Uniao Mee Egwu

UNIAO MEE VEGETAL (UDV)


UNIAO DO VEGETAL (UDV) TIMELINE

A mụrụ 1922 José Gabriel na Costa.

1961 Jose Gabriel tọrọ ntọala Uniao do Vegetal na n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, kesara ndị na-eso ụzọ ya Vegetal (ayahuasca).

1990s onye na-ahụ maka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị America bụ Jeffrey Bronfman gara oké ọhịa Amazon ma zute UDV na ayahuasca.

1994 Bronfman guzobere alaka ụlọ ọrụ America nke UDV.

1999 US Customs na DEA Agents bukọọrọ galọn iri atọ nke ayahuasca tii si n'ụlọ ọrụ UDV; na nzaghachi, Bronfman gbara Ngalaba Okwu Ikpe nke US akwụkwọ.

February 2006 - Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu nke United States kpebiri na UDV nọ n'ọnọdụ ahụ Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal et al. 2006 .


FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

UDV akụkọ ihe omuma malitere site na Jose Gabriel da Costa, ndi amara ya dika Mestre Gabriel. A mụrụ ya na 1922 na Coracao de
Maria, nke dị na Brazil nke Bahia. Na obere akwụkwọ, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri abụọ, ọ si Salvador, Brazil gaa Amazon ebe ọ na-arụ ọrụ. Ọ bịara mara ndị Bolivian obodo, karịsịa Chico Lourenco, bụ "onye na-achọ ịmata ihe" na onye mere Kaịbriel gaa teahuasaca tii (UDV nd).

Ayahuasca, nke a na-akpọ "hoasca" ma ọ bụ "ahịhịa," bụ tii potucinogenic nke sitere na akwukwo charis na chacrona, nke dị na mmiri Amazon. A na-egbu ti tii na ememe ndị Amazon na nke Andean ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ, ma ọ bụ nanị a mara na United States na narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Na 1950s, ndị edemede na-ede akwụkwọ bụ William S. Burroughs na Allen Ginsberg mere ka ọ bụrụ ayahusaca na akwụkwọ edemede nke ga-emesị bipụtara dị ka Akwụkwọ edemede iri na ụma. Ihe odide ndị a na-atụle Burroughs 'njem site na South America ebe ọ na-atụ anya ị nweta ayahuasca dịka ụzọ isi merie ụdị ahụ riri ahụ. Ọtụtụ iri afọ ka e mesịrị, n'oge 1970s, onye ọkà ihe ọmụma Irish na America na Terence McKenna na nwanne ya nwoke Dennis na-eduzi nyocha ndị mmụọ ọjọọ metụtara ayahuasca na Amazon. Ndị otu ahụ bipụtara ihe ha chọpụtara n'akwụkwọ ahụ Ala A Na-adịghị Ahụ Anya: Mind, Hallucinogens na I Ching na akwukwo ozo, Ezigbo obi ụtọ.

Mgbe Mestre Gabriel wesiri ayahuasca, "ọhụụ, mkpughe nke mmụọ na echiche nke ozi onye ọhụụ ọ chọpụtara na-agbakọta n'otu usoro nkwenkwe kwere ekwe ma malite ịchịkọta ìgwè ndị na-eso ụzọ" (Dashwood na Saunders 1996). Na July 22, 1961, Gabriel guzobere Uniao do Vegetal (n'ụzọ nkịtị "njikọ nke osisi") ma malite ịkụzi ozizi ya, nke bụ ngwakọta nke nkwenkwe ndị Kraịst na nke ụmụ amaala. Na December 13, 1964, Gabriel gara Porto Velho, Rondonia na nwunye ya, Pequenina, na ụmụ ha. Ọ kwadoro onwe ya na 1215 Abuna Street, nke ghọrọ isi ụlọ ọrụ nke Uniao Do Vegetal (UDV), ebe Gabriel na-arụ ọrụ dịka onye na-akpụ brik ma kesaa ndị na-eso ụzọ ya Vegetal. Na mbụ UDV edeghị aha na Brazil dịka nzukọ okpukpe.

