Mark Sedgwick

Sufism

MGBE AHỤRỤ

610-632: ekpughere Alakụba nye onye amụma Muhammad, ndị Sufis hụrụ dị ka Sufi mbụ.

700-800: Muslimsfọdụ ndị Alakụba biri ndụ dị nsọ ma mesịa mata ha dịka Sufis.

850-950: Emebere omume nke Sufism.

922: Egburu Mansur al-Hallaj.

1000-1111: Edere akwụkwọ mbụ nke Sufism.

1166-1236: Iwu izizi nke Sufi hiwere.

1200-1240: Ibn Arabi dere akwụkwọ ihe omimi ya nke Sunni.

1258-1431: Iwu ọhụrụ Sufi gara n'ihu ịtọ ntọala.

1248-1273: Jalal al-Din Rumi dere uri uri mgbe ochie na Persian.

1293-1328: Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyya katọrọ omume ndị a nabatara, ọkachasị ndị Sufi.

1389-1431: Iwu ọhụrụ Sufi gara n'ihu ịtọ ntọala.

1501: Ismail I kpuru okpu Shah na Tabriz.

1612-1640: Mulla Sadra dere akwụkwọ akụkọ Shi'i ya.

1744-1818: Ndị agha Saudi sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab kpagburu Sufis.

XNUMX-XNUMX:  New Sufi orders continued to be founded on the classic model.

XNUMX:  The Bektashi order was abolished by the modernizing Ottoman state.

XNUMX-XNUMX:  Modernist reformers attacked Sufism as backward.

XNUMX-XNUMX:  A major new order, the Mourides, was founded in Senegal.

XNUMX:  The first important Western Sufi order was founded, Inayat Khan’s Sufi Order.

XNUMX:  Sufism was banned in Mecca as heterodox.

XNUMX:  Sufism was banned in Turkey as backward.

XNUMX-XNUMX:  Said Nursi promoted modernized Sufi views in Turkey.

XNUMX-XNUMX:  The first important global Sufi order, the Haqqani order, was founded.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

For Sufis, the founder of Sufism is the Prophet Muhammad, who is also the founder of Islam. Every Sufi order knows the spiritual genealogy (silsila) of its master (shaykh or murshid), and every such Sufi genealogy starts with the living master, goes back to his own master (usually dead), then to his master’s master, and thence backwards to the Prophet and thus to God. In one sense, the Sufis are right in seeing the Prophet Muhammad as their founder. Sufism is part of Islam, and Islam goes back to the Prophet Muhammad. In another sense, however, the Sufis are wrong, since there are no traces of what is today called Sufism in the historical record until the ninth century AD, XNUMX years after the death of the Prophet Muhammad. That, a Sufi would respond, is because the practice of Sufism was then so general that Sufism could not be distinguished from Islam as a whole.

No single founder of Sufism other than the Prophet has been identified by historians, though there is agreement that one of the central figures is Junayd of Baghdad, then the political and cultural center of the Muslim world, who died in XNUMX. Some earlier Muslims made important contributions to what would later become Sufism, however, including Rabia al-ʻAdawiyya, who died in XNUMX. She is remembered for her prayers and fasting, and represents the ascetic strand in Sufism. Asceticism is part of the standard practices of Islam, all practicing Muslims fast, but Rabia took asceticism further than most. There were others like her, and one ascetic practice that some ascetics followed was the wearing of rough clothing, made of wool. This is the probable origin of the term “Sufi,” which literally means “wooly.” Among those who made significant contributions to Sufism before Junayd there is also Harith al-Muhasibi, who wrote on spiritual discipline, notably on the need for repentance and techniques for the careful examination of the conscience. Spiritual discipline is a second major aspect of Sufism. Finally, providing a third major aspect before the time of Junayd, there is Bayazid al-Bistami, who seems to have been one of the first Muslims to apply the understandings of philosophy to the understanding of spiritual states. Three major aspects of Sufism are visible before Junayd, then, as is Islam itself, which is the fourth (or perhaps the first) major aspect of Sufism. The significance of Junayd is that by the time of his death in XNUMX, the distinctive practices and doctrines of Sufism are all visible in one place. This happened at a point in the history of Islam when many other Islamic doctrines and institutions were also reaching their mature forms.

The process of the emergence of Sufi practice and doctrine was attended by controversy. Some Sufis were so immersed in the divine that they became distracted, and behaved in unacceptable ways. Mansur al-Hallaj is said to have caused scandal in Baghdad by his strange behavior, and especially by announcing “I am the Truth,” thus claiming for himself one of the names of God (the Truth). He was executed in XNUMX, a rare event in the history of Islam, as executions for religious views are extremely unusual. Some in fact argue that al-Hallaj was actually executed for his political activities, not for his religious views, and that in reality he never uttered the famous words for which he is remembered. Whatever the truth, he became one of the well-known Sufis whose biographies helped fix the Sufi identity, along with other saints whose hagiographies were recorded in works such as the Tabaqat al-Sufiyya of Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami, a work competed by XNUMX. The doctrines and practices of Sufism were further formalized over the next century, notably by Abu Ḥamid al-Ghazali, whose long and comprehensive Ihya ulum al-din also aimed at reconciling Sufi views with those of non-Sufi Muslim scholars. These two varieties of literature, then, were added to the practices and doctrines of Sufism that had already emerged.

The body of Sufi practice, doctrine, and literature was largely complete by the death of al-Ghazali in XNUMX, but Sufi organizations, the Sufi orders, emerged only later, mostly during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. These included the Qadiri order or Qadiriyya, the Chishtiyya, and the Shadhiliyya. One great Sufi order, the Naqshbandiyya, did not come into being until the fifteenth century, and new Sufi orders have continued to be founded over subsequent centuries, with important new Sufi orders appearing even in the twentieth century.

