyere okpukpe n'oge ndụ ya niile. Emechiri Hensley ka onye ozi Baptist ma mesịa sonye na ụka Pentikọstal, na-ekwusa ozi ọma na Oklahoma na California. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na Pentikọstal, Hensley nọrọ ọtụtụ afọ n'ịmụ ọdịnala okpukpe dị iche iche.

Mgbe ịgba alụkwaghịm nke nwunye mbụ ya gasịrị, Kirby zutere ma lụọ nwunye ya nke abụọ, Lida, na North Carolina. Di na nwunye a kwagara na Modesto, California, ebe, dika webusaiti ulo uka ya siri di, “Henley bidoro gbawa mgba site n’echiche iguzobe uka maka mmadu nile” (Universal Life Church website nd). Onye mbụ Henley chọtara bụ “Life Church” ya na ụgbọala ahụ dịdebere ụlọ ya. N'oge a Lida rụrụ ọrụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ ụka, na mgbakwunye na ịrụ ọrụ n'otu ụlọ ọrụ na-ahụ maka Campbell Soup. Na May 2, 1962, Hensley webatara Universal Life Church na onye mmekọ, Lewis Ashmore, onye jere ozi dị ka onye isi oche. Hensley bụ onye kachasị nọrọ na ULC, na-eje ozi dị ka onye ozi ụka na onye isi oche nke ndị isi oche ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1999. Lida weghaara onye isi ala wee jee ozi ruo ọnwụ ya na 2006. Nwa nwoke Hensley, Andre, nọchiri ndị mụrụ ya dịka onye isi ala.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Weebụsaịtị ULC na-achịkọta nkwenkwe ụka dị ka ndị a:

Nzukọ Universal Life enweghị nkuzi ọdịnala. Anyị dịka nzukọ kwenyere n'ihe ziri ezi. Onye ọ bụla nwere ihe ùgwù na ọrụ iji chọpụta ihe ziri ezi maka onwe ha, ọ bụrụhaala na ọ dịghị emebi ikike nke ndị ọzọ. Anyị adịghị eguzo n’etiti gị na Chineke gị. Anyị bụ ndị na-akwado nkwado nke Ndezigharị Mbụ nke Iwu nke United States of America ”(Universal Life Church nd).

Ya mere, otu ụkpụrụ nke ULC bụ "mee ihe ziri ezi," ọ bụrụhaala na nke a adịghị emebi ndị ọzọ, ndị otu ya bụ ndị siri ike na-akwado nnwere onwe okpukpe. Primaryzọ bụ isi chọọchị ahọrọla iji kwalite nnwere onwe okpukpe bụ site n'ịhụ na "ikike na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nke ọdịnala nwere - ikike ịlụ di na nwunye n'etiti ha - kwesịrị ịdịịrị mmadụ niile" (Mead 2007).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Nzukọ Universal Life na-eme echichi ọtụtụ oge kwa izu. Echichi bụ n'efu, mana ugbu a ụka na-akwụ ụgwọ ego maka nhọpụta ma na-achọ ka ndị chọrọ ịbụ ndị ozi tinye akwụkwọ. Chọọchị na-akpachara anya ịkọwa na weebụsaịtị ya na a na-enyocha akwụkwọ ntinye ma ghara inye ya na akpaghị aka. Ozugbo enyere ha iwu, ndị ụkọchukwu nyere ikike ka ndị ụkọchukwu mee agbamakwụkwọ, olili ozu, baptizim na ọrụ ụka. Dị ka Andre Hensley si kwuo, chọọchị ahụ na-enye akwụkwọ ikike ntinye aka 4,000 kwa ọnwa ma họpụta 18,000,000 gburugburu ụwa site na 2004 (Myers 2004).