Na 1968, e wuru ụlọ nsọ UDV mbụ na Porto Velho. Ụlọ a, bụ ụlọ ọrụ UDV akụkọ ihe mere eme, a maara dị ka Nucleo Mestre Gabriel. Na September 24, 1971, Mestre Gabriel nwụrụ, ebe ọ kụziiri ndị na-eso ụzọ ya ozizi ya. Ndị na-eso ụzọ a, gụnyere nwunye ya na ụmụ ya, wee ghọọ ndị na-eme onwe ha, na-ezisa ozi Josaị Gabriel ma na-elekọta okpukpe na-eto eto. Ngalaba Nchebe nke Ókèala Guapore kụrụ obere oge ọrụ UDV n'oge 1970. Mgbe ụka maliteghachiri iwu ya, ọ gbanwere aha ya na Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal. N'October 30, 1982, Ọchịchị General UDV bugara isi ụlọ ọrụ ya na Brasilia. Brazil kwadoro iji ayahusaca mee ihe na 1987.

Na 1993, UDV abanyela na United States site na otu ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu, gụnyere ọkachamara n'ihe gbasara ahụike Jeffrey Bronfman, na Santa Fe, New Mexico. Ezinụlọ Bronfman si na Russia kwaga Kanada na narị afọ nke 19 ma mesịa nwekwa ụlọ ọrụ Canadian Distillation, Seagram, ma nwee ọhụụ ogologo oge dịka ezinụlọ bara ọgaranya ma dị ike America. Dị ka akwụkwọ Peter C. Newman si kwuo, Ọchịchị Bronfman (1978), University Yale na-anabata Jeffrey Bronfman ma họrọ kama ịbanye na Mission Glass Maharaj Ji (Vincent 2001). N'oge 1990s, Bronfman mere ọtụtụ njem gaa n'oké ọhịa ndị Brazil. N'ebe ahụ, ya na UDV bịara, na sampled hoasca. Ahụmahụ ya na tii kpaliri ya ịmụta Portuguese, ịghọ mestre, na ibubata okpukpe na United States. O jere ozi dịka onyeisi oche nke ngalaba UDV American si na 1994. Bronfman na nwunye ya, Lucy Luzader Bronfman, gbara alụkwaghịm na 2000.


UDV DOCTRINES / ECHIEFS

Uniao do Vegetal bụ okpukpe syncretic nke "na-ejikọta nkà mmụta okpukpe Ndị Kraịst ọdịnala na nkwenkwe ụmụ amaala, otu isi nke okwukwe bụ ịṅụ otu tii a maara dika hoasca. Dị ka nkwenkwe ụka si kwuo, ndị òtù nwere ike ịghọta Chineke naanị site n'ịṅụ tii "(Toobin 2004). UDV enweghi nkwekọrịta iwu ma ọ bụ ozizi ederede. Ndị ndu ụka na-ezipụ nkuzi nke Mestre Gabriel na ndị òtù UDV. Nghọta nke ozizi ndị a na-aghọta na ọ bụ usoro nkwụsị na nke onye ọ bụla. Ozizi Mestre na-eme n'ememe omenala na naanị ndị òtù ụka, ọ bụ naanị nchịkọta zuru ezu dị maka ndị si mba ọzọ.

Chọọchị na-ekwu na, "nkuzi nke Mestre Gabriel na-akụzi ịhụnanya maka mmadụ ibe anyị na omume kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi nke ịdị mma, dịka ụkpụrụ nke evolushọn nke mmụọ site nlọghachi azụ, nakwa na nkwukọrịta na nkuzi nke Jizọs dị ka onye nwe Chineke" (UDV nd ) Ụkpụrụ a nke nlọghachiri ọganihu dị mkpa maka ozizi UDV. Dị ka ụka si kwuo, ọ bụ "usoro nke puku afọ nke mmụọ ime mmụọ na nke Ndị Kraịst oge ochie kwadoro ruo 5 nke narị afọ nke AD" na "dabere na nkwenyesiri ike na site na mmegharị nke mmụọ, mmụọ na-agbanwe, jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ na-eme ka ikwesị ntụkwasị obi na-eme omume nke ezi omume, ruo mgbe ị ruru Ịdị ọcha - ma ọ bụ 'nsọ' maka ọdịnala ọdịda anyanwụ "(ibid). N'ikwekọ na nkwenkwe Ndị Kraịst, UDV lere Jisọs Kraịst anya dịka Ọkpara Chineke. UDV luru isiokwu a bụ "Ìhè, Udo na Ịhụnanya."

