Ska Gakkai

SŌKA GAKKAI

SŌKA GAKKAI TIMELINE

1871 (ụbọchị 6 nke ọnwa nke isii): Makiguchi Tsunesaburō, onye guzobere Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai (uetù Na-amụ Akwụkwọ Bara Uru), a mụrụ Watanabe Chōshichi n'obodo a na-akpọ Kashiwazaki, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. A nakweere ya mgbe ọ dị afọ isii n'ime ezinụlọ Makiguchi wee kwaga Otaru, Hokkaidō mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na atọ.

1889: Makiguchi banyere Hokkaidō Normal School (onye buuru Hokkaido University of Education) na Sapporo. Mgbe ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ, ọ malitere ịkụzi ihe na ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị nke ejikọtara na Normal School.

1893: Makiguchi gbanwere aha ya nye Tsunesaburō.

1900 (February 11): Toda Jōsei, onye isi oche nke abụọ nke Ska Gakkai (uetù Na-amụ Amụ Valkpụrụ), mụrụ Toda Jin'ichi na Ishikawa Prefecture. Ya na ezinụlọ ya kwagara Ishikari, Hokkaido afọ abụọ ka e mesịrị.

1901 (Eprel): Makiguchi ya na nwunye ya na ụmụ ya si Sapporo kwaga Tokyo.

1903 (October 15): Makiguchi bipụtara akwụkwọ mbụ ya, Geography nke Ndụ mmadụ, (Jinsei chirigaku ).

1910: Makiguchi sonyeere Kyōdokai (Home Town Association).

1917: Toda nwetara ikike izi ihe nke ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị wee malite izi ihe na Mayachi Elementary School na Yūbari, Hokkaido.

1920: Toda gara Makiguchi mgbe ọ kwagara Tokyo. Makiguchi nyeere Toda aka inweta ọkwá ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị na isi obodo, ma ha abụọ malitere mmekọrịta ndụ na onye na-eso ụzọ.

1922 (Disemba): Toda kwụsịrị ịkụzi ihe na Mikasa Elementary School wee hapụ ọrụ ahụ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị.

1923: Toda guzobere ulo akwukwo nke onwe ya a na-akpọ Jishū Gakkan nke raara nye ndi akwadebe umu akwukwo ulo akwukwo elementrị maka ule nbanye ulo akwukwo ulo akwukwo; ihe omumu ihe omumu a sitere na echiche Makiguchi nke nkuzi pragmatical. Toda gbanwere aha ya ịbụ Jōgai (“n’azụ ebe e wusiri ike”).

1928 (Jenụwarị 2): Ikeda Daisaku (nke mbụ Taisaku) mụrụ na ebe bụ ugbu a obodo neighborhoodmori nke Wardta Ward, Tokyo.

1928 (June): Onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị Mitani Sōkei kwenyesiri ike na Makiguchi ịrara onwe ya nye okpukpe Budhi Buddhist Nichiren Shōshū. Toda mechara gbaso ihe nlereanya onye nkụzi ya.

1930 (November 18): Makiguchi bipụtara Mpịakọta nke Sōka kyōikugaku taikei ( Usoro nke Uru-ingmepụta Mmụta Ọmụmụ ); Toda hụrụ maka mbipụta nke ederede a ma kwado okwu ahụ sọka, ma ọ bụ “ihe okike bara uru,” dị ka aha maka echiche agụmakwụkwọ Makiguchi. Emesiri eme ememe ncheta ụbọchị mbipụta a dịka oge ntọala Ska Gakkai.

1932: Makiguchi lara ezumike nká n'ụlọ akwụkwọ.

1935: Makiguchi na Toda malitere ibipụta magazin ahụ Shinkyō (Ozizi Ọhụrụ), nke butere usoro iheomume “mgbanwe agụmakwụkwọ, mgbanwe okpukperechi” (kyōiku kakumei / shūkyō kakumei ).

1937 (Jenụwarị 27): A na-ezukọ nzukọ nzukọ nke Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai na ụlọ oriri na ọ Tokụ Tokụ Tokyo .