Na narị afọ nke iri na anọ, Sufism dị ka ọ dị taa na-aghọ nke a na-ahụ anya. A na-achọta iwu ndị Sufi n'oge nile n'ụwa Muslim, ma ghọọ akụkụ nke ndị okpukpe. Ha dị mkpa na ndụ okpukpe nke obodo na ndị n'otu n'otu, nakwa n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ndụ karịrị okpukpe. Ndị na-agụ egwú bụ otu n'ime ndị na-ewu ewu na Arabic, na poet Sufi Jalal al-Din Rumi, onye nwụrụ na 1273, dere ụfọdụ n'ime uri uri kachasị mma ọbụnadị edere n'asụsụ Bekee. Ụfọdụ Sufis bụ ndị dike, na-amanye ndị mmadụ n'otu akụkụ nke ụwa Muslim. Otu Sufi onye isi n'aka Safavid, Ismail, duuru ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na-emeri Shah Ismail m na Tabriz, Peshia, na 1501. Ọ hiwere usoro ọchịchị Safavid nke chịrị Persia ruo 1736. Sufis ndị ọzọ ghọrọ ndị ọchịchị n'oge ndị ọzọ, mana ọ dịghị onye guzobere usoro eze nke chịrị ọtụtụ afọ. Na ndụ azụmahịa, ụfọdụ Sufis bụ ndị ahịa dị anya, na-ekwusa Sufism na Islam ka ha na-aga. Mgbasa nke Islam na sub-Saharan Africa na n'Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia bụ ihe kachasị ọrụ Sufis, na-eweta Islam tinyere ngwaahịa ha rere. Site na iri na anọ ruo na iri na asatọ, mgbe ahụ, Sufism bụ isi nke okpukpe Islam, nakwa nke dị oké mkpa maka usoro nkà, agha, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na azụmahịa nke ụwa Muslim.

Otú ọ dị, na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, Sufis malitere inwe ihe isi ike. A katọrọ Sufism dị ka onye na-adịghị Islam na narị afọ nke iri na asatọ site n'aka onye mgbasa ozi nke revivalist, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, na site na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, nkatọ ndị a malitere inwe mmetụta ụfọdụ. Na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, a hụkwara usoro mmezi ihe n'ọtụtụ akụkụ nke ụwa Muslim, dị ka mba malitere ịmalite ime, ike na mmetụta nke iwu Sufi malitere ịpụta nsogbu. Na 1826, gọọmentị nke Alaeze Ukwu Ottoman amachibidoro ma gbasaa usoro Bektashi, nke jikọtara ya na iwu Janissary kachasị mma, ya onwe ya bibiri dịka ihe mgbochi iji wuo ọnọdụ siri ike nke oge a. Ruo njedebe nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, ịkatọ Sufism gbasara n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ. Ndị ọkà mmụta oge ochie dịka Muhammad Abduh nọ n'Ijipt malitere ịkatọ Sufism dị ka azụ na nkwenkwe ụgha.

Nsogbu ndị bidoro na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu bịara ka njọ na narị afọ nke iri abụọ. 1920s bụ afọ iri kachasị njọ maka Sufis kemgbe e gburu al-Hallaj na 922. Nke mbụ, na 1924, ndị agha Saudi sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke anti-Sufi revivalism nke Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab meriri Mecca, obodo nsọ kachasị nke Islam, ma machibido nkuzi Sufi iwu. ma na-eme ebe ahụ dị ka un-islam. A machibidoro Sufism iwu na Saudi Arabia taa. Mgbe ahụ, na 1925, Republic nke na-eme ọhụụ na-amachibido iwu Sufi na omume dị ka azụ, na-ejide ihe onwunwe na akụ Sufi. Sufism ka bụ teknụzụ na-akwadoghị na Turkey taa, ọ bụ ezie na a na-ebelata ihe mgbochi na mberede na 1950s, iwu Sufi na-arụkwa ọrụ na Turkey ugbu a, na-ezighi ezi.

N'agbanyeghị nsogbu ndị a, Sufism dị mkpa. Akpadoro iwu ohuru di iche iche n'ezobere isi obodo ndi mepere emepe n'oge narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, ọkachasị Tijaniyya na Sanusiyya. Ọbụna na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, e nwere ụfọdụ ebe ndị na-emegide ndị Sufi na-emegide ma ọ bụ ndị na-emegide Sufi nke oge a enwebeghị nnukwu ọganihu, ndị a gụnyere Senegal na West Africa, ebe n'oge mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ Amadou Bamba guzobere ọhụrụ na ngwa ngwa- na-eto eto Mouride dị ka otu n'ime mmetụta kachasị mkpa obodo ya. Isi ụlọ ọrụ Mouride dị na Touba amalitela ịbụ obodo nwere ihe karịrị mmadụ 500,000. N'ebe ndị ọzọ, ụfọdụ Sufis gbanwere nke ọma n'ọnọdụ ọjọọ nke oge a. Na Turkey, Said Nursi kwuru na mmachibido iwu iwu Sufi, mana ọ dere ma bipụta akwụkwọ ndị na-aga nke ọma nke na-akwalite echiche Sufi nke oge a, na-agbasa nkuzi Sufi na ndị ọhụụ. Na Morocco, usoro Boutchichi jiri usoro dị iche iche wee guzobe otu nnukwu ndị na-eso n'etiti otu dịka ụmụ akwụkwọ mahadum ndị ọzọ nwere obi ọjọọ na Sufism.

Na West nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ, Sufism malitere ịgbasa n'etiti ndị na-enweghị mmasị na ịhụ ihe onwunwe n'anya nke oge a ma na-achọ ụzọ ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ na-enye afọ ojuju. Rumi ghọrọ otu n'ime ndị na-ere akwụkwọ kacha mma na America, na iwu Western Sufi malitere. Nke mbụ n'ime ndị a, Sufi Order hiwere na London na 1914 site n'aka onye India Sufi, Inayat Khan, kwadoro ụdị Sufism nke emegharịrị maka ndị na-ege ntị na Western, ọ bụghịkwa Islam. Nke a na ụdị "Suistist" zuru ụwa ọnụ nyere iwu ụzọ maka Sufism Ala Ala Ala ọzọ, dịka Haqqaniyya nke Nazim al-Haqqani, Turkish Sufi, nke ghọrọ usoro Sufi zuru ụwa ọnụ n'ezie. Nke a na iwu Sufi ndị yiri ya so na isi ihe kpatara ntụgharị na Islam na West taa.

Ya mere, Sufism, nke sitere na Islam, wee pụta ìhè na narị afọ nke itoolu, ma nwee afọ ojuju ya n'etiti afọ iri na anọ na nke iri na asatọ. Ọ na-adabere na ọ dị mkpa na ụwa ndị Alakụba kemgbe narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, mana ọ dị mkpa, ma na-agagharị na mpaghara ọhụrụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Sufis share the standard beliefs and doctrines of other Muslims in the places where they live. There are thus Sunni Sufis in Sunni Muslim communities, and Shi’i Sufis in Shi’i Muslim communities. Sufism is sometimes understood by Westerners as a distinct denomination within Islam, like Sunnism or Shi’ism, but this is incorrect.