MGBE

Ememe etiti nke chọọchị bụ oriri nke ayahuasca tii na ememe sacramental nke e jiri ya tụnyere ndị Katọlik udo (Perea 2004). Chọọchị ahụ na-ekwusi ike na ịṅụ ayahuasca abụghị ọgwụ eji eme ntụrụndụ ma ọ bụ ihe omume okpukpe. Ememe ahụ na-eme ma ọ dịkarịa ala ugboro abụọ n'ọnwa. UDV na-akụzi na "ịṅụ mmanya ahụ na-eme ka ọnọdụ nke maara ihe dịkwuo mma nke nwere ike ịkọwanye echiche nke ọdịdị nke mmụọ anyị" (UDV nd). N'oge ememe ndị a, mgbe ndị isi, ma ọ bụ ndị na-ahụkarị, na-ejere Vegetal, ha na-enye ntụziaka, ọtụtụ mgbe n'ụdị "chamadas," abụ ndị nwere nkuzi nke Mestre Gabriel.

Ọhụụ ndị ọgwụ ọjọọ na-ebute nwere ike ịgụnye "agwọ ndị na-egbuke egbuke, ndị na-agbagha jaguars, na ihe ndị nwere okpukpu abụọ nke ubi, na ogige na oke ọhịa." Ndị na-akụzi Peruvian na-akụzi na ọhụụ ndị a dị ka "telivishọn nke ọhịa." Na, "Mgbe ha na-agbanye ya, ọ dị ka à ga-asị na ha na-akpọ ụda ma na-ekwurịta mmụọ, ikekwe site n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ" (Posner 2006). Onye ọka iwu Richard Glen Boire, "onye dere ọtụtụ ihe gbasara osisi ndị na-ahụ maka ihe ndị na-eme ka mmadụ ghara ịkụziri ya ihe, ma ọ bụ ọkachamara n'ịkwado ndị ahịa ebubo na ha na-eji ha eme ihe," na-ekwu na hoasca na-emepụta "'mgbanwe dị iche iche na nzuzu' nke nwere ike ịme egwu" na " ịchọta ya dịtụ nrọ '"(Simon 2009). Ọzọkwa, "tii bụ ihe ilu dị oke ilu ma na-ebukarị ịmị mkpụrụ na afọ ọsịsa" (Simon 2009). Onye na-amụ na doctoral na-ekwu banyere akwụkwọ akụkọ, Jeremy Narby, na-atụle ayahuasca mgbe ya na ndị Peruvian na-ebi maka ụkpụrụ omume ya nyocha, ma kọwaa ahụmịhe dị ka ndị a: "'Foto malitere ịwụkwasị n'isi m ... ihe na-eri [ọhịa rodent] na ezé ezé na ọnụ ọbara; agwọ na-egbuke egbuke, na-egbukepụ egbuke egbuke ma na-acha uhie uhie ... Na mberede, mmadụ abụọ gigantic boa na-agba m gburugburu dị ka mita iri ise n'ogologo. Ụjọ tụrụ m [...] M na-ahụ onwe m n'ihe dị ike karị nke na anaghị m aghọta ma ọlị ... '"(Narby Qtd na Posner 2006).

N'akụkụ alaka ụlọ ọrụ nke ụka nke United States, Jeffrey Bronfman na-elekọta ememe ahụ ugboro abụọ n'ọnwa, na ọrụ mgbede Satọdee nke a na-enwe na tent (ma ọ bụ yurt) n'ụlọ ya Santa Fe. Otu odeakụkọ New Yorker bụ onye hụrụ ememme a kọwara ya dị ka ndị a: "Ọ na-enye onye ọ bụla UDV otu iko nke tii, mgbe ahụ, mgbe a na-ekpe ekpere na Portuguese, ọgbakọ na-aṅụkọ ọnụ. Ọrụ na-esote na-agụnye abụ abụ, 'iche echiche nke otu onye,' na 'oge na-ezighị ezi nke mkparịta ụka na-adịghị edozi n'etiti ndị mkpọsa' (Toobin 2004).