1940: Gọọmentị Japan tinyere Iwu Iwu Okpukpe na Ska Skika Kyōiku Gakkai nke ndị uwe ojii pụrụ iche dị elu na-enyochakwu. N'agbanyeghị nke a, Makiguchi na ndị isi Gakkai ndị ọzọ raara onwe ha nye ọtụtụ afọ na-esote ịhazi ọtụtụ narị ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ ma jiri ịnụ ọkụ n'obi na shakubuku, ụdị nke ntọghata a kwalitere n'ime ọdịnala Nichiren Shōshū. Mgbe ndị Gakkai kwadoro shakubuku na-agbasi mbọ ike, nzukọ a toro ihe karịrị puku mmadụ ise debara aha na 1943.

1940 (October 20): a họpụtara Makiguchi Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai onye isi oche mbụ, na Toda onye isi nchịkwa ya.

1941 (June 20): Skika Kyōiku Gakkai weputara oge ohuru ohuru Kachi sọzō (Uru Creation).

1942 (May 10): Gọọmentị Japan kwụsịrị Kachi sọzō bipụtara na nke itoolu.

1943 (July 6): Makiguchi, Toda, na iri na itoolu ndị isi Gakkai jidere n'ọtụtụ ebe n'oge mwakpo ndị uwe ojii. E boro ha ebubo na ha dara iwu Iwu Nchedo Udo ma jide ha mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Sugamo dị na Tokyo. Makiguchi na Toda bụ naanị ndị isi abụọ jụrụ ịjụ nkwenye ha.

1944 (November 18): Makiguchi Tsunesaburō nwụrụ n'ihi erighị ihe na-edozi ahụ n'ụlọ ọgwụ dị na Mkpọrọ Sugamo.

1944 (November 18): Toda, mgbe ọnwa ole na ole nke ọmụmụ ihe siri ike nke Lotus Sūtra na-abụ abụ Lotus aha namu-myōhō-renge-kyō (na daimoku) ọtụtụ nde oge, hụrụ ọhụụ nke o sonyere na Bodhisattvas na-enweghị atụ nke Earthwa (jiyu no bosatsu).

1945 (July 3): A tọhapụrụ Toda na nkwenye, naanị izu ole na ole tupu Japan enyefee ndị agha Allied na August 15. Ọ gbanwere aha ya si Jōgai gaa J tosei ("ebe ewusiri ike dị nsọ") wee malite ịmaliteghachi Gakkai.

1946 (March): Toda gbanwere aha nzukọ ahụ site na Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai na S toka Gakkai (Valtù Na-amụ Ihe Bara Uru). Otu ohuru a gbanwegoro zukọtara n'okpukpu nke abụọ nke ụlọ ọrụ Toda na-agụ akwụkwọ na mmụta mmụta dị anya Nihon Shōgakkan.

1946 (May 1): A họpụtara Toda onye isi nchịkwa nke Skaka Gakkai.

1947 (August 14): Ikeda soro enyi ya gaa nzukọ ọmụmụ Skaka Gakkai; ọ sonyeere otu ahụ ụbọchị iri ka e mesịrị.

1949 (Jenụwarị 3): Ikeda malitere ịrụ ọrụ na Nihon Shōgakkan.

1950 (November 12): Toda gbara arụkwaghịm dịka onye isi ụlọ ọrụ Ska Gakkai.

1951 (Eprel 4): Mbipụta mbụ nke Seikyō shinbun (Akwụkwọ Nsọ Na-akụzi), bipụtara oge ga-abụ ụlọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi bụ isi nke Gakkai, bipụtara.

1951 (May 3): Toda nakweere nhọpụta dị ka onyeisi oche nke abụọ nke Ska Gakkai na nnọkọ nke ndị òtù 1,500.

1951 (May): Mwepụta nke Great March nke Shakubuku (shakubuku daikụshin) nke ahụ hụrụ na Ska Gakkai si na nhụsianya pụta na nnukwu okpukpe okpukpe Japan kachasị ukwuu.