Na mgbakwunye na nkwenkwe na nkwenkwe nke ndị Alakụba ndị ọzọ, Sunni ma ọ bụ Shi'i, Sufis na-ekwusi ike na nkwenkwe ụfọdụ na ndị Alakụba na-abụghị Sufis anaghị ekwusi ike ma ọ bụ ghara ijide. Ihe kacha mkpa n’ime ha bụ nkwenkwe ụfọdụ mmadụ nwere ike ịbịaru Chineke nso. Ndị Alakụba niile kwenyere na onye amụma Muhammad dị nso na Chineke, onye ọ natara mkpughe nke bụ ihe ndabere nke Alakụba, ma ndị Sunni na Shi'i Alakụba kwenyere na ụfọdụ ndị ọzọ na mmalite akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Alakụba dịkwakarịrị nso. Chineke, ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị nso dịka Onye-amụma. Sufis na-etinye ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ, gụnyere ndị nọ n'ọgbọ na-abịanụ na ọbụna taa, n'otu ụdị ahụ. Ha na-akpọ ndị dị otú ahụ walis. Wali a sụgharịrị ịbụ "onye nsọ," mana n'eziokwu ọ pụtara "enyi" ma ọ bụ "onye nchebe." Ndi Sufis na-akpo walis are actually walis nke Chineke, ndi enyi Chineke, okwu nke eji na Quran, ebe ekwuru na walis Chineke ekwesịghị ịtụ egwu ma ọ bụ mwute.

Nkwenkwe Sufi na ndị nsọ na-eduga na nkwenkwe ndị ọzọ. Otu bụ na ọ dị mma ịgbaso onye nkụzi ma ọ bụ onye nwe ụlọ bụ onye nsọ, dị ka onye nkụzi dị otú ahụ nwere ohere pụrụ iche na Chineke. Onye ọzọ bụ na onye nsọ bụ isi iyi nke ngọzi Chineke (baraka). Ndị Alakụba niile kwenyere na ngọzi Chineke na-eweta abamuru nke mmụọ na nke anụ ahụ, mana ọ bụ Sufis na-ahụ ndị nsọ dịka isi iyi nke ngọzi dị otú ahụ. Nkwenye a na-ekpuchi ndị nsọ dị ndụ na ndị nwụrụ anwụ, na-eduga Sufis ịchọ ngọzi n'ili nke ndị nsọ nwụrụ anwụ. Ọ bụghị naanị Sufis kwenyere na ndị nsọ ma na-eleta ili iji chọọ ngọzi. Ọtụtụ ndị Alakụba Sunni na-eme nke a, ndị niile na-ekpe Shi'i Alakụba na-eleta ili nke ndị ndu mbụ ha, enye emi imams. Ọ bụghị ndị Alakụba na-aga n'ili, Otú ọ dị, ebe ndị Sufis nile kweere na ndị nsọ, ọtụtụ ndị Sufis na-eleta ili dị iche iche na ịgbaso ndị dị ndụ dị ndụ dị ka ndị nna.

Ihe nke abụọ dị mkpa bụ Sufi bụ na a pụrụ ịkọwa ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụdị mmadụ abụọ, mkpụrụ obi (spirit) na ego (nafs). Mkpụrụ obi adịghị anwụ anwụ, ebe ego anaghị adị, a ga-etinyekwa ego n'okpuru njikwa. Mụ anụmanụ dị ọcha, na-agbaso ihe ọ bụla masịrị ha, nke ahụ dịkwa mma, n'ihi na ọ bụ otu ahụ ka Chineke si mee ha. ,Mụ mmadụ, n'ụzọ dị iche, kwesịrị ịmụta ịghara ịgbaso ọchịchọ na ọchịchọ ha, ma kama ịdọ aka ná ntị banyere egos ha. Sharia, koodu nke Chineke choro nke Islam nke kpuchitere ofufe na omume na iwu, abughi nani ntuziaka nke ntuziaka a ga-agbaso n'echeghi echiche, kamakwa uzo nke na-eduga na ebumnuche a. Onye Alakụba nwere ike ịgbaso iwu kacha nta nke Sharia ma nwee olile anya maka ebere Chineke n'ụbọchị ikpe, nke ahụ dịkwa mma, ma kwesịkwa nye ọtụtụ mmadụ. N'aka nke ọzọ, onye Alakụba nwere ike ịgbaso usoro mmemme na-achọsi ike karị gụnyere ọtụtụ omume ndị ọzọ agbadoro iji merie ego kpamkpam, nke a bụ ihe ọtụtụ Sufis kwenyere na Sufism dị.

Ihe nke atọ kacha mkpa Sufi bụ na ahụmahụ dị omimi, nke a na-akpọkarị njikọ ma ọ bụ ìhè (riri ahụ or ụta). Ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe nke Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ believedwa kwenyekwara na ịdị adị nke ihe omimi, nke ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta hụrụ dị ka ihe dị mkpa n'okpukpe, mana ihe zuru oke taa bụ iji nlezianya kpachara anya ọ bụla a na-akpọ ahụmahụ omimi. Ma ma obu ihe omimi di omimi ma obu na “adighi,” odi, ufodu ndi Sufis si na Bayazid al-Bistami na nari nke iteghete rue oge nke anyi ekwuputala ihe omuma ahu, nke bu otu n’ime ntọala nke nkuzi Sufi. Ọtụtụ ndị Sufis na-akọ naanị obere ụdị ahụmịhe okpukpe, mana ọtụtụ Sufis kwenyere na ịdị n'otu na Chineke ga-ekwe omume. A na-atụkarị anya na ndị nsọ nwere ahụmịhe.