NKWUKWU

A na-eme atụmatụ òtù UDV zuru ụwa ọnụ na 8,000 ruo 10,000, n'etiti ndị òtù 100 na 200 na United States. Chọọchị nwere alaka na Brazil, Spain, na United States, mana isi ụlọ ọrụ ka dị na Brasilia, Federal District. Chọọchị mbụ dị na Brazil nwere usoro nhazi nke "na-achịkwa ma nwee ọrụ ọkaibe dị iche iche na ngalaba ụlọ ọrụ na ngalaba ikpe, iwu na iwu. UDV anọgidewo na-enwe Council of Recordation of the Teachings of Mestre Gabriel kemgbe 1988 nke mejupụtara ndị na-eso 15 bụ ndị na-eso ụzọ Mestre Gabriels kemgbe1965. Nzukọ ahụ gụnyere nwunye Gabriel Gabriel, Pequenina, na otu n'ime ụmụ ya nwoke. Isi ọrụ nke Kansụl bụ iji zipu ozi Mestre mbụ. UDV nwere oghere 66 kewara n'ime mpaghara 11 na Brazil "(Dashwood na Saunders 1996). Ụlọ nke ọ bụla nwere ọgbakọ dị n'ógbè, a na-akpọ "nucleo," na mestre nke na-eje ozi dịka onye ndú na emehuasca. Nkewa United States nke UDV dị obere. Chọọchị Bronfman's Santa Fe nwere otu ndị e mere atụmatụ na 130-150 ma bụrụ naanị alaka.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

UDV echewo otutu ihe ịma aka iwu kwadobere na njikwa nke tii hoasca. Nkewa nke Ozi Ahụike nke Brazil nyere Vegetal na ndepụta nke ihe edozi n'usoro na 1985. Mkpebi a mesịrị gbanwee, Otú ọ dị, a nabatara iji chọọchị eji hoasca na Brazil eme ihe. Alaka UDV nke United States mere ka ọgba aghara dị ukwuu.

Usoro esemokwu iwu na US malitere na 1999, mgbe ndị ọrụ iwu Bureau na ndị DEA jidere iri atọ galọn nke tii hoasca si ọrụ Mestre Jeffrey Bronfman si Santa Fe. Bronfman ewebatawo tii maka iji mee ihe na nkwukọrịta ụka kwa ọnwa, ma n'ihi na ụmụ nwanyị na-enwe obi ike akwukwo eji eme ka uasca nwee N, N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), gọọmenti weputara tii dị ka Nhazi oge m na-achịkwa ihe, tinyere ọgwụ ndị dị ka heroin na wii wii.

Bronfman zara site n'ikwu akwụkwọ megide Ngalaba Ikpe Ikpe US, na-arụ ụka na tii bụ "sacrament center" na chọọchị nakwa na gọọmentị na-emegide ime Mbụ Ndezigharị ikike maka nnwere onwe okpukpe (Perea 2004). Mgbe ikpe ikpe ikpe mbụ na 2001, e nyere chọọchị ahụ iwu mmalite nke mere ka UDV maliteghachi oge oriri nke hoasca tii. Ngalaba Ikpe Ziri Ezi rịọrọ arịrịọ a. Mgbe Ụlọikpe Na-ahụ Maka Ụlọikpe na Denver kwadoro iwu 2001, Gọọmenti Bush nabatara ikpe ahụ n'Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu nke United States.

Isi okwu ikpe ahụ na ihe mgbagwoju anya bụ Iwu Freedom Restitution Act nke 1993, nke "na-eme ka ọ ghara ịhapụ iwu ndị na-emebi nkwenkwe okpukpe ha" (Posner 2006). Omume a choro "ochicho ndi ochichi siri ike" ka egosiputa ka ndi ochichi wee gbochie ihe omume okpukpe. Iwu a mechiri UDV ikpe. Ajụjụ dị mkpa, dịka Posner si kwuo, bụ "ma nnwere onwe okpukpe nke nnwere onwe okpukpe nke 1993, 'chọrọ ka gọọmenti nyere ikike ibubata, nkesa, ihe onwunwe, na iji ihe eji eme ihe na Schedule I hallucinogenic na-achịkwa ihe' '(Posner 2006).

