temploe de Santa Muerte

TEMPLO NKE AKWỤKWỌ AKA

TEMPLO NKE SANTA MEME TIMELINE

Afọ 14 nke narị afọ: mmepeanya ndị Aztec fere chi nwanyị nke ọnwụ ofufe.

Afọ 18 nke narị afọ: E nwere ofufe obodo Santa Muerte n'ime ime obodo Mexico n'oge oge Spanish.

2001: E kpughere ụlọ nsọ ọha na eze mbụ na Santa Muerte na Mexico City.

2006: E guzobere ụlọ nsọ Templo de Santa Muerte na Los Angeles.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

A na-achọta nsọpụrụ Santa Muerte dị ugbu a na narị afọ nke iri na anọ nke Aztec na-efe chi nwanyị nke ọnwụ na, emesịa, na narị afọ nke iri na asatọ nke ọchịchị Spanish mgbe enwere ofufe obodo na Santa Muerte. Ndị ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze matara banyere Santa Muerte nke dị n'okpuru ala na 1940s. Santa Muerte nọgidere na-abụ ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ala ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ, na-arịọkarị ndị bi n'ime ime obodo, ndị pere mpe. Ọ bụ na 2001 ka ekpughere ụlọ nsọ ọha na eze nke Santa Muerte na mpaghara Tepito dị na Mexico City na afọ abụọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị ka gọọmentị Mexico nyere ndị ọchịchị ikike nkwado ọdịnala Holy Catholic Apostolic Church, Mexico-USA.

Akụkọ nke Mexico n'oge na-adịbeghị anya ejirila nsogbu gọọmenti na nke ụtụ isi mee ihe na-akpata enweghị ọrụ, ịda ogbenye, nkwụsị nke mmemme nke ọdịmma gọọmenti, na enweghị oke nkwekọ nke akụ na ụba n'etiti ọkwa dị elu na nke ala. Itinye aka n'adighi ike a abughi ime ihe ike na nchikota ndi ochichi nke ike nke na-eto eto na ime ihe ojoo nke ulo oru ọgwụ. Ọnọdụ ndị a jikọtara ọnụ bụ isi ihe dị mkpa ma na-eto eto nke Santa Muerte nke kachasị

ihe ndị na-adịghị mma nke ndị bi na Mexico na nnukwu ndị Mexico na-akwabata na America. Kemgbe 2000, enweela ọganihu pụrụ iche na Santa Muerte devotionalism. N'ezie, ọ na-ewu ewu n'ọtụtụ dị elu nke na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị na-efe Santa Muerte na-agbazi ndị nke St. Jude na ọbụna La Virgen de Guadalupe. Echeta ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-efe Santa Muerte na-agba ọsọ ruo nde ise. Ọ bụ ezie na Santa Muerte aghọwo arụmụka n'ihi nkwanye ùgwù nke ndị na-azụ ahịa ọgwụ ọjọọ, na ndị mkpọrọ a tụrụ mkpọrọ, o nwekwara ndị na-eso n'etiti ndị nọ n'akụkụ nke ọzọ nke ọgwụ ọjọọ (ndị uweojii, ndị agha, na ndị nche ụlọ mkpọrọ) nakwa n'etiti otu akụkụ cross-cross nke obodo Mexico, karịsịa ụmụaka.

Ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya, ndị na-efe Santa Muerte na-eji mmesapụ aka fesa n'etiti ọtụtụ nde ndị immigrant Mexico bụ ndị bịarutere United States. Ọ bụ ezie na e nwere obere ebe ndị Santa Muerte nọ na-efe efe na United States na nke Santa Muerte maka ire ere na Latino gburugburu obodo ahụ, Los Angeles bụ ebe obibi ụlọ nsọ abụọ nke Santa Muete abụọ: Ụlọ Kasị Elu nke Ụlọ Nsọ (Casa de Oracion de la Santisma Muerte) na Ọnwụ ọnwụ nke Ụlọ Nsọ (Templo Santa Muerte). Templo Santa Muerte guzobere na 2006 dị n'etiti Los Angeles, California site na Prọfesọ Sisyphus Garcia (Lucino Garcia) na nwunye ya, Professora Sahara.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe na-eleta Templo de Santa Muerte ga-ewere onwe ha dị ka ezigbo ndị Katọlik ma nwee ahụ iru ala na-asọpụrụ Santa Muerte. Ọrụ ụlọ nsọ ahụ dị ka ọrụ Katọlik ọdịnala n'akụkụ ụfọdụ dịka Prọfesọ Sisyphus na-eme ememe ma na-eme rosary ọrụ, dịka ọmụmaatụ. N'ezie, maka ndị isi ụka Katọlik, ịsọpụrụ Santa Muerte n'ụzọ dị iche na-egosi ụlọ nsọ dị iche na nkwenkwe na omume Katọlik. Prọfesọ Sisyphus na-enye ọtụtụ nkuzi na isiokwu dịka numerology, parapsychology, chakras, ndụ ndị gara aga, na ọgwụ anwansi. Ihe ọmụmụ ndị a enweghị njikọ doro anya na Santa Muerte, ọ na-emekwa obere mgbalị ijikọ abụọ. Naanị ihe ọ na-ekwu bụ na “Anyị na-ekwu maka Chukwu, gbasara Jizọs, mana anyị na-ekwukwa banyere Santa Muerte ”(Holguin 2011). N'ikwu okwu banyere Santa Muerte, Prọfesọ Sisyphus na-emesi okwukwe na ya ike dị ka ụzọ isi nweta ihu ọma dị mkpa. Dika o si kwuo ya, "Ọ bụrụ na i nwere okwukwe na ya, ọ ga-enye gị ihe ị chọrọ N .Ọ bụghị ihe ị chọrọ, kama ihe ị chọrọ" (Saraswat 2013).

