David G. Bromley Michaela Crutsinger

Ụlọ nke Setan

UMUAKA SLỌ SATATIK

2012: Ọnụnọ mbụ nke ọha mmadụ nke ghọrọ Templelọ Satanic mere na ntinye nke ibe Facebook iji kwalite ihe nkiri vidio a chọrọ.

2013 (Jenụwarị): Templelọ Nzukọ Setan kwadoro nnọkọ nkwado nke Gọvanọ Florida Rick Scott na-akwado ekpere na ụlọ akwụkwọ.

2013 (June): Templelọ arụsị nke Setan malitere ịmalite ịkpata ego maka mkpọsa "Adopt-a-Highway".

2013 (July): Ndị otu ụlọ nsọ nke Satanic rụrụ Pink Mass na Meridian, Mississippi n'ili nke nne onye ntọala Westboro Church, Fred Phelps.

2013: Doug Mesner kwetara na Lucien Greaves bụ njirimara ya.

2013-2014: Na Michigan, ma mba ma obodo Thelọ Satanic haziri imegide alụmdi na nwunye nwoke na nwanyị na ngosipụta ezumike okpukpe na oghere ọha.

2013-2014: Templelọ Nsọ Setan mere mkpesa nkesa nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na Florida na ngosipụta nke ọmụmụ ọmụmụ na nlọ Capitol.

2014 (Jenụwarị): Templelọ Nzukọ Setan kwupụtara atụmatụ iji wuo ihe ncheta Setan n'ihu Oklahoma Statehouse mgbe steeti kwere ka echichi nke Iwu Iwu Iri na 2012.

2014 (May): Esemokwu ọha na eze bilitere mgbe a kpọrọ Templelọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu ka ọ mee emume Black Mass na Mahadum Harvard na njikọ Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club.

2014 (Mee): Templelọ Nsọ Setan mere emume "Chebe Childrenbọchị Childrenmụaka" iji mee mkpesa na ntaramahụhụ anụ ụlọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ.

2014 (June): Lucien Greaves kwupụtara na nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị idina nwoke na nwanyị idina nwanyị bụ sacrament.

2014 (Septemba): Templelọ Nzukọ nke Ekwensu mara ọkwa atụmatụ ịchọta "ụlọ isi" mbụ ya na Detroit, Michigan.

2014 (Septemba 22): Emere Black Black na Oklahoma City.

2015 (June): Courtlọikpe Kasị Elu nke Oklahoma State kpebiri na a ga-ewepụ ihe oyiyi Iwu Iri ahụ na mpaghara Capitol.

2018: Nkewa nke ime n'ime Satanlọ Setan ahụ dugara n'ọtụtụ nkwupụta isi.

2018: Baphomet na Satanlọ Nzukọ nke Ekwensu ga-edebe na Capitol campus na Oklahoma tupu ewepụ Iwu Iwu Iri ahụ na Arkansas.

2018 (Disemba): Michigan isi nke Michiganlọ Nsọ ahụ tinyere ihe osise satan na nke ụlọ ime obodo tupu oge ezumike.

2019: E nyere ụlọ nsọ Setan ọnọdụ 501 (c) (3).

2019 (Eprel 19): Akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ Ekele Setan? malitere na Sundance Film Festival. Ndị Magnolia Pictures zụtara ikike ụwa niile.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Lọ Nzukọ Setan bụ nke otu onye a maara dị ka Lucien Greaves na Malcolm Jarry (A ga-eji ya mee ihe maka profaịlụ a). Ha abụọ maka ebumnuche dị iche iche ejirila aha iwu ha ma nakweere mmadụ nhazi, yana obere akụkọ gbasara onwe onye dị maka nke a. E nwere ezigbo arụmụka banyere njirimara "eziokwu" nke mmadụ abụọ ahụ (Merlan 2014; Shieldwall network 2018). A mara Lucien Greaves n'ihu ọha dị ka Doug Mesner, mana ebubo na aha ọmụmụ ya bụ Douglas Misicko. A kọọrọ Malcolm Jarry ka ọ bụrụ onye na-ese ihe nkiri Cevin Soling.

E depụtara Malcolm Jarry dịka onye nchoputa nke Satanlọ Nsọ Setan, mana Greaves bụ onye na-ekwuchitere ọha na eze maka otu ahụ. Amaghi ihe banyere Greaves akụkọ ihe mere eme. Ekwenyere na ya toro na Detroit ma kọọ na ya mechara gaa Mahadum Harvard, ebe ọ gụrụ sayensị sayensị (ọ bụ ezie na ọ dị ka ọ nweghị ndekọ aha nke ntinye aha ya). Ọ [Foto dị n'aka nri] nwere mmasị n'ịchọ ịchụ nta amoosu na ụdị dị iche iche nke ofufe Setan, na dịka o si tinye ya, "Enwere m ogologo oge n'ịmụ akwụkwọ ndị amoosu na echiche nke ofufe Setan" (Gremore 2013). Site n'ihe ndekọ Greaves, “Etolitere m na ndò nke ihe ndị ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze maara ugbu a dị ka“ Egwu Setan ”- ihe omume na-emenye ihere nke ịchụ nta amoosu n'oge a. Byjọ na-atụ m nke akụkọ chi na-ekwu banyere otu òtù nzuzo nke ofufe Setan. Amalitere m ịmata ihe nke ukwuu, emesịa, gbasara ajụjụ nke eziokwu nke nkwupụta izu ọjọọ ahụ, amalitere m ịchụso nke a dị ka ọmụmụ ihe siri ike "(Bugbee 2013). Mmasị a, na 2009, na ịga nzukọ "Ritual Abuse / Mind-Control" ogbako na Connecticut ebe

M gere ntị “ndị ọkachamara” kọwakwuru ihe ndị ha kweere na mpụ ndị a na-eme n’okpukpe Ekwensu. Echere m na ha ga-abụ otu ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta nke ndị aghụghọ, na-ejidesi nkwenkwe ndị dị ike ike, na-emerụ onye ọ bụla obi ma onwe ha. Ihe m chọtara kama bụ subculture gbagọrọ agbagọ nke ndị na-agwọ ọrịa nwere ikikere, yana ndị ahịa ha, ndị kwenyere na nkwenkwe sayensị pseudoscientific na "dissociative amnesia": Ozizi na ụfọdụ ihe omume-ọkachasị mmegbu n'ụzọ mmekọahụ nwere ike bụrụ ihe dị egwu na-enweghị atụ nke na uche maara enweghị ike ịghọta ya , ma si otú a “na-abụ ndị” echetara ncheta ndị ahụ.