1951 (November 18): Mbipụta mbụ nke Akwụkwọ ntuziaka Shakubuku (Shakubuku kyōten) bụ nke e bipụtara, akwụkwọ nke, maka afọ iri na itoolu na-esote, nyere ndị otu Gakkai nkọwa nke echiche Buddhist Nichiren na arụmụka iji megide "ịrọ òtù ụgha" ka ha na-eme ntọghata.

1952 (Eprel 27): "Ememe Tanuki," ihe omume nke otu ndị otu ụmụ nwoke na-eto eto na-aga njem nsọ na isi ụlọ nsọ Nichiren Shūshū Taisekiji jidere onye ụkọchukwu Shōshū aha ya bụ Ogasawara Jimon.

1952 (Eprel 28): Mbipụta mbụ nke Ntughari ohuru nke oru zuru oke nke Nichiren Ukwu ( Shinpen Nichiren Daishōnin gosho zenshū) bipụtara. A maara dị ka Gosho zenshū ma ọ bụ naanị nke Gosho, otu nchịkọta nke ihe odide Nichiren nke na-anọgide na-abụ isi mmalite nzukọ maka omume Buddha. E bipụtara ya na ụbọchị ncheta abụ abụ Nichiren nke mbụ namu-myōhō-renge-kyō (na daimoku) narị afọ asaa tupu mgbe ahụ.

1953 (Jenụwarị 2): A họpụtara Ikeda ka ọ bụrụ onye isi Ndị Ntorobịa.

1953 (November 25): Ikeda gbanwere aha ya nyere Daisaku.

1953: Ska Gakkai malitere ide ederede na nyocha "nyocha oge" (nin'yō shiken) iji nwalee ndị isi ntorobịa na ihe ọmụma banyere ozizi Buddhist Nichiren.

1954 (October 31): Toda nyochara puku ndị otu puku ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị na-eto eto na Taisekiji site na elu ịnyịnya ọcha.

1954 (November 7): Ngalaba Ntorobịa nwere asọmpi egwuregwu mbụ ya na mgbago nke Mahadum Nihon na Tokyo; ihe omume a bụ ihe nlereanya maka arụmọrụ Skaka Gakkai na-esote.

1954 (22 November): Skaka Gakkai guzobere Ngalaba Omenala (Bunkabu), otu ngalaba a na-etinye aka na ịhọrọ ndị ga-aga ime ntuli aka na ịchịkọta ndị otu iji chịkọta votu.

1954 (Disemba 13): A họpụtara Ikeda onye isi mmekọrịta ọha na eze Skaka Gakkai.

955 (March 11): Na mmemme a maara dị ka "arụmụka Otaru" (Otaru montō), ndị otu na Ska Gakkai's Study Department gbara ndị ụkọchukwu si na Minobu darikarị nke Budhi Buddhist Nichiren aka na arụmụka banyere ozizi.

1955 (Eprel 3): Ndị otu Skaka Gakkai's Culture Division meriri ntuli aka na kansụl obodo na mpaghara Tokyo na obodo ndị ọzọ; nke a akara oge mbụ Skaka Gakkai gbara ndị ọchụnta ya n'ọfịs.

1955: Na njedebe nke afọ a, Ska Gakkai kwuru na ndị ezinụlọ 300,000.

1956 (8 July): Skaka Gakkai gbara mmadụ isii na-aga ime ntuli aka na House of Councilunci (Upper House); atọ a hoputara.

1956 (August 1): Toda wepụtara edemede edemede akpọrọ “Na Njikọ jikọrọ Aka nke Ọchịchị na Buddha” (Utbutsu myōgō ron) na magazin ọmụmụ Gakkai Daibyaku agbaa (Nnukwu White Lotus).

1957 (June): Ndị otu Gakkai na ndị mmekọ nke Tanrō, otu ndị na-egwupụta akụ na Yūbari, Hokkaidō, na esemokwu banyere ịme ntuli aka na nkwekọrịta ọnụ.

1957 (July 3): Mmalite nke ihe omume e mere ncheta dị ka "Osaka Incident" mere. E jidere Ikeda Daisaku na Osaka n'ike ya dịka onye isi ndị ọrụ na-ahụ maka ndị ntorobịa nke Ska Gakkai maka ilekọta ọrụ ndị mebere mmebi iwu nke ntuli aka.