Ọ bụ ndị Sufis ghọtara ihe jikọrọ ya na ihe ndị sitere na Quran, ụfọdụ amaokwu nke na-enye nkọwa zuru ezu maka nkọwa, na nke ụfọdụ n'ime okwu ndị sitere na nkà ihe ọmụma. Ebe ọ bụ na e mepụtara nkà ihe ọmụma Arabic na ngwụcha nkà ihe ọmụma oge ochie nke ndị Gris, echiche na nghọta dị na Neoplatonic na Gnostic bụ akụkụ nke ozizi Sufi, ọ bụ ezie na ndị Sufis dị ole na ole nwere ọgụgụ isi nke ọgụgụ isi iji ghọta nke a. Ndị edemede dị omimi nke Sufism, dịka Ibn Arabi na Mulla Sadra, bụ otu akụkụ nke ọdịnala nkà ihe ọmụma zuru ụwa ọnụ na ụwa ndị Gris, Islam, okpukpe ndị Juu, na Iso Ụzọ Kraịst nile jikọrọ ọnụ, omenala nke ọtụtụ ndị dị na West dị ka Scholasticism.

Maka ụfọdụ Sufis, nkwenkwe ndị ọzọ na-agbaso usoro ọdịnala a. Mkpụrụ obi (spirit), dịka ọmụmaatụ, nwere ike ịhụ dị ka ihe ọhụụ nke ọgụgụ isi nke ụwa, nke nwere ike ịhụ ya dịka otu n'ime usoro emanations site na mkpa dị mkpa, bụ onye a pụrụ ịkọwa naanị maka okwu ọjọọ. Ya mere, n'echiche ụfọdụ, mkpụrụ obi mmadụ na-ekere òkè na chi dịka ọ na-esiri ike ịlaghachi na mmalite ya. Otú ọ dị, nkà ihe ọmụma dị otú ahụ adịghị mfe ịgbaso, ọ bụkwa obere mmasị n'etiti Sufis, ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ha abụghị ndị ọkà ihe ọmụma. Ihe ka ọtụtụ ná ndị okenye na afọ ndị mbụ, n'eziokwu, bụ ndị na-edeghị akwụkwọ (dị ka, n'ezie, bụ ndị na-abụghị ndị Sufis).

Mmasị na-akọwa ihe omimi bụ nke sara mbara karị. A kọwara Chineke na uri nke Sufis dere dị ka Rumi dịka onye a hụrụ n'anya, na a kọwara ihe omimi ahụ dị ka ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè. Ya mere a pụrụ ịkọwa ụlọ obibi ahụ dị ka ihe dị mma karịa ụlọ alakụba, maọbụ ụlọ alakụba ahụ dịka ọ dị mkpa karịa ụka ma ọ bụ ụlọ nsọ nke ndị na-ekpere arụsị. Ihe ndị dị otú ahụ na-ama ụma na-eche, nke bụ otu n'ime ha si ede akwụkwọ. Otú ọ dị, ha nwere ike ịmalite nghọtahie. Ha bụ otu ihe na-akpata nkwenye dị ogologo n'etiti ndị odeakwụkwọ Western banyere àgwà Sufis na okpukpe ndị ọzọ. Ụfọdụ ekwuwo na Sufism bụ ihe na-adịgide adịgide na enyi na enyi n'ebe Ndị Kraịst na ndị agnostics nọ. Ndị ọzọ ekwuola na e kwesịghị ịghọta ihe oyiyi n'ụzọ nkịtị, na Sufis na-ewere nghọta ha banyere okpukpe ndị ọzọ si na Islam n'ozuzu, ọ bụghị site na Sufism ma ọ bụ uri.

Ebe ọ bụ na ọtụtụ ndị Sufis nwere ọtụtụ narị afọ, otu ìgwè nke Sufis na oge na ebe ụfọdụ kweere ọtụtụ ihe na mgbakwunye na nkwenkwe ndị a kọwara n'elu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụfọdụ dịka ọmụmaatụ, kwenyere na agha ahụ iji nweta ego ahụ nwere ike inye aka site n'ikpe ikpe ọha, na ikpe ọmụma ọha mmadụ nwere ike ịmasị site na omume ọjọọ ọha mmadụ. Ụfọdụ kwenyere na akwara na-enyere aka ntụgharị uche. Ụfọdụ kweere na otu onye nsọ dị nsọ karịrị nnọọ onye senti, ikekwe chi. Ụfọdụ nwere nkwenkwe sitere n'okpukpe ndị dị nta nke Islam, gụnyere Ismailis na Druze. E nwere ọtụtụ ihe dị iche iche na ozizi Sufi, mgbe ahụ. Ma ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị Sufis nile kwere na ndị nsọ na ngọzi, mkpa ọ dị ịchịkwa ego ahụ, na ohere nke njikọta mgbagwoju anya. Ọtụtụ Sufis adọrọ mmasị na omenala nkà mmụta ihe ọmụma na nke uri. Naanị ndị Sufis dị ole na ole achọtala uru ime mmụọ na akwara, ma ọ bụ were ndị nsọ bụrụ chi.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Sufis na-agbaso ụkpụrụ omume nke Islam, ọ bụ ezie na e nweela oge ụfọdụ na iwu a, karịsịa na narị afọ ndị gara aga, mgbe ụfọdụ Sufi leghaara akụkụ nke Sharia anya. Ha na-ekpe ekpere ekpere, ha na-enye ndị ogbenye ebere ma ọ bụrụ na ha nwere ikike ime ya, ha na-ebu ọnụ n'oge Ramadan, ma ọ bụrụ na ha nwere ike imeli ya, ha na-aga njem uka na Mecca. Otú ọ dị, ha nwere ike ịga n'ihu karịa ndị Alakụba na-abụghị Sufi. Na ekpere ekpere a na-arụrụ ọrụ, e nwere nhọrọ (sunna) ekpere, na Sufis dị ka ọtụtụ ndị na-eme ihe ndị a, na ime ọtụtụ n'ime ha. Ụfọdụ ndị na-aṅụbiga mmanya ókè na-enyefekwuo ebere karịa ka a na-enyerịrị ha, ma eleghị anya na-edebe naanị ihe kachasị ha. Ọtụtụ ndị na-agba ọsọ ọ bụghị naanị n'oge Ramadan, kamakwa n'ụbọchị ndị ọzọ na oge ndị ọzọ, na ngwa ngwa ọ bụghị nanị na nri na ihe ọṅụṅụ dịka ọ dị mkpa, kamakwa site na ụra ma ọ bụ okwu ma ọ bụ ọbụna ọha mmadụ. Asceticism bụ otu n'ime omume mbụ nke ndị mbụ Sufis, ma nọgide na-abụ ihe dị mkpa taa, ọ bụ ezie na ụbọchị iri anọ na anọ site na ọha mmadụ nke bụbu ihe ziri ezi n'ozuzu ya ugbu a ka ọ na-adịkarị karịa ka ọ dịbu. Na-aga njem uka na Mecca, Sufis na-aga na ili nke ndị nsọ na-achọ ngọzi, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị Alakụba ọzọ. N'ọtụtụ mba ndị Alakụba, ememe ncheta kwa afọ (mawlid ) na-eme ndokwa na ili nke nnukwu ndị nsọ, mgbe ụfọdụ na-adịgide adịgide ruo ọtụtụ ụbọchị, ọtụtụ ndị ma ọ bụ ọbụna ọtụtụ ndị obodo na-esonye na ememme dum, ma ha bụ Sufis ma ọ bụ na ha.