Lọ Nzukọ nke Setan agbasawanye usoro nhazi ya na afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, mana otu a na-aga n'ihu na-egbochi azịza nke mmejọ nke satan site na atụmatụ Gray Faction. Ebumnobi nke Grey Faction kọwara dị ka ndị a (

Grey Faction bụ mkpọsa nke Satanlọ Setan nke na-edepụta, na-ekpughe, ma na-achọ igbochi ihe gara aga na mmetụta dị ugbu a nke egwu Setan ma na-agbasi mbọ ike ime ka usoro nlekọta ahụike ọgụgụ isi na-eweta njedebe nke aghụghọ Setanic Panic.

Ebumnuche Greaves abụwo nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị karịa nke okpukpe. Greaves edeela akwụkwọ maka Onye na-ajụ ụka, Kwa Ụbọchị, na Na-ekweghị na Chineke Nexus (Resnick 2014).

DOCTRINES / RITUALS

Maka Templelọ Nsọ Setan, Setan bụ, n'ụzọ ihe atụ, "Onye Nwe Ebighị Ebi" ma jiri ya mee ihe iji guzogide ikike na-achịkwa ọchịchị na ụkpụrụ ọha mmadụ (Radford 2014; "Satanlọ Satanic" nd). Weebụsaịtị nke iclọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu na-ekwu na ọrụ nhazi ya bụ "ịgba ume na ịdị mma na obi ọmịiko n'etiti mmadụ niile" ma depụta akwụkwọ asaa dị mkpa ("The Satanic Temple" nd).

Mmadu kwesiri igbali ime ihe banyere obi ebere na obi iru ala n’ebe ihe nile ekere eke di n’uche.

Ọgụ maka ikpe ziri ezi bụ ịchụso na-aga n'ihu ma dị mkpa nke kwesịrị ịchịkwa iwu na ụlọ ọrụ.

Ahụ mmadụ bụ onye a na-apụghị imeri emebi, n'okpuru uche nke onwe ya naanị.

A kwesịrị ịkwanyere nnwere onwe nke ndị ọzọ ùgwù, gụnyere nnwere onwe imejọ. Willkpachapụ anya na ikpe na-ezighị ezi imegharị nnwere onwe nke onye ọzọ bụ ịhapụ nke gị.

Nkwenkwe kwesiri ikwekọ na nghọta sayensị anyị kacha mma banyere ụwa. Anyị kwesịrị ịkpachara anya ka anyị ghara ịgbagọ eziokwu sayensị iji daba na nkwenkwe anyị.

Ndị mmadụ nwere ike imehie ihe. Ọ bụrụ na anyị emehie ihe, anyị kwesịrị ịgbalịsi ike idozi ya ma dozie nsogbu ọ bụla kpatara.

Tenkpụrụ ọ bụla bụ ụkpụrụ nduzi ezubere iji kpalie ndị isi na omume na echiche. Mmụọ nke ọmịiko, amamihe, na ikpe ziri ezi kwesịrị ịkpa ike mgbe niile karịa okwu ederede ma ọ bụ okwu ọnụ.

Templelọ nsọ ahụ siri ike na-ekwenyeghị na Chineke na mbuli elu nke ọbụbụeze onwe ya maka ofufe nke onye ndu okpukpe, akụkọ ihe mere eme ma ọ bụ nke oge a, itinye aka na ọdịnala okpukpe, ma ọ bụ ihe ọ na-ele anya dị ka "nkwenkwe ụgha sitere n'okike" (Panne 2014). N'echiche ya, "Setan guzobere dị ka akara ngosi kachasị maka nnupụisi achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị megide nnupụisi, nnwere onwe & nyocha ziri ezi, na ịchụso obi ụtọ na-akpata" ("The Satanic Temple Adopt-A-Highway Campaign" 2013). Dịka Greaves chịkọtara okwu ahụ, "Setan" bụ naanị ihe atụ nke anyị ji akọwa ọrụ anyị "(Bugbee 2013). "Eziokwu" na-adịgide adịgide ma dabere na nchọpụta sayensị n'ọdịnihu. Ebumnuche sara mbara nke Satanlọ Nsọ Setan bụ "ịkwado maka ndị niile na-ekwutọ n'ụzọ na-ezighi ezi, ndị mmụọ ọjọọ, ma ọ bụ ndị na-emeghị ihe ọ bụla - ndị ndị aghụghọ na ndị isi ike na-agba izu" (Bugbee 2013).

Ndị otu a enweghị nzukọ oge niile ebe a na-eme emume, ma arụmụka na-eme ma a ga-enwe usoro nhazi nke iwu. Enweghi obi iru ala na ichota udi njirimara nke nhazi nke temple ka emegidere. Burton (2017) na-akọ na

TST na-ekewa n'etiti ndị nabatara ihe ngosi nke emume Setan, ma ọ bụ maka ebumnuche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ma ọ bụ nke onwe, na ndị na-ahụ oke na ọnọdụ ahụ na-adọpụ uche; nzukọ ahụ anaghị anabata iwu ọ bụla mana ọ naghị akwado ụlọ ọrụ ugbu a.

Ka ọ dị ugbu a, ọ dịkarịa ala ìgwè ahụ na-etinye aka na ụdị dịgasị iche iche nke ngagharị iwe nke nwere ike ịhazi na usoro omenala ma ọ bụ nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke mmegide. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Thelọ arụsị nke Satanic emeela Mass Mass na Pink Mass dị ka nyiwe n'ịga n'ihu na nkwado ya maka ikike mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na mmegide nnọchite okpukpe n'okporo ámá.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Satanlọ Nzukọ Setan [Foto dị n'aka nri] yiri ka ọ sitere na ọrụ, nke Greaves debara aha ya dị ka onye ndụmọdụ, iji mepụta "mockumentary" ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke ga-edozi nkewa nke ụka na arụmụka steeti. Otu nzukọ a na-emeghe ụwa niile nye onye ọ bụla nabatara ụkpụrụ asaa ahụ ma na-arụ ọrụ ma ọ bụ na-achọpụta ọrụ nke otu ahụ.