1957 (Septemba 8): Toda wepụtara "Nkwupụta maka Mgbochi Ọkụ Hydrogen," na-akpọ maka ntaramahụhụ ọnwụ dị ka ntaramahụhụ maka ndị ajọ mmadụ na-eji ngwa ọgụ a.

1957 (Disemba): Ska Gakkai karịrị ihe mgbaru ọsọ Toda Jōsei kwuru maka ezinụlọ 750,000 gbanwere.

1958 (Eprel 2): ​​Toda Jōsei nwụrụ n'ihi ọrịa imeju. Ka ọ na-erule oge ọnwụ Toda, Ska Gakkai kwuru na ihe karịrị otu nde ezinụlọ na-agbaso.

1958 (June 30): A họpụtara Ikeda ka ọ bụrụ onye isi nke ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị ahaziri ahaziri nke Ska Gakkai, na-anọchi ọkwa nke General Manager.

1958 (Septemba 23): Ndị na-akwado 70,000 Gakkai gbakọtara na Gioen National Stadium na Tokyo iji lelee ndị otu 3,000 na-eme egwuregwu asọmpi ise nke nzukọ ahụ.

1959 (June 30): A họpụtara Ikeda ịbụ onyeisi nke ndị isi oche nke Ska Gakkai.

1960 (May 3): A họpụtara Ikeda Daisaku onye isi nke atọ nke Ska Gakkai.

1960 (October 2): Ikeda hapụrụ ya na ndị isi Gakkai na nleta United States, Canada, na Brazil, na-emeghe mgbasa nke Ska Gakkai na ụlọ ọrụ ụwa. Njikọ a gbasoro njem na Asia, Europe, Middle East, Australia, India, na ebe ndị ọzọ n'afọ ndị sochirinụ.

1961 (November 27): Ska Gakkai guzobere Njikọ Ọchịchị Dị Ọcha (Kōmei Seiji Renmei), bụ nke mere nke ọma gbara mmadụ itoolu maka oflọ Ndị Ndụmọdụ na Jenụwarị, 1962.

1962 (Eprel 2): ​​mbipụta mbụ nke Kẹmei shinbun e bipụtara; akwụkwọ akụkọ a ghọrọ isi mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi maka ọrụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

1963 (October 18): Ska Gakkai's Min-on Concert Association malitere; ọ kwadoro ọtụtụ puku ọrụ ngosi na afọ ndị sochirinụ.

1964 (May 3): Ikeda kagburu ngalaba ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị na Ska Gakkai ma kwupụta na site ugbu a, otu a ga-abụ nzukọ okpukpe kpamkpam. Ska Gakkai kwuputara na ihe karịrị nde ezinụlọ 3.8.

1964 (November 8): Otu narị puku ndị Gakkai sonyere na Ememe Omenala ( bunkasai ) na National Stadium na Sendagaya, Tokyo. Ska Gakkai mere otutu ndi ozo di iche iche na ndi ozo.

1964 (Nọvemba 17): Ikeda kwuputara mgbasa nke Kōmei Seiji Renmei na ntọala nke "Party Party Ọchịchị" (Kōmeitō).

1965 (Jenụwarị):  Seikyō shinbun malitere iburu serial nkeji nke Mgbanwe nke mmadu ( Ningen kakumei ), akwụkwọ a na-ahụ anya nke akụkọ Ska Gakkai na akụkọ ndụ Ikeda Daisaku nke ndị otu bịara lere anya dị ka ederede dị mkpa.

1965 (Ọktọba): N'agbata Ọktoba 9 na 12, nde mmadụ asatọ nọ na Japan nyere ihe karịrị ijeri yen 35.5 maka owuwu nke Shōhondō, nnukwu ụlọ nzukọ ọhụrụ ga-ewu na Taisekiji iji debe ụlọ daigohonzon , calligraphic mandala nke na-eje ozi dịka isi ihe ofufe nke Ska Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū.