Na mgbakwunye na omume ndị a, e nwere ma otu na otu otu metụtara kpọmkwem Sufis. Omume onye obula bu ntinye nye onye isi nke usoro nke Sufi ma obu, na ihe banyere Sufi onye isi nke usoro, nye onye nwe ya nke mbu, nke nwuru anwu ugbua. Sufi hụrụ nna ya ukwu n'anya ma na-agbaso ihe nlereanya ya n'ihe niile, ọ bụghị naanị n'ihe metụtara omenala kamakwa n'ụkpụrụ omume, na ọbụnadị uwe. Sufi na-erubere nna ya ukwu isi n'ihe niile, na-arịọ ndụmọdụ na ikike nna ya ukwu tupu o mee mkpebi ndị gbara ọkpụrụkpụ, ọbụlagodi na ndụ ya. Lovehụnanya na nrube isi bụ omume ime mmụọ dị mkpa.

Na mgbakwunye na nke a, iwu nke onye isi nke Sufi bụ ụbụrụ (wird or wazifa). Nke a na - agụnye ugboro ugboronke amaokwu ụfọdụ sitere na Quran na nke ekpere ndị ọzọ. Ekpere na-adịkarị mkpụmkpụ, kama enwere ike ịmeghachi otu ugboro ọtụtụ narị ma ọ bụ ọbụna ọtụtụ puku ugboro, nke mere na ụbụrụ n'ozuzu ya nwere ike iwe ogologo oge ịrụ. Mkpọchi nke nkpuchi (sibha) iji gụọ ugboro ugboro. A na-emeghachi ego kwa ụbọchị mgbe ekpere ụtụtụ na nke mgbede gasịrị. Ọ dịgasị iche site n'usoro ịtụ, na onye nwe ịtụ nwere ike ịdị iche na ego enyere enyere ndị dị iche iche. Ọ bụ n'ụzọ ụfọdụ ụdị ntụgharị uche, ma mgbe ụfọdụ, yana ụdị ntụgharị uche ndị ọzọ, nke nwere ike dịka ọmụmaatụ gụnyere ịme echiche uche nke nna ukwu Sufi, yana site na omume dị iche iche na nyocha onwe onye.

Ọ bụ isi ihe gbasara Sufism bụ dhikr, akpọ aha okwu Arabic maka ncheta, ma na-emekarị otu ugboro n'izu. Na dhikr bu otu ndi mmadu na-achikota, nke otutu n'ime Sufis, nke di n'etiti 20 na 200, na-ezute ekpere ugboro ugboro n'ekpere, na-agbaso otu oge, mgbe ụfọdụ a na-eji akara. A na-ejikwa ngwá egwú ndị ọzọ dị ka ọkpọkọ ma ọ bụ gong na ụfọdụ iwu. A na-ejikọta abụ ahụ site na mmegharị ahụ, nke dị n'elu ahụ, na usoro iku ume. N'oge dhikr, Sufis na-anọdụkarị ma ọ bụ na-eguzo na gburugburu, ma mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-eji eriri eji akara.

Ụdị nke a dhikr, dị ka okwu nke akwụkwọ ahụ, dịgasị site n'otu usoro gaa na nke ọzọ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ choreography dị iche. Ụfọdụ dhikrs na-achịkwa ma jiri nlezianya rụọ ọrụ, ebe ndị ọzọ na-achịkwaghị achịkwa na ọbụna anụ ọhịa. Na dhikr nke otu obodo mepere emepe na ọtụtụ ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ ga-ejide onwe ha karịa nke dhikr nke ime obodo na ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ ole na ole. Ụdị nke dhikr dịkwa iche na mpaghara: Africa dhikrs na Malaysian dhikrs, dịka ọmụmaatụ, nwere ụdị dị iche iche. Ihe niile dhikrs, Otú ọ dị, bụ ahụmahụ dị ịrịba ama, ma ndị na-etinye ha na ndị na-ekiri ihe nkiri. Ụfọdụ ndị na-eso ya na-adaba n'ụdị ecstasy, karịsịa na iwu ụfọdụ. A na-akpọ ndị na-ahụ anya mgbe ụfọdụ site na ịkpọ òkù, na mgbe ụfọdụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu mgbe a dhikr a na-edebe ya na ebe ọha na eze. Ha na-anabatakarị ha, dịka dhikr na-eje ozi dị ka mgbasa ozi maka iwu ahụ, iwu niile na-anabata ndị ọhụrụ.

Abụọ dị iche iche iche dhikr dị egwu karịsịa ma na-adọtakarị ìgwè mmadụ. Otu jikọtara ya karịsịa na iwu Rifa'i, ọ gụnyere ndị sonyere na-egosipụta oke njikwa nke ihe ahụ site na ịkpọpu akụkụ ahụ na skewersna nsị, ma ọ bụ site na iji agwọ agwọ, ma nọgide na-adịghị mma. Nke ọzọ dịgasị iche iche nke dhikr jikọtara na usoro Mevlevi, ma na-agụnye "ịtụgharị," nke a na-akpọkarị "ikuku." A na-akpọkarị Mevlevis na Bekee dị ka "whirling dervishes," dervish ịbụ okwu Bekee-Turkish maka Sufi. Kama ịmalite ọkpụkpụ dị ka ọ dị n'oge dhikr, Mevlevis gbanwee ahụ dum site na nrịgo 360, ọtụtụ ugboro. Usoro nke ichigharia n'enweghi ugwo bu ihe a na-achota karia uzo nke eji aka ya na skewers ma gbasaa n'enweghi ihe ojoo, otu uzo nke ichogharia bu ihe mara mma, nke a na-eme ka uwe elu di elu na akwa ejiji nke Mevlevis , na site na ọjà egwu na-esonyere ntụgharị ha. A na-emezigharị Mevlevi ugbu a na Turkey dịka ụdị egwu egwu nke ndị na-agba egwu maka ntụrụndụ nke ndị njem, ọ bụghị dị ka ememe okpukpe. Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ ndị Mevlevis na-agbanye dị ka ụdị dhikr.