Initiallylọ arụsị nke Setan rụrụ na mbụ site na andntanetị ma enweghị ebe nzukọ nzukọ nkịtị ebe a na-eme ihe mgbe niile. Agbanyeghị, na 2016 Greaves kwupụtara nnweta nke isi ụlọ ọrụ mba ụwa na Salem, Massachusetts nke enyere na otu (DeVito 2016). Afọ abụọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, emezigharị ụlọ ahụ, nke bụbu ebe obibi olili ozu, ka emezigharị ma meghee mmeghe. Isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nwere obere ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nke na-akọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke okpukpe Setan, ịchụ nta ndị amoosu, na ụjọ omume.

Na Septemba 2014, otu a kwupụtara atụmatụ iji wuo "ụlọ isi" mbụ ya na Detroit, Michigan, ebe Greaves nọrọ na nwata. Onye nnọchi anya Templelọ-nsọ ​​kwuru na “atụmatụ a bụ imeghe ụlọ isi-okwu ahụ nye ndị mmadụ n’oge awa ụfọdụ. Ọ ga-enye akwụkwọ maka ndị ọbịa, yana ebe nzukọ, ma rụọ ọrụ ọdịnala dịka alụmdi na nwunye na olili ozu "(" Devil in Detroit "2014). A kọkwara na ụlọ ndị ọzọ dị na obodo ndị ọzọ nọ na nhazi atụmatụ n'oge ahụ (Allen 2014). Site na 2018, ụlọ nsọ na-akọ akụkọ isi iri na asaa gafee United States. Ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya, ọtụtụ ndị otu isi dị ka ndị na-eto eto na ndị toro eto, ndị okenye na-emeghị ihe ọ bụla gbasara ọdịnala okpukpe Ndị Kraịst (Burton 2017). N'ezie, otu a na-ejide ọnụnọ saịtị ịntanetị na-arụ ọrụ, na-ahazi ọrụ, ma na-etolite isi obodo.

Nzukọ a na-akwado ọrụ ya n'otu akụkụ site na onyinye. Ego a tụrụ aro maka ebumnuche dị iche iche sitere na dollar iri ruo puku dollar iri, yana otu narị dollar na-akpata aha "Luciferian Activist." Otu a na-akwadokwa ụfọdụ ọrụ site na ndị na-enweta ego dị iche iche.

Ọdịdị dị elu nke ọha na eze nke otu ahụ rụzuru bụ isi nke ọrụ a haziri ahazi, nke a na-akọkarị na mgbasa ozi, ma gosipụta usoro nhazi ya (Levy 2014; Smith 2014). N'ezie, ọrụ ya adọtawo mba anya, n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, esemokwu dị ukwuu. Malite na 2013, Templelọ Satanic malitere ịhazi ọtụtụ ọrụ nke ghọworo isi mmalite nke njirimara ọha mmadụ. Examplesfọdụ ihe atụ mbụ gụnyere ihe ndị a:

Na June, 2013, Satanlọ arụsị nke Satanic bidoro ịkpata ego maka mgbasa ozi "Adopt-a-Highway".

Na Jenụwarị, 2013, Templelọ Nsọ mere mkpọkọta maka iwu mmebe iwu na Florida nke Gọvanọ Rick Scott kwalitere nke ga-ekwe ka ekpere na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha. Satanlọ arụsị nke Setan tụgharịrị uche gọvanọ (ikwe ka ekpere Ndị Kraịst) n'isi ya site na ịkwado ụzọ ahụ ka ụmụ akwụkwọ nọ na Florida ga-enwetakwa nnweta nkwenkwe na omume Setan.

N’ọnwa Julaị, afọ 2013, ndị otu a mere “Pink Mass” na Meridian, Mississippi n’ili Catherine Johnston, nne onye isi ụka Westboro Baptist Fred Phelps iji mee ngagharị iwe banyere ọrụ ụka.

Na 2013-2014, ma ndị mba ma ndị mpaghara Satanlọ Nzukọ nke Satanic gosipụtara mkpesa megide alụmdi na nwunye nwoke na nwanyị na ngosipụta ezumike okpukpe na oghere ọha na Michigan.

Na 2013-2014, Satanlọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu katọrọ nkesa nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze na Florida na ngosipụta nke ọmụmụ ọmụmụ na itlọ Capitol.

Na Jenụwarị, 2014, Templelọ Nzukọ nke Ekwensu mara ọkwa atụmatụ iji wuo ihe ncheta Setan n'ihu Oklahoma Statehouse mgbe steeti kwere ka echichi nke Iwu Iwu Iri na 2012.

Na Mee, 2014, a kpọrọ Templelọ Nzukọ nke Setan ka ọ mee emume Black Mass na Mahadum Harvard yana njikọ nke Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club.

Na Mee 15, 2014, Templelọ Nzukọ nke Setan kwupụtara ma mee ememme ezumike nke aka ya, Chebe Childrenbọchị Childrenmụaka.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Esemokwu nke Satanlọ Nzukọ Setan malitere site na ntọala nke otu ahụ, bụ nke a na-ekenyeghị ya dịka akụkụ nke atụmatụ mmegide nke Templelọ Nsọ (Shurter nd) Dabere na weebụsaịtị nke otu ahụ, Neil Bricke guzobere Satanlọ Satanic, onye malitere Facebook peeji nke maka nzukọ na 2012. Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ websitelọ Nzukọ Setan kwuru, sị: "Na 2012, Neil Bricke, zụlitere na ọdịnala ofufe nke iclọ Nsọ nke ọtụtụ mmadụ, kpebiri, site na ngọzi nke ndị ya na ha na-efekọ ofufe, ịchọta ụlọ nsọ Setan" (SMART nd). Lucien Greaves kwupụtara na Bricke ga-ekwu okwu na mgbako na-akwado Gọvanọ Rick Scott na Jenụwarị, 2013; agbanyeghị, Bricke apụtabeghị n'ihu ọha kemgbe ọkwa ahụ ma ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ ghara ịdị. Kama nke ahụ, ọ dị ka Lucien Greaves na-akwa emo Neil Brick, onye guzobere Stop Mind Control and Ritual Abuse Today (SMART). Weebụsaịtị ndị otu ahụ kwuru na