Chọọchị ahụ na-enyekwa ogo ọzọ dị iche iche. Dabere na Mead, "ndị ozi ULC nwere ike itinye akwụkwọ maka otu n'ime aha okpukpe dị otu narị na iri ise, gụnyere Kadịnal, Lama, Reverend Mother, Swami, Magus, Martyr, Goddess, Angel, ma ọ bụ Onyeozi nke Obi Umeala" (Mead 2007). Ulo akwukwo di elu nke ulo uka gunyere Doctor of Universal Life ma obu Doctor of Divinity, nke ndi ULC nyere ndi oru nta akuko Hunter S. Thompson na njedebe 1960s. Inweta ogo ndị a n'ozuzu ha gụnyere ịme ihe ọmụmụ na ịgafe ule.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Isi ụlọ ụka ULC dị na Stanislaus County, Modesto, California; ọgbakọ dị na US, Canada na ọtụtụ mba ndị ọzọ gburugburu ụwa. Chọọchị isi ụlọ ọrụ, nke ndị ọrụ isii na-elekọta, na-enwe ụka kwa izu yana ịnye asambodo nhazi. Chọọchị ahụ nwere ike ịnabata otu narị mmadụ na iri ise na ọrụ ya kwa izu. N’oge ndụ ya niile Kirby Hensley bụ onye minista na onye isi oche nke ndị isi oche. Onye ndu ụka nọgidere n'ime ezinụlọ Hensley kemgbe amalitere dị ka nwunye Hensley na nwa ya nwoke nọchiri ya. ULC bụ onye otu Kọmitii nke NGO maka United Nations.

ULC nwetara esemokwu banyere okwu ego na nke iwu na 2006. Nsonaazụ bụ ụka ọhụrụ, Universal Life Church Monastery, nke na-enye ndị ọrụ ụka ha na chọọchị nne na nna. Okpukpe a na-ekwu na edoziwo ihe karịrị ndị ozi ọhụrụ 20,000,000 (Burke 2007).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Esisịt ini ke enye ama ọkọtọn̄ọ, ufọkabasi ama akabade edi ata eneni ke ndutịme ukaraidem nte mme andibiọn̄ọ ndiyom ndikabade ndi mme ọkwọrọ ederi ULC ke ukwan̄ ekikere oro nte ke idaha utom usio-ukot eyetre mmọ ke utom ekọn̄. Abbie Hoffman kwalitere usoro a na akwụkwọ 1971 ya, Zuru Akwụkwọ a.

Kemgbe afọ ndị 1970 ndị ULC chere ihu ihe isi ike gbasara iwu gbasara ọnọdụ enweghị ụtụ isi yana izi ezi nke usoro echichi ya. Na 1974 ndi IRS gbara ajuju ma ndi ULC n’ezie bu ulo uka kwesiri ekwesi ma choro ka ha ju ego onu ahia kariri $ 10,000 site n’isi ulo oru Modesto. Chọọchị ahụ jụrụ ma weta uwe Universal Life Church v. United States of America. Ná ngwụsị nke usoro ahụ "onye ọka ikpe kpebiri maka ULC, na-eme ka ọnọdụ ụtụ isi 501 (c) (3) maka nzukọ" (Universal Life Church Legal Cases nd) Mana, na 1997, afọ ise mgbe ụka ahụ gbara akwụkwọ maka enweghị ego, IRS nyere otu ụka iwu ka ọ kwụọ ụtụ isi gọọmentị, na-akpali ndị ULC ịgba akwụkwọ IRS ọzọ. N’oge a ụlọikpe kpebiri megide ULC n’ihi na enweghị ego nke ụka emebiela akwụkwọ ụtụ isi nke ụka. Gbaso usoro iwu ndị a IRS na-emeso ULC ugbu a dịka ụka ọ bụla ọzọ dịka ọ na-ekpebi ọnọdụ enweghị ụtụ isi nke ụka na ntọala kwa afọ.