Ndị Rifa'i dhikr na Mevlevi izu (dika Mevlevi dhikr a na-akpọ ya) na-ejikọta ya. Ihe ka njọ dhikr bụ n'ezie odidi nke ndi mmadu, ma obu ihe nnochite anya nke omume Sufi. Obi Sufi na-eme omume, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị ememe dị egwu kama nchịkwa onwe onye dị jụụ na nke a na-adịghị ahụ anya, mụtara site na ịme ihe omume nakwa site na ido onwe onye n'okpuru isi Sufi. Ndị na-ahụ maka ndị isi na-eji usoro dịgasị iche iche maka izi ihe, nyocha na ịzụ ụmụazụ ha.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Enweghi otu otu nzukọ Sufi. A na-ahazi Sufis na iwu Sufi (tariqa) ndị nna ukwu na-eduzi (shaykh). Usoro nke Sufi bụ usoro maka omume Sufi, nna ukwu bụkwa onye nduzi ime mmụọ. Ikike na nnaputa bụkwa ihe dị mkpa nke njirimara, na ilekwasị anya maka ọrụ mmekọrịta na mmekọrịta. Sufi na-enye iwu dịka iwu Ndị Kraịst, ma dị iche na ha bụ oge oge. Ndị mọnk bụ Ndị Kraịst na-ahapụ ụwa ka ha wee nwee ike ịbanye na ya, mgbe ụfọdụ mgbe ha na-etinye aka na nzuzo, ma Sufis bi n'ụwa, na-arụ ọrụ na ezinụlọ, ka ha na-esokwa n'usoro iwu Sufi.

N'ụzọ ezi uche dị na ya, ọ bụ naanị ndị nsọ kwesịrị ịbụ ndị isi Sufi, ma na omume, a pụrụ ịgbanwe echiche a, eziokwu ahụ bụ na mmadụ bụ onye isi Sufi pụrụ iduga na nkwenkwe na ọ bụ onye nsọ. Ọtụtụ ndị nna ukwu na-abụ ndị nna ukwu ọ bụghị n'ihi na ha doro anya na ndị nsọ ma n'ihi na ha bụ onye kwesịrị ekwesị nwa akwukwo iji dochie onye ọzọ nna ukwu nke nwụrụ anwụ, na mgbe mgbe ihe mere na ha bụ onye kwesịrị ekwesị nwa akwukwo bụ na ha bụ nwa nke onye nwụrụ anwụ nna ukwu. Nke a na-eme ka e nwee ihe nketa nke ndị nsọ, a ga-eme ka ọnọdụ ha sie ike site na ihe nketa nke ezigbo ala, tinyere ebe ili.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị ihe dị iche n'etiti ndị senti e ketara eketa na “ezigbo” ndị senti, n'ezie, mmadụ nke yiri “ezigbo” saint, na onye ma eleghị anya nwere mmụta na nkwanye ùgwù, ọ ga-esikarịrị ka ọ ga-ewulite ihe dị ukwuu karịa onye na-arụ ọrụ nanị, ma nwedịrị ike ịchọta usoro iwu Sufi ọhụrụ. Onye na-eketa ihe dị iche iche, n'ụzọ dị iche, ga na-achịkwa iwu na-agbada na nha. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dị mgbe ụfọdụ iwu na-amụba, mgbe ahụ, e nwekwara ndị ọzọ na-ebelata. Ndị na-agbanye n'usoro n'usoro ọhụrụ ma na-agbasawanye ga-esiri ya ike, nye nna ha ukwu, na Sufism na Islam, ma ndị nke nọ n'usoro ịda mbà nwere ike ịbụ nanị n'ihi ọdịnala ezinụlọ, na-ekere òkè n'ihe omume naanị mgbe ụfọdụ. Ọ bụrụ na onye ọ bụla nọ n'usoro iwu na-arịwanye elu wee bụrụ onye a kwadoro karịsịa nye Sufism, ha nwere ike ịgafe n'usoro iwu ọhụrụ na ịgbasa. Ọbụna n'etiti ndị nwere obi iru ala, e nwere ọdịiche. Ndi mmadu ole na ole nwere obi iru ala na-adi ndu maka nna ha ukwu na umuaka ha, soro ya gaa mgbe o na-ejeghari, na-eleghi anya n'adighi ndu. Ụfọdụ ndị Sufis nwere obi ike na-elekwasị anya na nduzi ha, na-eleta oge ọ bụla ha nwere ohere n'efu. Otú ọ dị, ụfọdụ ndị uwe ojii na-echeta nna ha ukwu na inye iwu naanị mgbe ha enweghị ihe ọzọ iji weghara ha. Ndị ụfọdụ na-echeta iwu ha nanị mgbe a na-echetara ya, ọ bụghịkwa mgbe nile ka ha na-ahụ Islam.

Ọ bụ ezie na ụmụ nwoke na-eme obere ihe maka Sufis n'ihe gbasara nkwenkwe ma ọ bụ omume, nzukọ ndị Sufi na-ekewa site na okike, dịka ọ bụ ụdị usoro ọ bụla ọzọ na ụwa Muslim. Ndị isi na-ahụkarị bụ ndị nwoke. Ọtụtụ ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike na Sufi na-abụkwa nwoke, ebe Sufis na-agbaso ụdị omume nwoke na nwanyị dịka ndị Alakụba ọzọ, na n'ọtụtụ akụkụ nke ụwa Muslim, ọ bụ ndị ikom (ndị inyom na-ekpe ekpere n'ụlọ) na-abịa n'ememe ọha na eze. A na-eleta ili ụfọdụ karịsịa site na ndị inyom, Otú ọ dị, ụmụ nwanyị nwekwara ike ịbụ ndị iwu Sufi. Dịka ọrụ okike na Sufism na-agbaso iwu mpaghara, iwu mpaghara na-agbanwe ugbu a, karịsịa na obodo ukwu, ya mere ọrụ ụmụ nwoke na-arụ n'ime Sufism na-agbanwe ugbu a. N'obodo ebe o meworo ka umuaka nwee ike imuta akwukwo, enwere otutu ndokwa maka ndi inyom n'inye Sufi iwu. Na obodo ebe ọ dị ugbu a ka ndị inyom na-agbaso ọrụ ndị dị elu, ndị inyom nwekwara ike ịnọ n'ọkwá dị elu na iwu Sufi. Ndị ọkachamara na mahadum ndị ọkachamara abanyewo n'ọkwá dị elu na Sufi na Lebanon na Morocco, dịka ọmụmaatụ. Na Amerịka, ụmụ nwanyị nwere ike ịme iwu Sufi.