Akwụkwọ akụkọ mmebi iwu SMART hiwere na 1995 site n'aka Neil Brick. Ebumnuche nke SMART bụ iji nyere aka kwụsị mmekpa ahụ na mmetọ ụmụaka na iji nyere ndị emetọrọ aka. Anyị na-arụ ọrụ na ebumnuche a site na ịgbasa ozi gbasara njikọ dị n'etiti òtù nzuzo, mmekpa ahụ n'ememe, na ịchịkwa uche, site na ịgba ume na-agwọ ọrịa site na mmebi ahụ nke mmejọ ụmụaka, mmekpa ahụ na nchedo uche, yana ịgba ndị lanarịrịnụ njikọ na netwọkụ "(SMART nd) .

Greaves abụrụla onye mmegide siri ike nke ndị otu na-egosipụta onwe ha dị ka ndị otu na-akwado nkwado mmebi iwu.

Dịka otu nke na-egosipụta onwe ya na nkọwapụta nke Setan, Thelọ Satanic nwekwara
A na-ejikọkarị ya na Chọọchị Setan. Greaves kwetara ọrụ nke Anton LaVey [Foto dị n'aka nri] mana ọ na-ewepụkwa Templelọ Nsọ ahụ na LaVeyan Satanism. Greaves ekwuola na “LaVey bụ ebe magburu onwe ya ma ọpụpụ, mana ọrụ ya rụpụtara oge ya, yana o kwesịrị ekwesị ịmegharị ya na eziokwu nke taa. LaVey nọ na-arụ ọrụ n'ime oge, n'ime iri afọ, United States na-eme ihe ike na-arịwanye elu nke ime ihe ike. N'ihi ya, okwu ọnụ LaVey metụtara ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Social Darwinistic Police State. ” N'etiti ọha mmadụ nke oge a, Greaves na-ekwusi ike, "Anyị na-achọpụtakwa na Social Darwinism, nke a sụgharịrị n'okwu obi ọjọọ, nke chọrọ ọdịmma onwe onye nanị, na-arụpụta ihe na-adịghị mma, ọ dabere na nghọtahie dị mfe nke echiche evolushọn." Fọdụ ndị otu agaala na-ekwu maka Churchka nke Setan dịka “ọfụma neo-Nazis” (Burton 2017). Banyere Greaves, o kwubiri na Anyị na-eme nke ọma karịa mgbe anyị na-arụ ọrụ n'òtù dị iche iche, ebe a na-akwụ ụgwọ ọrụ ebere na ọmịiko. Anyi bu anumanu mmadu ”(Bugbee 2013). N'akụkụ ya, Chọọchị Setan jụkwara Templelọ Nzukọ Setan. Magus Peter Gilmore kwuru na "Churchka nke Setan na-eji naanị okwu a" Satanist "eme ihe n'onwe ya; a na-akpọ ndị ọzọ "ndị na-efe ekwensu ma ọ bụ ndị mmụọ ọjọọ, ọ bụghị ndị ekwensu" ma kwubie na "Anyị ahụghị ihe bara uru n'omume mmadụ ole na ole a" (Allen 2014). Otu ọnụ na-ekwuchitere otu òtù ekwensu ọzọ, Templelọ Nsọ nke Setan, nke na-asọpụrụ Setan dị ka chi, were iwe na nkwenye nke ekweghị na Chineke nke Thelọ Nsọ Setan: ọ sịrị. “Ha ekwenyeghi na ihe ọ bụla, okpukpe ọ bụla - yabụ gịnị kpatara ha ji eji okpukpe eme ya? Nke ahụ bụ ihu abụọ, ọ bụ ikuku ikuku na ọ bụghị ọbụna nkwenye ”(Allen 2014). Ọ gara n'ihu kwuo na "Ha enweghị ike ikwu okwu n'aha ndị ọzọ nke otu okpukpe Ekwensu, ndị kwenyere na onye okike, onye anyị na-akpọ Setan… onye bu ụzọ tupu Iso …zọ Kraịst.. Onye nọ na ihe okike mbu, onye busoro dragon ahu Tiamat maka mmadu ”(DeVito 2014).

Otu n'ime arụmụka arụmụka arụmarụ nke Satanlọ arụsị ahụ bidoro bụ mbọ iji weta ego zuru ezu iji "mụta-a-okporo ụzọ ”na New York City. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Usoro mmemme a ga - eme ka ndị otu na-echekwa ma na-achọ akụkụ nke okporo ụzọ ọha na eze mma ruo afọ abụọ. Thelọ Nzukọ nke Setan tụrụ anya iji ọrụ a mee ka a mata banyere ụdị dị iche iche nke okpukpe. Ndị otu ahụ kwuru na “Mgbasa ozi a ga-eme ihe karịrị ime ka okporo ụzọ anyị dị ọcha. Ọ ga - enyere aka izipu ụwa ozi doro anya na - ekwenye na ọtụtụ Okpukpe America ”(“ “lọ Nsọ Adopt-a-Highway Campaign ”2013). Ndị otu a welitere ihe karịrị puku dollar abụọ n'etiti June 10 na August 15, 2013, nke dịkarịsịrị ebumnuche nke puku dollar iri na ise. Ọ bụrụ na eburu ihe mgbaru ọsọ ahụ ma ọ bụrụ na Ngalaba Transportgbọ njem na New York kwadoro atụmatụ ahụ, a gaara etinye ego ya na mkpọsa ahụ. Ọ bụrụ na ngalaba ahụ akwadoghị ọrụ ahụ, ego ahụ ga-akwado ịgbagha mkpebi ahụ. Nzukọ ahụ nyere ọkwa dị iche iche dị iche iche maka inye onyinye, sitere na dollar iri, nke onye nyere onyinye ga-enweta bọtịnụ, ruo puku dollar iri, nke onye nyere onyinye ga-enweta "ngwugwu ndị otu" zuru ezu, gụnyere ikike ịhọrọ ebe na isonye na Pink Mass na-esote nke Satanlọ Satanic rụrụ ("Mgbasa Ozi Templelọ Nsọ nke iclọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu" 2013). Na 2018, e nyere Templelọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu ọrụ Adopt-A-Highway na Route I-10 na Arizona, nke ndị otu ahụ kpọrọ "tozọ nke Hel" (McCloskey 2018).