1967 (Jenụwarị 29): A họpụtara mmadụ iri abụọ na ise Kōmeitō n'ụlọ omeiwu (Lower House).

1968 (Eprel 1): Junior na Senior High Schools (Ska Gakuen) hiwere na Tokyo, na-egosi mmalite nke ụlọ akwụkwọ akwadoro nke ụlọ akwụkwọ Gkakai nke Skaka Gakkai.

1969 (October 19): Ska Gakkai weputara New Student Alliance (Shin Gakusei Undō) dị ka azịza ya nye Ndị Mmụta Mmụta na-eme mkpesa na mmeghari ohuru nke US-Japan Security Treaty. Ndị 70,000 nke Gakkai's Student Division zukọtara na Tokyo Yoyogi Park.

1969 (Nọvemba): Ihe omume emere ka amara dị ka genron shuppan bōgai mondai , ma ọ bụ “nsogbu nke igbochi nnwere onwe ikwu okwu na nke nta akụkọ” mgbalị ndị gbara gburugburu nke Kōmeitō na ndị otu jikọrọ aka gbochiri ibipụta akwụkwọ a M katọrọ Skaka Gakkai.

1969 (Disemba 28): A họpụtara mmadụ iri anọ na asaa Kōmeitō na Lower House, na Kōmeitō natara ihe karịrị 10 pasent nke votu a ma ama. Ọ bụ ugbu a nke atọ kachasị ukwuu na nri ndị Japan.

1970 (Jenụwarị): Ska Gakkai kwuru na ndị ezinụlọ 7.55 nde.

1970 (May 3): Na ntinye nke M katọrọ Skaka Gakkai asịrị, Ikeda Daisaku kwupụtara ọkwa nkewa nke Ska Gakkai na Kōmeitō na iwu Gakkai ọhụrụ nke seikyō bunri , ma ọ bụ “nkewa nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na okpukpe.”

1971 (Eprel 2): ​​Mahadum Sōka mepere na Hachiōji, ọdịda anyanwụ Tokyo.

1971 (June 15): Takeiri Yoshikatsu, onye isi nke Kōmeitō, soro Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei gaa ndị mmadụ Republic of China dịka akụkụ nke ozi nke weghaara mmekọrịta nke mmekọrịta n'etiti China na Japan.

1972 (May 5): Ikeda zutere na nke mbụ ya na onye ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Britain bụ Arnold J. Toynbee na nke mbụ nke ọtụtụ narị mkparịta ụka na ndị a ma ama. “Dị "mkparịta ụka" ahụ ghọrọ akụkụ bụ isi nke mgbasa ozi Gakkai na mgbalị ịgbasa mgbe oge a gasịrị.

1972 (October): Ska Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū mere emume nke Shōhondō, nnukwu ụlọ nzukọ nke oge a na Taisekiji nke nwere ike ịnabata ihe karịrị puku mmadụ isii.

1973 (May 3): Fuji Art Museum meghere na Shizuoka; mgbe e mesịrị, ọ kwagara Hachiōji, na-esote Mahadum Sōka, ma degharịa ya Tokyo Fuji Art Museum.

1974 (Disemba 5): Ikeda zutere Premier Zhou Enlai na Beijing.

1975 (Jenụwarị 26): E hiwere Soka Gakkai International (SGI) na Nzukọ Udo Worldwa na Guam, ma kwupụtara Ikeda Daisaku SGI onyeisi oche.

1976 (Machị): tabloid Gekkan pen (Monthy Pen) bidoro ibipụta usoro dị iche iche dị n'etiti Ikeda na ụmụ nwanyị isii, gụnyere ndị isi ndị isi ụmụnwaanyị. Ska Gakkai gbara akwụkwọ maka nkwutọ na Courtlọikpe District Tokyo kwadoro ya.

1977 (Ọktọba): Ska Gakkai mepere Toda Memorial Park, ebe ili ozu mbụ ya dị n'èzí ụlọ nsọ Nichiren Shōshū na nke mbụ n'ime ụlọ iri na atọ dị egwu nke otu ahụ wuru na Japan. Asọmpi maka ili ndị Gakkai bidoro ịbawanye n'etiti Ska Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū.