RNDỤMỌDỤ / NKWUO

Ndị bịara na Templo Santa Muerte gụnyere ma ndị na-achọ ịmata ihe na ndị na-efe ofufe. Thelọ nsọ ahụ na-enye ọtụtụ emume ndị yiri nke a na-enye na ụka Katọlik, gụnyere baptism, alụmdi na nwunye na udo. Prọfesọ Sisyphus na-enyekwa ọrụ ekpere (Misas) kwa mgbede. Prọfesọ Sisyphus na Professora Sahara na-eduzi ọrụ na uwe nkịtị, ọ bụ ezie na a maara Prọfesọ Sisyphus na ọ ga-apụta na akpụkpọ anụ coyote (Levoy 2009). Templo na-enyekwa ọgwụgwọ na mmemme ume. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Prọfesọ Sisyphus duuru ndị na-efe ofufe na Los Angeles National Forest iji soro osimiri na-agagharị na okike. Dịka ọ chịkọtara oge ahụ, “Anyị na-agwa nwanne anyị nwoke okwu osimiri, ike nke osisi; anyi a-nu iya ukfu nke osimiri. Ọ bụghị mkpọtụ mmiri, mba. Ọ bụghị mkpọtụ nke mmiri, kama ịbụ abụ nke osimiri ”(Platner 2012). E wezụga emume ndị isi, ndị na-aga n'ụlọ nsọ ahụ na-ewetara Santa Muerte nwere arịrịọ doro anya maka ihu ọma. Santa Muerte pụrụ iche n'etiti ndị nsọ ndị Mexico na-enweghị ike ịkọwapụta ihe oyiyi ya. Ndị na-efe ya na-ekpegara ya ekpere maka ọtụtụ ọchịchọ na mkpa dị iche iche, sitere na ihe dị n'obi ruo na ịkwụghachi ndị iro ha ụgwọ, ma na-atụ anya na ekpere na onyinye ha ga-arụpụta ihe. Dị ka ọ dị maka ọtụtụ ebe nsọ Santa Muerte, ndị na-efe ofufe na-ahapụ onyinye nke ihe dịka ego, mmanya na-egbu egbu, kandụl, na sịga mgbe ha mechara rịọ arịrịọ. Nleta nke ụlọ nsọ ahụ esiwo na ole na ole ruo iri na abụọ ruo ọtụtụ narị n'ihi na ọnụnọ na ọnọdụ nke ụlọ nsọ ahụ amarawo nke ọma (Platner 2012).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

N'ịbụ onye guzosiri ike na 2006, Templo Santa Muerte dị na ụlọ ahịa gbanwere na Central Los Angeles. Ụlọ ahụ na-akwado ma a ụlọ nsọ na ụlọ ọgwụ zuru oke na ụlọ ahịa okpukpe (botanica) nke na-ebu ndị omeiwu, amulets, rosaries, icons, and books of spells (Platner 2012).

A maghị banyere ndụ nke ndị guzobere na ndị isi ugbu a nke Templo Santa Muerte, Prọfesọ Sisyphus (Lucino Garcia) na nwunye ya, Professora Sahara. Ha abụọ si mba Mexico kwabata, ha na-azọrọ na ha bụ chi na nwa chi nwanyị Santa Muerte, (Chesnut 2012: 89; Platner 2012). Prọfesọ Sisyphus si na State of Nayarit kwaga ma n'otu oge bụ onye mgba. O kwuru na ọ nọ n'ọgbọ nke iri na atọ nke ndị dọkịta witch (brujos) na ịmụrụ mmadụ abụọ, onye n'ime ha kụziiri ya otú e si akpọ Santa Muerte (Levoy 2009). Professora Sahara toro na State of Oaxaca. Ọ na-ekwurịta okwu na Jizọs mgbe ọ dị afọ itoolu wee mesịa hụ Jizọs ọzọ mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na mberede. Jisos gwara ya ka o malite ozi ya, n'ikpeazu, mgbe o ruru afo iri ato, o zutere Santa Muerte wee malite njem ime mmuo (Chesnut 2012: 90).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Santa Muerte enwetawo mmegide siri ike na Mexico site na Chọọchị Roman Katọlik na ọchịchị Mexico. Mmegide dị na United States abanyelarị ọtụtụ. Ndị mmanye iwu na-enyocha iwu ewerewo mmasị na Santa Muerte n'ihi na ndị na-esite n'aka ndị ahịa na-esite n'aka ndị na-azụ ahịa ọgwụ ọjọọ. N'ezie, enwere nnukwu nkwurịta okwu iwu na Los Angeles nkwado nke National Latino Peace Officers Association nke ndị uweojii natara ntụziaka banyere ebe nsọpụrụ, tattoos, akara na mmekọ ha na ndị omempụ na ndị na-azụ ahịa ọgwụ (Holquin 2011). Na November, 2012, na Oxnard, California, otu awa dịpụrụ adịpụ na Templo, a na-achọta ebe ụmụ mmadụ na ebe a na-akpọ Santa Muerte n'ọkụ. Mgbe ihe ndị dị otú ahụ mere, ọ dịghị ihe ọ bụla pụtara na ụlọ nsọ ahụ jikọtara ya na ọrụ iwu na-akwadoghị.