Na July 2013, na Meridian, Mississippi, ndị otu a mere “Pink Mass” n’ili Catherine Johnston, nne onye isi ụka Westboro Baptist Fred Phelps. Greaves gwara ABC News na mmemme a bụ ihe ngagharị iwe, na nzaghachi maka ebumnuche Westboro Church ime ngagharị maka olili nke ndị e gburu na Ogbunigwe Boston Marathon. N'oge ememe ahụ, Greaves yi a mpi isi abụọ, di na nwunye atọ, nwoke abụọ na otu nwanyị, nwere mmekọahụ na nnukwu ili mgbe ha na-agụ amaokwu Akwụkwọ Nsọ (Goldman 2013; Resnick 2014). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mgbe emume ahụ gasịrị otu ahụ kwupụtara Oriakụ Johnson ka ọ bụrụ nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị, na Lucien Greaves kwuru na emume ahụ na-anọchi anya emume mmekọ nwoke na nwoke. Otu ọnụ na-ekwuru maka ụka Westboro Baptist kwughachiri ọnọdụ ụka ahụ na nwoke idina nwoke bụ mmehie na ntaramahụhụ ya bụ ọnwụ (Gremore 2013).

Na Mee 2014, a kpọrọ Templelọ Nsọ Setan ka ọ mee emume Black Mass na Mahadum Harvard yana njikọ Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club (Laycock 2014). Harlọ akwụkwọ ọmụmụ ihe ọdịnala nke Harvard na-akwado usoro agụmakwụkwọ na-enyocha akụkụ nke ọdịbendị ndị ọzọ, gụnyere emume tii Shinto, ngosi Shaker, na ngosipụta Buddhist na ntụgharị uche. (Kuruvilla 2014). Ihe ruru mmadụ 60,000, gụnyere ụmụ akwụkwọ Harvard, ngalaba na ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ, bịanyere aka n'akwụkwọ mkpesa na ntanetị nke gbara ndị na-achị Harvard ume ka ha jụ ịhapụ ihe omume na kampos. Ọ bụ ezie na Onye isi ala Harvard, Drew Faust, akagbughị mmemme ahụ wee gbachitere ikike nwa akwụkwọ ịkwado ya, ọ kpọrọ Black Mass dị ka "enweghị nkwanye ùgwù na mkparị" (Lee 2014). Ndị ọchịchị na Harvard Extension School kwuru na “ha anaghị akwado echiche ma ọ bụ ihe omume nke otu ụmụ akwụkwọ nọọrọ onwe ha dị ka nke a. "Mana anyị na-akwado ikike nke ụmụ akwụkwọ na ngalaba anyị ikwu okwu ma gbakọta ọnụ" (Annear 2014). Archdiocese nke Boston tụbara na ikpe nke ihe omume ahụ:

Obodo Katọlik na Archdiocese nke Boston na-ekwupụta oke mwute ya na mmegide siri ike na atụmatụ ebido "oke ojii" n'ogige mahadum Harvard dị na Cambridge. Maka ọdịmma nke ndị Katọlik kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi na mmadụ niile, Chọọchị na-enye nkuzi doro anya gbasara ofufe Setan. Ọrụ a na - ekewapụ ndị mmadụ na Chukwu na obodo mmadụ, ọ na - emegide ọrụ ebere na ịdị mma, ọ na - etinyekwa ndị sonyere na nsogbu dị nso na ọrụ mbibi nke ajọ ihe ”(Annear 2014; Kuruvilla 2014).

N’ịgbachitere ọkpụkpọ òkù ya, vardlọ Ọrụ Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club wepụtara nkwupụta a: “Anyị na-akwado ngosipụta nke otu akụkọ ihe mere eme nke akpọrọ Black Mass. A haziri mmemme a ka ọ bụrụ nke mmụta ma bụrụkwa nke na-aga n’ihu na nkuzi nke akụkọ ihe mere eme, onodu, na mbido nke Black Mass. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-eji otu achịcha eme ihe na mmegharị ahụ, arụmọrụ na-enweghị mgbagha adịghị agụnye onye ọbịa e doro nsọ. Ebumnuche anyị abụghị ịkatọ okpukpe ma ọ bụ okwukwe ọ bụla, nke ga-abụ ihe arụ maka ebumnuche agụmakwụkwọ anyị, kama kama ịmụ na ịnata akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ọdịbendị dị iche iche. Omume a bụ akụkụ nke mgbalị ka ukwuu iji chọpụta akụkụ okpukpe ndị na-anọgide na-emetụta ọdịbendị nke oge a ”(Kuruvilla 2014). N'ikpeazụ, ụlọ ọrụ ahụ kpebiri ịkagbu ihe omume ahụ na-campus, ma Thelọ Setan ahụ ka na-eduzi Black Mass na Hong Kong ezumike na Harvard Square na-enweghị nkwado Club. Klọb ahụ kwuru na "Templelọ Setan ahụ agwala anyị na ha ga-eme emume ojii ha nke onwe ha n'ebe nzuzo a na-akọwaghị iji 'mesie nkwanye ùgwù ha maka okwukwe Setan ike ma gosipụta na nzaghachi kachasị ike n'okwu mkparị bụ ime ndị na-eme ihere ndị na-eleghara ndị ọzọ anya site na ịhapụ okwu nke ha na omume ha na-ekwu maka onwe ha '… ”(Lee 2014; Lauerman 2014). Greaves kwuru na a ga-enwe Black Mass maka ebumnuche mmụta naanị na ebughi n'obi ịkwa echi Roman Katọlik. Ndị obodo gosipụtara ọjụjụ nke ihe omume ahụ site na njem mmadụ 1,500 sitere na MIT gaa St Paul Church, nke gụnyere Onye isi ala Harvard.