1977: Esemokwu mbụ dị n'etiti Ikeda Daisaku na ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū mere.

1978 (June 30): Skaka Gakkai weputara nkwupụta na Seikyō shinbun ikwughachi nkwupụta usoro ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshō.

1978 (November 7): Ikeda duuru puku ndị nlekọta Gakkai puku abụọ gaa Taisekiji na "njem mgbaghara" (owabi tōzan).

1979: Ngalaba Ntorobịa guzobere Nzukọ Udo, na Nwaanyị lụrụ ụmụ nwanyị na ndị otu obere ndị ọzọ gbasoro ụdị atụmatụ a. Udo ụwa, n'ime Ska Gakkai kemgbe mmalite 1960s dị ka isiokwu na-eduzi, ghọrọ nchegbu etiti nzukọ site na oge a gaa n'ihu.

1979 (Eprel 24): Ikeda gbara arụkwaghịm dị ka onye isi nke atọ nke Skaka Gakkai. O weghachitere onodu a dika onye isi oche ma kwadobe ya dika onye isi oche nke SGI. Ọ nọgidere na-enwe profaịlụ dị ala ihe dịka otu afọ. A malitere Hōjō Hiroshi dị ka onyeisi oche nke anọ nke Gakkai.

1981 (Eprel): Skaka Gakkai debara aha ya dị ka NGO (nzukọ na-abụghị nke gọọmentị) na United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

1981 (July 18): A họpụtara Akiya Einosuke nke ise bụ onyeisi oche Gakkai.

1983 (Jenụwarị 25): Ikeda wepụtara “Peace Proposal” nke izizi ya

1984 (Jenụwarị 2): A họpụtara Ikeda ka ọ bụrụ onye isi Nichiren Shōshū nke onye nnọchi anya Shōshbot bụ Chief Abbot Abe Nikken.

1984 (Septemba 29 na 30): Emere Ememe Omenala Ntorobịa Worldwa na Osaka's Kōshien Stadium.

1990 (Disemba): Isi agha nke abụọ dị n'etiti Ikeda Daisaku na ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū mere. Mkparịta ụka dị n'etiti ndị nchụaja Shōshū na ndị ọchịchị Skaka Gakkai malitere n'ọtụtụ usoro n'etiti ogige abụọ ahụ.

1991: Esemokwu dị n'etiti ndị ụkọchukwu na ndị ndú Skaka Gakkai mụbara.

1991 (November 28): Na njedebe ikpeazụ, ndị ụkọchukwu nyere "ọkwa nke nchụpụ nke Ska Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū." Site ugbu a gaa n'ihu, achọrọ ndị ụka chọrọ ịbanye n'ụlọ nsọ dị iche iche, gụnyere isi ụlọ nsọ Taisekiji, ka ha kwe nkwa na ha enweghị nkwado na Skaka Gakkai. A machibidoro ndị Gakkai site na njem njem gaa isi ihe ha na-efe.

1992 (August 11): Nichiren Shōshū nyere iwu a na-achụpụ Ikeda Daisaku.

1993 (October 2): Ska Gakkai malitere inye ihe ofufe ( gohonzon ) oyiri mere site na transcription nke daigohonzon mandala nke Shōshū Chief Abbot Nichikan dere na 1720. A gwara ndị òtù Gakkai ka ha gbanwee ochie ha gohonzon ma nata ndi ohuru site na Skaka Gakkai.

1995 (Jenụwarị): Na nzaghachi nke ala ọma jijiji nke Hanshin Awaji nke Jenụwarị 17 nke bibiri obodo Kobe na mpaghara gbara ya gburugburu, Sōka Gakkai mepere erslọ Ọrụ Omenala iri maka ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ, kpọkọta ọtụtụ puku ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo, ma chịkọta karịa 230 nde yen maka enyemaka enyemaka.

1998 (Mee): Nichiren Shōshū bibiri Shōhondō na Taisekiji.