Churchka Roman Katọlik anọbeghị nso na-emegide Santa Muerte na US dịka ọ dị na Mexico. Diocese Los Angeles enwebeghị nkọwa ọ bụla gbasara Templo Santa Muerte (Holquin 2011). Otu onye ụkọchukwu obodo ahụ, Fada Dario Miranda, onye bụ onye isi na theka St. Rose nke Lima dị na Maywood, kwuru maka ofufe Santa Muerte dị ka "onye ọjọọ n'ụdị" na ndị na-efe Santa Muerte dị ka "ndị nwere mgbagwoju anya na ndị na-amaghị ihe." N'okwu ya, "Nke a anaghị anabata ya," ka o kwuru. “Nke a abụghị nke ndị Kraịst; ọ bụghị ndị Katọlik, n'ezie ”(Cadiz Klemack 2012).

Nye akụkụ nke ya, Templo Santa Muerte achọọ ịnọgide na-emeghe, nabatara ikuku na ememme na-emeghe onye ọ bụla nwere mmasị. Ebe ịchụàjà na botanica bụ oghe maka onye ọ bụla na-enye ngwongwo ya iji gbanwere ngọzi. Prọfesọ Sisyphus na-ekwu na ụlọ nsọ "na-anọchi anya n'akụkụ dị mma nke Santa Muerte nakwa na ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe bụ ndị nkịtị, ndị na-erubere iwu isi" (Holquin 2011).

References

Cadiz Klemack, John. 2012. "Saint ma ọ bụ Setan?: 'Angel nke Ọnwụ' Na-efe ofufe na LA." NBC Southern California , May 24. Nweta site na http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/local/Santa-Muerte-Catholic-Christian-Church-Religion-Cult-Melrose-Hollywood-Satanic-Angel-of-Death-153462975.html on 17 November 2013 .

Chesnut, R. Andrew. 2012. Ebere na ọnwụ: Santa Meurte, Skeleton Saint . New York: Oxford University Press.

Holguin, Robert. 2011. Ndị isi mba niile bịarutere LA ịmụ banyere 'Saint Death'. ” KABC-TV Los Angeles, CA, Mee 17. Nweta site na http://abclocal.go.com/kabc/story?section=news/local/los_angeles&id=8136835 na 26 December 2013.

Onye mbula, Julie. 2012. "Ndị kwenyere na Los Angeles na La Santa Muerte Na-ekwu na Ha Abụghị Okpukpe." The Madeleine Brand Show , January 10. Nweta site na http://66.226.4.226/programs/madeleine-brand/2012/01/10/22062/los-angeles-believers-in-la-santa-muerte-say-they- na 28 December 2013.

Saraswat, Shweta. 2013 "Ndiife Santa Santa Muerte Ndụ na Ọfọn ke LA." Na ịbụ , February 27. Nweta site na http://www.onbeing.org/blog/folk-saint-santa-muerte-is-alive-and-well-in-la/5052 na 17 November 2013.

Suter, Leanne. 2012. "Mmadu foduru, Santa Muerte Altar Hụrụ na Oxnard Trash Bin." KABC-TV Los Angeles, ABC, November 15. Nweta site na http://abclocal.go.com/kabc/story?id=8887246 na 28 December 2013.

“Templo Santa Muerte Los Angeles CA. 2010. Nweta site na http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCwQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.santamuerte.org%2Fsantuarios%2Fusa%2F3034-templo-santa-muerte-los-angeles-ca.html&ei=Xe6-UoaiG4fisAStqYGgDQ&usg=AFQjCNFTzyDPVvQIRVUHBOnW2Y7w7mbA9Q&sig2=kRk2C6At6WWS3gch5LmO6Q&bvm=bv.58187178,d.cWc na 28 December 2013.

Banyere chepụtara:
David G. Bromley

Ụbọchị Post:
28 December 2013

 

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