Na Mee 2014, Templelọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu kwupụtara ọkwa nke ezumike nke ya, Chebe Childrenbọchị Childrenmụaka, ka a ga-eme kwa afọ Mee 15. Ezubere ezumike a iji gosipụta ntaramahụhụ corporal na ụlọ akwụkwọ dịka akụkụ nke ọrụ ka ukwuu nke ịkwalite ọbụbụeze onwe. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Studentsmụ akwụkwọ na-ekere òkè site na nbudata akwụkwọ ozi edoziri site na weebụsaịtị Templelọ Nsọ ma nyefee ya ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ha na May 15, na-arịọ ka ewepụrụ ntaramahụhụ corporal maka ebumnuche okpukpe. Dịka akụkụ nke Projectmụaka Chebe Projectmụaka, otu a na-agbasa banyere mmata anụ ahụ, yana mkpochi ụlọ naanị na igbochi ụlọ ịsa ahụ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ. Onye nchoputa ulo uka, Malcolm Jarry kwuru na oru ngo a na-agbachitere isi ulo uka: "enweghi ike nke aru mmadu, njide nke akara aka mmadu, nnwere onwe icho ochicho mmadu n'enweghi mmekpa aru na imegide ikike na ikike ojoo" (Levy 2014)

Esemokwu ọzọ nke Satanlọ Setan ahụ malitere na November 2012 mgbe e guzobere ụkwụ isii n'ogologo, Iwu Iwu Iri na mpụga ụlọ isi obodo Oklahoma City (Smith 2014). Onye Republican na Oklọ Oklahoma nke ndị nnọchi anya, Mike Ritze, kwadoro ụgwọ na 2009 nke nyere steeti ikike itinye ngosipụta enyere na Capitol. O jiri aka ya kwụọ $ 10,000 ihe akpụrụ wee nye ya steeti. E debere ihe akpụrụ akpụ na mpụga Oklahoma Statehouse na 2012. American Atheists, nzukọ dị na New Jersey, zara okwu ikpe gọọmentị etiti na-agbagha usoro iwu nke ihe akpụrụ akpụ. Templelọ Nzukọ nke Setan nakweere atụmatụ dịtụ iche, na-ewu atụmatụ ụkwụ asaa, nke ọla nchara ọla edo na-esonyere ihe oyiyi nke ụmụaka abụọ, otu n'akụkụ nke ọ bụla nke Minotaur. [Ihe osise dị n'aka nri] Ihe oyiyi a bụ ka ọ bụrụ "ọgbụgba maka ebube nke Angel nke Ala Ala" (Smith 2014). Ndị otu ahụ welitere $ 30,000 maka imewe na iwu. Ọ bụrụ na ewepụrụ ihe oyiyi iri ahụ, Satanlọ Satanic kọwara ebe ndị ọzọ enwere ike igosi ya (Christian 2014; Resnick 2014). Oklahoma Capitol Preservation Commission kwupụtara na ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na otu dị iche iche nweere onwe ha itinye akwụkwọ maka ikike ịme ngosi na kọmịshọn ahụ ga-enyocha ya. Otu Universal Society of Hinduism gosikwara mmasị na ngosipụta na saịtị ahụ. Steeti mechara kwụsịtụ ikikere maka ngosipụta ruo mgbe edozi iwu iri ahụ. Na June 2015, Supremelọikpe Kasị Elu nke Oklahoma kpebiri na mkpebi 7-2 na Iwu Iri ahụ bụ "o doro anya na okpukpe na ọdịdị ma bụrụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke okwukwe ndị Juu na nke Ndị Kraịst" ya mere na a ga-ewepụ ihe akpụrụ akpụ ahụ na mpaghara Capitol ( Murphy 2015).

Dika esemokwu banyere ihe ulo akwukwo ndi Satanic gara n’ihu, otu ndi otu ekwensu, ndi Dakhma nke ulo uka Angra Mainyu, nke ulo nzuko nke Satanic anabataghi, mechara mee Mass Black na OKC Civic Center na Septemba 22, 2014. Ihe dị ka mmadụ iri anọ bịara ọtụtụ narị ndị ọzọ tụgharịrị iji mee mkpesa banyere ihe omume (Olileanya 2014; Blumberg 2014).

Thelọ Setan ahụ etinyela aka n'ọtụtụ esemokwu na Michigan. Otu gbadoro ụkwụ na alụm di na nwunye idina ụdị onwe, nke Gọvanọ Rick Snyder na-emegide. Greaves ekwuola na alụm di na nwunye bụ oriri nsọ, ma nwoke na nwanyị idina ụdị onwe ya, ma kwupụta atụmatụ ịme alụmdi na nwunye nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na Michigan na mgbakwasị ụkwụ nke nnwere onwe okpukpe (Panne 2014). Greaves ekwuola nke ahụ

Na Michigan, Gọvanọ Rick Snyder na-ekwe ka ịkpọasị nke ndị na-edina ụdị onwe ya mee ka ọ ghara ịda iwu. Ihe anyi choro ime bu ulo akwukwo Snyder na akwukwo iwu, ma kuzi ya akwukwo na Ndezighari nke mbu site na imere nwoke na nwoke na nwoke ma obu nwanyi na Michigan. Nye anyị, alụmdi na nwunye bụ sacrament. Anyị ghọtara ya, anyị chere na steeti ga-amata alụmdi na nwunye ahụ na nnwere onwe okpukpe. Onye ọ bụla chọrọ ime nke ahụ nwere ike iru eru ma mee ka alụmdi na nwunye ya site na Lucien Greaves. Anyị na-ele anya iwere Michigan na nsogbu gbasara mmekọ nwoke na nwoke, ma webata ha na 21st narị afọ (Panne 2014; Metro Times, 2014).

Isi obodo Detroit nke Templelọ Nzukọ nke Setan, nke na-azọrọ mmadụ ole na ole nọ na ya, haziri ngosipụta ezumike nke Setan, nke nwere aha bụ "Onyinye Kasị Ukwuu bụ Ihe Ọmụma" na ahịhịa Capitol. Dika onye isi akwukwo nke obodo kwuru, "anyi kwenyere na ihe omuma nke akwukwo Setan," ka o kwuru. Ọ bụ akara nke nnupụisi, akara ngosi nke ọdịdị mmadụ, akpịrị ịkpọ nkụ maka ihe ọmụma. ” A manyere Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Ọchịchị na Michigan State ịnakwere ngosipụta ahụ mgbe otu Ndị Kraịst rịọrọ ka e nye ya ikike itinye ngosi ngosi nke ọmụmụ na ahịhịa (Hinkley 2014). Isi nke Detroit nyere iji weghaara arịrịọ ya ma ọ bụrụ na akwadoghị ngosipụta nke Ndị Kraịst maka ngosi (Allen 2014). Ndị ọrụ Capitol azaghachila site na ịdebanye akara na saịtị ahụ n'ihu ọha na-ekwupụta n'ihu ọha na "ihe ngosi a abụghị nke onye nwe ya, na-echekwa ya, na-akwalite ya, na-akwado ma ọ bụ na-esonyere na steeti Michigan (Chappell 2014).