1999 (October 5): Kōmeitō, nke bụ New Kōmeitō mgbe ọtụtụ iri afọ nke mgbanwe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, banyere na Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). Kōmeitō soro ndị LDP na gọọmentị ruo 2009, yana ndị LDP-Kōmeitō jikọrọ aka na gọọmentị na Disemba, 2012.

2001 (May 3): Mahadum Soka nke America mepere na Aliso Viejo, California.

2002 (Eprel): Skaka Gakkai nyere iwu ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ.

2006 (November 9): Harada Minoru ka a họpụtara isi nke Skaka Gakkai nke isii.

2011 (Machị): Mgbe ala ọma jijiji nke March 11, tsunami, na ọdachi nuklia bibiri ebe ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Japan, Ska Gakkai biri ihe karịrị mmadụ 5,000 gbara ọsọ ndụ na Culturelọ Ọrụ Omenala n'ofe mpaghara ahụ, chịkọtara ọtụtụ narị nde yen na enyemaka mberede, na kpọkọtara ọtụtụ puku ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo si n'ofe Japan iji kere òkè ma ọrụ nnapụta na enyemaka ogologo oge.

2013 (November 18): Ska Gakkai ji iwu mepee isi ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ ya na Shinanomachi, Tokyo. Nzukọ a na-ekwu ugbu a na ndị ezinụlọ 8.27 nde mmadụ, Soka Gakkai International na-ekwu na ihe karịrị nde mmadụ 1.5 nọ na mba 192 na-abụghị Japan.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Enwere ike ịkọwa Ska Gakkai dị ka usoro okpukpe ọhụrụ na-aga nke ọma na Japan. Otu a na - ekwu na nde ezinụlọ 8.27 nọ na Japan, yana ihe karịrị nde mmadụ 1.5 nọ na 192 mba ndị ọzọ n'okpuru nzukọ ndị esenidụt esenidụt Soka Gakkai International, ma ọ bụ SGI. Ọnụọgụgụ ndị a na-abawanye ụba, mana nyocha ejiri ọnụ ọgụgụ emere n'ime iri afọ ole na ole gara aga na-egosi na ihe dịka ọkara abụọ na atọ nke ndị Japan matara na ha bụ nke Ska Gakkai (McLaughlin 2009; Roemer 2009) Nke a mere nzukọ a nnukwu òtù okpukpe na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mba ahụ. Onweghi ndi otu ndi Buddhist nke temple, ndi Shintō, ma obu ndi ozo ndi ozo choro ikike Sakka Gakkai nwere ike ichikota ndi choro maka ime ka ndi mmadu gbanwee, ime ntuli aka, na ihe ndi ozo.

Akụkọ Ska Gakkai na-egosi ọdịiche dị na ya na ọtụtụ mmegharị okpukpe ọhụụ nke Japan. Nke mbu, dika aha ya Sōka Gakkai, ma obu “Value Creation Study Association” na-egosi, otu a amaliteghi dika okpukpere chi, mana e hiwere ya dika nzuko mgbanwe mmuta. Nke abụọ, Ska Gakkai nwere mmetụta atọ dị iche iche, nke ọ bụla n'okpuru ndị isi atọ mbụ ya: Makiguchi Tsunesaburō (1871-1944), Toda Jōsei (1900-1944), na Ikeda Daisaku (1928-). Onye ọ bụla n’ime ndị guzobere ya lekọtara ọhụụ ọhụụ ọhụụ.