Onye osote onye omekorita Edwin Kneedler kwadoro mmasị ochichi nke nwere ihe atọ. Akpa, o kwenyere na DMT bụ ihe ize ndụ ahụ nakwa na nchịkọta oge niile nke ụlọ ahụ nwere ike igosi na ahụike dị njọ, emesịa o nwere ike ime ka ọ bụrụ nke uche. Nke abuo, Kneedler kwusiri okwu, enwere ike ime ihe omumu na nkesa nke tii n'èzí n'ofufe okpukpe. N'ikpeazụ, o kwubiri na ịbịpụta tii ga-emebi iwu US Controlled substances na Nkwekọrịta 1971 United Nations na Ihe Ndị Na-ahụ Maka Ọgwụ.

Onye ọka iwu UDV, Nancy Hollander, kwadoro azịza ndị dị otú a site n'arụ ụka "na Brazil, ebe ụlọ ahịa dị na iwu na ebe UDV nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ, na New Mexico, ememe sacramental nke tii emeela ka ọ pụtaghị na ọ ga-esi na ya pụta. enwere ike iji ya mee ihe na-ezighị ezi "(Posner 2006). O zoro aka na oge nke American Native Church na-eri oge na-eme ihe oriri, oge ọzọ Mbụ ka m na-achịkwa ihe. Ụkpụrụ a ga-enwe mmetụta na mkpebi ikpe nke Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu.

Na February 21, 2006 Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu mere mkpebi ikpe ikpeazụ ya, na-achọpụta na UDV nwere "mmega ahụ n'efu na mmemme ya na USA" (Gonzales v. O Centro Espirita Beneficente Uniao do Vegetal et al. 2006). Ụlọikpe ahụ kwadoro otu UDV, otu ikpe ziri ezi na-ahapụ. Onyeikpe kpereikpe Roberts kwuru na ndị gọọmentị enweghị ikike maka ụlọ ọrụ American Native Church dị ka mkpebi ikpe na mkpebi ya.

References

Dashwood, Anja na Nicholas Saunders, 1996. "Uniao do Vegetal." Council on Practices Spiritual. Nweta site na http://csp.org/nicholas/vegetal.html na 21 January 21 2012.

Perea, Mary. 2004. "Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu Na-enye Òtù Na-arụ NMỌ Aka Iji Tea." Associated Press. 10 December 2004. Nweta site na http://wwrn.org/articles/9575/?&place=united-states&section=native-religions, na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Newman, Peter. 1978. Ọchịchị Bronfman. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, Ltd.

Posner, Michael. 2006. "Mkpụrụ Obi na Mkpụrụ Obi: Otu Mkpụrụ Na-eche Mkpụrụ Na-eche Mkpụrụ Na-esi n'Aka Amazon Jungle gaa Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu nke United States." Walrus. July 2006. Nweta site na http://www.walrusmagazine.com/articles/2006.07-anthropology-ayahuasca-vision/3/, na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Simon, Stephanie. 2009. "Ụdị Ngwá Ọgwụ Na-adịghị Mma." Wall Street Journal. 16 September 2009. Nweta site na http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125306591407914359.html, na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Toobin, Jeffrey. 2004. "Ụlọ dị elu-Ụlọikpe ahụ." Magazin New Yorker. 20 December 2004. Nweta site na http://www.cognitiveliberty.org/dll/udv_toobin1.html na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Uniao do Vegetal mkpokọta weebụ, nweta nnweta na http://www.udv.org.br/The+Origin+of+the+Uniao+do+Vegetal+and+the+Spiritual+Mission+of+Mestre+Gabriel/Highlight/24/ na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Nnwere onwe okpukpe, Ụlọikpe Kasị Elu United States na Uniao do Vegetal. 2005. Nweta site na http://www.udvusa.com/ na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Vincent, Isabel. 2001. "Bronfman, guru na tii ha." Akwụkwọ Ozi Mba. 12 January 2001. Nweta site na http://www.rickross.com/reference/general/general330.html, na Jenụwarị 21, 2012.

Authors:
Stephanie Edelman
David G. Bromley

Ụbọchị Post:
25 January 2012

 

 

 

 

Share