Controversdị esemokwu yiri nke a emeela na Florida. Satanlọ arụsị nke ụka ahụ rịọrọ Boardlọ Akwụkwọ Orange County dị na Florida ka ha kesaa akwụkwọ Setan na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze na nzaghachi maka nkesa nke otu Ndị Kraịst. Dị ka ọ dị na Detroit, Michigan, ebumnobi kasịnụ bụ ịkwụsị nkesa akwụkwọ okpukpe niile n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha. Lucien Greaves kwuru nke ahụ

Anyị agaghị achọ imewe ụkpụrụ nke ịgbasa akwụkwọ okpukpe anyị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha n'ihi na anyị kwenyere na ụkpụrụ ụkpụrụ iwu anyị ka mma maka ịsọpụrụ nkewa nke Chọọchị na Ọchịchị. Agbanyeghị, ọ bụrụ na ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze ga-ekwe ka ekesaa akwụkwọ nta okpukpe na Akwụkwọ Nsọ zuru oke maka ụmụ akwụkwọ - dịka ọ dị na Orange County, Florida - anyị chere na ọrụ dịịrị ime bụ iji hụ na enyere ụmụ akwụkwọ a ohere ịnweta ọtụtụ echiche okpukpe dị iche iche, na-emegide iguzo ọtọ mgbe otu olu okpukpe na-achịkwa okwu ahụ ma na-agbasa okwu nduhie nye ndị ntorobịa (Strauss 2014; Joseph 2014).

Na 2013, Ngalaba Nlekọta Ọrụ nke Florida kwadoro ngosipụta okpukpe na rotunda nke Caplọ Capitol ya. Na mgbakwunye na otu ndị otu Kristi, otu ekweghị na Chukwu abụọ na ofka Flying Spaghetti Monster mepụtara ngosipụta. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Na 2014, mgbe a jụrụ akwụkwọ ya, Templelọ arụsị nke Ekwensu yiri ikpe megide State nke Florida ma ọ bụrụ na ndị isi gọọmentị ekweghị ka ha tinye ihe ngosi nke mmụọ ozi na-adaba n'olulu nke hel na-esote ọnọdụ ọmụmụ Kraịst ( Chumley 2014). Ọnọdụ steeti dị n'okwu a na-enweta site na ikpe nke Courtlọikpe Kasị Elu, Rosenberger v. Mahadum nke Virginia. N'okwu ahụ, Supremelọikpe Kasị Elu kpebiri na ozugbo steeti nyere ohere ka e nwee ụdị ngosipụta ọ bụla, ọ nweghị ike ịhọrọ ma ọ bụ onye nyocha nke na-etinye okwu ahụ ma ọ bụ otu (Stern 2014).

Satanlọ arụsị nke Satanic abanyela na mkpebi Nnọkọ Mmasị nke thelọikpe Kasị Elu kpebiri iji merie akwụkwọ iwu "nkwenye ekwenye" ​​nke steeti chọrọ maka ụmụ nwanyị na-achọ ite ime. Iwu Hobby Lobby kwuru na ụlọ ọrụ achụmnta ego "ejidere" ma jụ iji ọgwụ mgbochi egbochi enweghị ike ịchọ ịnye mkpuchi nke na-ekpuchi ite ime, nke Iwu Affordable Care Act chọrọ, site n'inye akwụkwọ ozi ụmụ nwanyị nwere ike inye ndị dọkịta iji zere inyefe ha ederede ederede "nkwenye ekwenye" ​​nke steeti nyere tupu ite ime (Culp-Ressler 2014; Green 2014). Steeti iri atọ na ise agwaala iwu banyere nkwenye gbasara ite ime. Dị ka onye na-ekwuchitere Templelọ Nsọ si kwuo, "Anyị na-ekwu na anyị ekwenyeghị na ozi a na-enye iwu nke steeti bụ ihe dị mkpa iji mee mkpebi anyị banyere nlekọta ahụike, anyị hụkwara na ọ na-amanye ma anyị ga-achọkwa nnwere onwe" (Winston 2014). Onye ọnụ na-ekwuchitere ya gara n'ihu kwuo na "Ebumnuche anyị dum bụ iji kpuchido nnweta ite ime, mana anyị nwekwara mmasị n'ịlụso ultrasounds enyere iwu aka, iwu ịma iwu na mmanye ọ bụla, na-abụkarị iwu metụtara okpukperechi na steeti" (Winston 2014) . Ọtụtụ ndị ọkachamara n'usoro iwu na-ekwenyeghị na ịma aka iwu ụlọ nsọ Setan bara uru.