Sufis na-agbaso nduzi nke ndị ọzọ so n'usoro iwu ha nke ha na nduzi nna ha ukwu. Ụfọdụ iwu dị ntakịrị maka ndị Sufis niile nọ na ha ka ha na nna ha ukwu na-enwe mmekọrịta chiri anya, ma ọtụtụ dị oke nke na ihe niile nwere ike ime bụ oge ụfọdụ nke nna ukwu, ikekwe na nnọkọ ọha na eze buru ibu. N'enye iwu buru ibu, enwere ike ịchọta usoro nhazi. Nke a nwere ike ịbụ nke nkịtị ma ọ bụ nke iwu. Mgbe ọ na-ekwughị okwu, ndị ọhụrụ Sufis na-ege ntị ma na-amụta site na ndị nọrọla ogologo oge karịa ka ha nwere. Mgbe ọ bụ iwu, nna ukwu ga-ahọpụta ndị nnọchianya (a na-eji usoro dị iche iche) enyere aka n'ọrụ ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ na-agba obere ìgwè na obodo ndị ọzọ ma ọ bụ obodo nta. A ga - enye ndị nnochite anya a ikike (idh) ikwenye ndị ọhụrụ n'ime usoro ahụ. Ụfọdụ iwu achọpụtawokwa usoro usoro dị mgbagwoju anya na ọkwa dị n'okpuru nna ukwu na ndị nnọchianya ya, ma nke a bụ ihe dị iche iche.

Ụkpụrụ dị iche iche dị nha. Obere iwu nwere ike ịgụnye ihe karịrị mmadụ iri abụọ, enweghi ihe onwunwe, onye nna-ukwu nwere oge oge ọ ga-eduzi ọrụ ọzọ, ma eleghị anya dị ka onye nkụzi ma ọ bụ onye ahịa. Usoro buru ibu nwere ike inwe ọtụtụ puku ndị na-eso ụzọ, ili na ụlọ alakụba na ụlọ mbikọta, ma onye nduzi oge niile na-enye onyinye nke ụmụazụ ya. Mgbe ụfọdụ, iwu nwere ike ịnwe ọtụtụ nde ndị na-eso ụzọ na onye ọrụ oge niile iji mee ya, ma nke a bụ ihe ọhụrụ. Sufism bụ ihe gbasara kọntaktị nkeonwe karịa karịa.

Iwu Sufi nwere ike ịdị mgbagwoju anya n'ihi na iwu kachasị ukwuu enweghị usoro ịhazi. Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu puku afọ, iwu oge ochie dịka Qadiriyya ma ọ bụ Naqshbandiyya agbasaala ụwa Muslim dum, yana n’etiti ndị pere mpe ndị Alakụba na mpụga ya. Enwere Qadiris na China, Egypt, na California. Ndị a Qadiris niile nwere nkwanye ùgwù maka onye guzobere ha, Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani, na iji ụfọdụ ekpere na omume eme ihe, mana ọ nweghị ihe ọzọ. Qadiriyya zuru ụwa ọnụ enweghị onye isi ọchịchị. Kama, enwere ndi ndu nke ime obodo na ebe ndi Qadiriyya na aru oru. Na mpaghara Gansu nke China, dịka ọmụmaatụ, enwere ọ dịkarịa ala iwu iri na abụọ nke Qadiri, otu n'ime ha tọrọ ntọala n'oge na-adịbeghị anya dị ka afọ 1950. Ya mere, Sufi na Gansu Province nwere ike ibu nke iwu Gaozhaojia Qadiri, nke a na-akpo n'ihi na Mashihaya sitere na Gaozhaojia, ma obu nke Yatou Qadiri, nke a na-akpọ n'ihi na o guzobere n'obodo nta nke Yatou. Mashihaya, onye guzobere Gaozhaojia, n'onwe ya bụbu onye mbụ nke Yatou, otu ụzọ esi eme ka iwu gbasaa. A kọọrọ Gaozhaojia ugbu a nwere ụfọdụ ndị otu 200, yabụ na ọ bụghị n'onwe ya nwere nnukwu uru n'ụwa niile. Otú ọ dị, Sufism n'ozuzu ya dị mkpa na ụwa dum, na Sufis ndị ọ bụla bụ Sufis n'ihi na ha nọ na obere òtù dị iche iche dị ka Gaozhaojia. Iwu Sufi ga-adị mfe nghọta ma ọ bụrụ na e nwere okwu dị iche iche maka iwu ụwa dịka Qadiriyya na maka iwu mpaghara dịka Gaozhaojia, mana ọ dị nwute na a na-eji otu okwu ahụ eme ihe abụọ ahụ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Kemgbe mkpochapụ nke Hallaj na 922, Sufism anọwo arụmụka. Site na narị afọ nke iri, Sufis akọwawo na Sufism na-asọpụrụ Sharia, nakwa na Sharia bụ arịa dị mkpa nke na-ejide eziokwu nke Sufism. Ọtụtụ ndị Sufis akọwawala nke a mgbe mgbe karịa afọ ole na ole na-egosi nkwụsi ike nke nrutuaka n'etiti ndị Alakụba ọzọ na enwere nsogbu dị mkpa na Sufism.

Eze Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, bụ onye machibidoro Sufism na Mak na 1924, na President Roosevel

Otu okwu na Sufism bu na imesi ike n'omume onwe onye nke Chineke n'emeghi ka o mebie ihe ndi ozo nke Islam. Ọ bụrụ na Sharia bụ ụzọ nke nkwenye siri ike, ọ dị mkpa ka onye nwere ahụ ike na-eme maka Sharia? Dị ka Suati mgbe ụfọdụ na-ajụ, ọ bụghị ụlọ obibi ahụ ka mma karịa ụlọ alakụba? O nwekwara ike ịbụ na a hụghị ụfọdụ Sufis na ebe obibi ndị dị adị, ọ bụghị naanị ihe atụ?