Esemokwu esemokwu ọzọ emeela na ọkwa steeti gbasara ikike ndị ọrụ ULC nwere ime alụmdi na nwunye. Odeakụkọ bụ Daniel Burke kwuru na ULC “nwere ihe jikọrọ nke ọma na iwu alụm di na steeti ndị ọzọ. Lọikpe Kasị Elu nke New York, Virginia na North Carolina emebiwo alụmdi na nwunye abaghị uru nke ndị ozi Universal Life Church rụrụ ”(Burke 2007). Nsonaazụ okwu ikpe dị n'okwu a agwakọtala. Na 2001, gọvanọ Utah Mike Leavitt bịanyere aka na iwu "stat [na-egosi] asambodo, ikikere, nhazi ma ọ bụ nkwado ọ bụla ọzọ mmadụ natara site na ngwa ịntanetị ma ọ bụ site na akwụkwọ ozi nke na-ekwupụta inye onye ahụ ikike okpukpe adịghị adaba" (Welling 2002). Steeti Utah weghachitere ndị ozi ULC na-elekọta alụm di na nwunye. Onye ọkaiwu Attorney General nke Utah Joel Ferre rụrụ ụka na, "Ọ dịghị ihe na - egbochi gị izipu aha nkịta gị na ịntanetị ma mee ha ka ha bụrụ ndị ozi ụka" (Welling 2002). Agbanyeghị ụlọ ikpe gọọmentị etiti kpebiri na 2002 na Nzukọ Universal Life vs. State nke Utah na ndị ozi Universal Life Church na-eme nwere ikike ijikwa di na nwunye. Na Pennsylvania “onye ọka ikpe na York County, Pennsylvania, kpebiri na ndị ozi na-enweghị 'ụka ma ọ bụ ọgbakọ nke emechiri emechi' enweghị ike ịlụ di na nwunye n'okpuru iwu obodo '(Burke 2007). Iwu a nwere ikike imebi alụm di na nwunye nke ndị ụkọchukwu ndị ULC họpụtara, ma mekwaa ka mmegide sitere na American Civil Liberties Union.

N'ozuzu ya, ndị ULC enweela mmegide site na ụka ndị isi na-emegide alụmdi na nwunye, ebe ọ bụ na a họpụtara ọtụtụ ndị ozi ULC ka ha nwee ike ịhazi agbamakwụkwọ ndị nwoke na nwanyị. Hensley n'onwe ya lụrụ di na nwunye na 1971 Universal Life Church Festival. Chọọchị ahụkwa enweela mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi na-adịghị mma. A 2011 New York Times isiokwu, ihe atụ, zoro aka na ULC dị ka "ndị McDonald nke agbamakwụkwọ ụlọ ọrụ" (Rosenberg 2011), na a Knight Ridder isiokwu kọrọ na "mainline ndi ozuzu aturu egwu na-enweta-ya-ngwa ngwa asambodo" (Myers 2004).

References

Burke, Daniel. 2007. “Pa. Onyeikpe Na-akagbu Agbamakwụkwọ Site na Ndị Ozi Ntanetị. ” USA Taa, Ọktọba 25. Nweta site na http://wwrn.org/articles/26689/?&place=united-states&section=church-state na 13 November 2011.

Hoffman, Abbie. 2002. Zuru Akwụkwọ a. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

Mee, Rebecca. 2007. "Onye na-alụ nwanyị ọhụrụ na-alụ nwanyị ọhụrụ." Onye New Yorker, March 26. Nweta site na http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2007/03/26/070326ta_talk_mead na 13 November 2011.

Myers, Randy. 2004. "Site na Web, $ 5 na nkeji ise na-eme mịnịsta." Knight Ridder akwụkwọ akụkọ, August 6. Nweta site na http://wwrn.org/articles/3635/?&place=united-states&section=other-groups na 13 November 2011.

Rosenberg, Noa. 2011. "Ihe gbasara m na-eme ka ndị mmadụ chọọ ịlụ di ma ọ bụ nwunye." New York Times,  January 7. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/fashion/weddings/09fieldnotes.html na 13 November 2011.

Lifelọ ọrụ ebe nrụọrụ weebụ Universal Life Church. nd Nweta site na http://www.ulchq.com/ na November 13.

Universal Life Church Legal Cases. nd Nweta site na http://www.ulccaselaw.com/ulc-leg.al-cases.php na 19 November 2011.

Ọfọn, Angie. 2002. “Ndi Ndibọ ke Iwu site Net Iwu.” Deseret News, January 6. Nweta site na http://wwrn.org/articles/3395/?&section=internet-related na 13 November 2011.

AKWỤKWỌ:
Stephanie Edelman
David G. Bromley

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
December 2011

Share