Ihe omume mmegide nke Thelọ Nzukọ Setan na-aga n'ihu emeela ka mgbasa ozi, ọhụụ ọha na eze, na esemokwu dị elu karịa nha na mmetụta nke otu ahụ, dịka otu n'ime ebumnuche ya, Westboro Baptist Church. Otu a abụrụla ihe mkpanaka ọkụ. Dika onye nnochite anya mbu na onye nnochi anya nke ulo uka nke Satanic, Lucien Greaves anọgidewo na-anata egwu ọnwụ site n'aka ndị mmegide na-achọghị mgbanwe na nzaghachi nke atụmatụ Templelọ Nsọ. Greaves kwuru na "enwetala m ọtụtụ egwu ọnwụ, ana m arịa ya. Ọ na-ewute na a ụzọ, otú Fox News ìgwè mmadụ na-arụtụ aka m ”(Metro Times 2014). Satanlọ arụsị nke Satan jikọtara na ihe omume metụtara naanị atụmatụ ya. Iji maa atụ, Templelọ Nsọ nke Ekwensu sonyere n'otu ihe omume nke onye na-echeghị echiche ya bibiri Iwu Iri ahụ na Oklahoma. Greaves zaghachiri na ihe omume ahụ site na ịsị na "Templelọ arụsị nke Ekwensu tụrụ ụjọ ịmata mbibi nke mbibi mbibi nke edobere na Iwu Iwu 10 na Oklahoma taa" na "Iji doo anya," Satanlọ Satanic agaghị achọ iwulite ihe ncheta ya belụsọ eweghachiri Iwu 10 ahụ ”(Noland and Donley 2014; Kennelty 2014). Na Florida, otu nwanyị, bụ onye e boro ebubo na mpụ, gbalịrị imebi ngosipụta ezumike nke ụlọ Setan, nke na-ekwu na ya "enweghị ike ịnara ya ọzọ" (Rossman 2014). N'iburu n'uche ụlọ ọrụ Setan na-emegide ya na mmegide ya, ọnọdụ ndị dị otú ahụ yiri ka ọ ga-aga n'ihu.

N'ezie, na 2018 Baphomet nke dị n'etiti esemokwu na thelọ Capitol na Oklahoma pụtara na Arkansas. Ndị omebe iwu steeti Arkansas nyefere iwu na-akwado iwu iwu Iwu Iri. Ndị omebe iwu na-ezukọ na nnọkọ mberede iji gbochie Baphomet site na iji usoro iwu chọrọ iwu nkwado maka iwu maka ihe ncheta. E hotara otu onye omebe iwu na-ekwu na "Ọ ga-abụ ụbọchị oyi na-atụ na ọkụ mmụọ tupu a manye anyị ịme ihe arụ na-adịgide adịgide na ntọala nke Arkansas State Capitol…" (Selk 2018; Papenfuss 2018). Ikpe ikpe na esemokwu ahụ gara n'ihu.

E mekwara ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ (Burton 2018). Iji maa atụ, ndị otu ụlọ nsọ dị na Texas kwuru na ha ga-eme ihe gbasara iwu ma ọ bụrụ na steeti agbaso "iwu olili nwa nke nwa ya" nyere iwu ka olili ma ọ bụ ịkpọ ozu ya maka nwa ebu n'afọ si n'usoro ime na-ete na nwa ebu n'afọ abụghị mmadụ. N'ịkwado ikike LGBTQ, Templelọ nsọ ahụ jiri nguzo ya dị ka okpukpe mee ka ndị na-eme achịcha na-ajụ inye ndị di na nwunye LGBTQ ọrụ ime achịcha a na-akpọ Setan. Na Disemba 2018, isi nke thelọ Nsọ nke Michigan tinyere ihe osise satan na nke ime obodo tupu oge ezumike (Wamley 2018).

O doro anya ihe niche Templelọ Nzukọ nke Setan ga-abịa biri na mpaghara okpukpe ndị America. N'otu aka, n'ihi esemokwu na ọtụtụ esemokwu dị n'ime Thelọ Nzukọ Setan, enwere ọtụtụ isi akwụkwọ sitere na Templelọ Nsọ. Ruo ugbu a ndị otu nnwere onwe ọhụrụ a gụnyere Satanic Portland, Satanic Temple International na London, HelLA na Los Angeles, Crossroads Assembly na Dallas, na League of Rebel Eve (LORE) na New York City ("Nkwukọrịta Nke Onwe" 2018). N'aka nke ọzọ, isi ọhụụ aga n'ihu na-etolite ma na-eme ka ndị mmadụ na-emewanye ihe. Lọ nsọ ahụ anatawokwa ọkwa dị mma karị dị ka atụmatụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya, karịa isiokwu Setanism, enwetawo nlebara anya ọha na eze. Ihe puru iche na nka bu Eprel 2019 nke mbu nke akwukwo Na-eto Setan? na Ememme Nkiri nke Sundance, nke nwere ikike ihe nkiri nke Magnolia Pictures zụtara (Evans 2019; Kilday 2018).

Foto
Image
# 1: Foto nke Lucien Greaves.
Foto # 2: Templelọ Nsọ Setan.
Image # 3: Foto nke Anton LaVey.
Foto # 4: Foto nke iclọ Nsọ Ekwensu nke "Adopt a Highway".
Foto # 5: Foto nke ụlọ Satanic "Chebe Childrenbọchị Childrenmụaka".
Image # 6: Foto nke ụkwụ asaa, nke ọla nchara ọla edo na-esonyere ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke ụmụaka abụọ wuru dị ka akụkụ nke ụlọ Setan na-eguzogide Iwu Iri na Oklahoma.
Foto # 7: Foto nke ofka nke Flying Spaghetti Monster gosipụtara na ụlọ isi obodo Florida.

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Templelọ Setan. nd “The Agba Ọchịchị.” Nweta site na https://greyfaction.org/ na 1 December 2018.

Kwụsị Mind Control na Ritual Abuse Today (SMART). nd Nweta site na https://ritualabuse.us/ na 3 December 2014.

Oppenheimer, Mak. 2015. "Ogwu nke Na-adịghị Aghọ Aghọ nke Akụkụ Ndị Na-adịghị Ike Ndị Kraịst." New York Times, July 10. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/11/us/a-mischievious-thorn-in-the-side-of-conservative-christianity.html?_r=0.

Wamsley, Laurel. 2018. "Ihe arụ Setan na-etinye na Atlọ Ọchịchị Illinois, Naanị Oge Ezumike." NPR, December 4. Nweta site na https://www.npr.org/2018/12/04/673422143/satanic-sculpture-installed-at-illinois-statehouse-just-in-time-for-the-holidays na 8 December 2018.

Winston, Kimberly. 2014. "Ihe ịma aka nke ndị Setanist na-eme ka ụlọ ezumike ghara imebi iwu nwere ike ịnagide nsogbu iwu." Washington Post, July 31. Nweta site na http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/satanists-challenge-to-hobby-lobby-ruling-may-face-legal-hurdles/2014/07/31/94fc1a56-18e6-11e4-88f7-96ed767bb747_story.html na 14 January 2014.

Ụbọchị Post:
15 January 2015
update:
20 August 2018
update:
1 December 2018

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