Ụdị ihe dị otú a emeela ka ndị na-ekpe okpukpe m na-enwe nsogbu n'okpukpe ndị ọzọ, ọ bụghị naanị maka Sufis. Otú ọ dị, Sufis nwekwara ebubo na ozizi ha na omume ha abụghị ndị Alakụba, n'ihi ya, ha adịghị anabata nke ọma. Otu n'ime ndị mbụ na-akatọ Sufism dị ka onye na-abụghị Islam bụ Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya, ọkà mmụta Siria nke nwere onwe ya na narị afọ nke iri na atọ bụ onye katọrọ ọtụtụ omume okpukpe na nke ọha na eze nke oge ya ma soro ndị ọchịchị na-alụ ọgụ ugboro ugboro a rụpụtara. O juputara na ihe omimi nke Ibn Arabi, na echiche nke ndi ndi nso nwere ike iso Chineke kwado ndi madu ozo, na ileta ili. Otú ọ dị, ọ bụ olu na-adịghị ama, ma nwụọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ. Nkatọ ya nwere obere ma ọ bụ enweghị mmetụta na ọnọdụ Sufism n'oge ahụ.

Otú ọ dị, e gosipụtara echiche ndị yiri nke ahụ mgbe narị afọ anọ gasịrị site n'aka onye ọkà mmụta ọzọ nwere onwe ya, onye na-ekwusa ozi ọma Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, onye dịrị ndụ ma kụziere ihe na nsọtụ ụwa Muslim, na ógbè ndị nkịtị nke dị n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ Central Arabia. Ọ bụ ezie na Ibn Taymiyya bịara na ndị ọchịchị obodo Syria na Ijipt, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab mere otu onye na-achị obodo n'Abia, Muhammad ibn Saud. Na mmekorita ahu weghachite ọnọdụ nke Ibn Abd al-Wahhab na ozizi ya, ma nye ihe ndabere maka ihe di ugbu a ala eze Saudi Arabia. Dị ka e kwuru n'elu, a machibidoro Sufism na Mecca na 1924, ndị nwekwaara mmasị na echiche nke Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Nke a na-agụnye ndị òtù Salafi, nke bụ otu ọrụ kachasị mkpa nke Islam na ụwa taa. Okpukpo okpukpu buru oke ibu nke di iche iche na-eme ka o sie ike ikwuputa ya, mgbe ufodu, o yiri ka otu ihe ndi Salafis nwere bu ndi isi nke Sufism. Ndị Salafis nke a na-akpọ Alakụba Alakụba na-ebibi ebe obibi Sufi ugboro ugboro. Sufis, na nzaghachi, jụ Salafism.

E nwere ihe ndabere maka esemokwu ahụ bụ na Sufism bụ un-Islam, n'ihi na ọ dịghị ihe àmà na-egosi na e nwere ozizi ma ọ bụ omume ndị Sufi n'oge Onye-amuma. Amaokwu nke Quran nke Sufis na-eji mee ka o doo anya na ọnọdụ ha adịghị enye ezi aka. O doro anya na e kwuru na Quran na walis nke Chineke ekwesịghị ịtụ egwu ma ọ bụ na-eru uju, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ma ọ dịghị ihe ọ bụla iji gosi na ihe Sufis pụtara wali bụ otu ihe ahụ ọ pụtara wali na ọrụ. Gwakọta okwu okwu nke Quranic na echiche ndi sitere na ihe omuma nke ndi Hellenist agbanweghi eziokwu ahu bu na echiche ndi ahu sitere na ha nke ndi Grik karia nke Quran. N'otu echiche, ndị isi Alakụba na-akatọ Sufism bụ eziokwu. Nsogbu banyere arụmụka ha bụ na ọ bụghị naanị Sufism ka a na-ahụ anya na ndekọ akụkọ ihe mere eme narị afọ abụọ ma ọ bụ atọ mgbe Onye amụma ahụ nwụsịrị, kamakwa ọtụtụ akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke Islam. Otutu nke Sharia bu ihe ndi mmadu kwenyere na ndi ozo karia ederede nke Quran. Ọtụtụ echiche eji na nkà mmụta okpukpe nke ndị nkuzi Alakụba niile mechara, gụnyere Ibn Taymiyya, sitere na ndị Hellenist. Okwu a bu “Sharia” putara nani otu ugbo na mgbe ozo, o putara ihe putara ihe. O nwere ike ịbụ na Islam sitere na onye amụma Muhammad, mana nkọwa ya na nhazi ya bụ ọrụ nke ọgbọ ndị na-esote ya. Na njedebe, mgbe ahụ, enweghị ike ịkwagide echiche Sufism dị ka un-islam.

Dịka ndị iro Alakụba nke Sufism na-arụ ụka na ọ bụ onye Alakụba, ya mere ụfọdụ ndị na-abụghị ndị Alakụba nke Sufism na-arụ ụka na ọ bụ ndị na-Alakụba. Ndị a gụnyere ọtụtụ n'ime ndị na-eso ụzọ nke Sufi Order nke Inayat Khan guzobere na London na 1914, nke nwere ngalaba ugbu a, gụnyere mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ na ọwụwa anyanwụ America. Yiri arụmụka yiri nke ahụ bụ ndị na-agụ Idries Shah, onye ọrụ ya bụ ewu ewu nke ukwuu na West na 1970s ruo 1990s, na ndị na-eso ụzọ ụfọdụ "Westernist" Western Sufi nyere iwu. O nwekwara ihe ọzọ kpatara arụmụka a. Enwere ike ịghọta Sufism dị ka mysticism, na mysticism abụghị naanị Islamic. Ihe nwere ike mata dị ka mysticism dị tupu Islam, ma dịrị na mpụga Alakụba. Nsogbu a na arụmụka a bụ na ọ bụ ezie na enwere ike ịchọta mysticism n'ime Sufism, ihe dị n'ime Sufism abụghị ihe omimi. Dị ka anyị hụworo, ọtụtụ bụ nke Islam. Na njedebe, mgbe ahụ, echiche Sufism dị ka onye na-abụghị Alakụba enweghị ike ịkwagide. Sufism bụ akụkụ nke Islam.

References

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Ụbọchị Post:
10 August 2015

 

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