Ska Gakkai na-ekwu na ntọala ya dị ka November 18, 1930, mgbe onye isi oche mbụ ya bụ Makiguchi Tsunesaburō bipụtara nke mbụmpịakọta edemede ya, Usoro nke Uru-ingmepụta Mmụta Ọmụmụ ( Sōka kyōikugaku taikei ), na-ede akara mmalite nke Cretù Na-amụ Ihe Bara Uru (Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai), onye bu ụzọ nke Gka Gakkai. A mụrụ Makiguchi na 1871 na mpaghara bụ ugbu a Niigata Prefecture na mgbago ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Japan, mana ọ kwagara n'àgwàetiti ugwu nke Hokkaido mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na atọ, ebe a zụlitere ya ma mesịa gụọ akwụkwọ dịka onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị. Na 1901, ya na nwunye ya na ụmụ ya si n'obodo Hokkaido nke Sapporo kwaga Tokyo, ebe ọ malitere ọrụ nkuzi na ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị Tokyo. Ya na ndị nwere ọgụgụ isi metụtara mgbatị mmụta metụtara ya ka ọ na-ebipụta akwụkwọ na edemede. Site na 1910, Makiguchi sonyeere Kyōdokai, ma ọ bụ Home Town Association, otu ìgwè na-eme nchọpụta banyere ụkpụrụ omume na nyocha nke ọdịbendị obodo n'ime ime obodo; otu a gụnyere onye akụkọ ọdịnala Yanagita Kunio (1875-1962) na onye nkuzi ama ama n'ụwa niile Nitobe Inazō (1862-1933). N'ihi nnabata ndị ọkà mmụta na mpaghara ndị a na site na nyocha nke aka ya, usoro mmụta na nkà ihe ọmụma metụtara echiche Makiguchi, gụnyere echiche neo-Kantian na pragmatism, nke si Europe na United States kwaga Japan na njedebe nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ.

Na November 18, 1930, Makiguchi bipụtara Mpịakọta nke Otu Usoro nke Uru-ingmepụta Mmụta Ọmụmụ ( Sōka kyōikugaku taikei ). Mgbe Makiguchi chịkọtara edemede ya banyere mgbanwe agụmakwụkwọ na mpịakọta a, ọ bụ mmalite nke usoro nke ịchikọta oge agụmakwụkwọ niile, yana ọdịmma ya mgbe nke a gasịrị na-aga n'okpukpe. Na 1928, Makiguchi ghọrọ onye Budhi Buddhist Nichiren Shōshū. Nichiren Shōshū, ma ọ bụ “Nichiren True Sect,” na-agbaso nkuzi nke Nichiren (1222-1282), onye Buddhist na-eme mgbanwe n’oge ochie. N'ịbụ onye a zụrụ azụ na ọdịnala Tendai, Nichiren kewara ụlọ nsọ ndị siri ike ikwusa na naanị okwukwe na Lotus Sūtra , bụ nke e weere bụrụ ozizi ikpeazụ Buddha Śākyamuni nke akụkọ ihe mere eme, na omume nke ito aha Lotus na mkpụrụ akwụkwọ asaa namu-myōhō-renge-kyō bụ ụzọ dị irè iji nweta nzọpụta na Latbọchị Ikpeazụ nke Dharma Buddha ( mappō ) (hụ okpuru).

Na 1932, Makiguchi lara ezumike nká n'ụlọ akwụkwọ, ọ tụgharịrị mgbe nke ahụ gachara ọmụmụ na omume nke Buddhist Nichiren Shōshū. Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai malitere ịchọta nzukọ site na 1937, site na 1940s Makiguchi na nzukọ ahụ o guzobere, bụ nke kwuru na ihe dị ka puku mmadụ ise na elu ya, siri ike ịgbachitere ụkpụrụ Buddhist Nichiren. Site na 1941, Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai weputara oge akpọrọ aha Ihe Okike Oke (Kachi sọzō). Magazin a dị mkpirikpi gosipụtara ọtụtụ isiokwu nke Makiguchi bụ nke ọ na-agbagha amụma ọchịchị gọọmentị Japan. Ọchịchị Japan kwụsịrị Kachi sọzō mbipụta na nke itoolu ya; Makiguchi gwakwara gọọmentị maka mkpebi ya na nkenke ederede akpọrọ "Adreesị na Mbepu nke Mgbasa Ozi."

Na June 27, 1943, ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū kpọrọ Makiguchi na ndị isi Gakkai ndị ọzọ ka ha gaa n'isi ụlọ ọrụ na ụlọ nsọ Taisekiji. A gbara ha ume ka ha rubere isi n'iwu nke Iwu Okpukpe nke Iwu na iwu nke oge ọchịchị Japan nke Shintō site na inye Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai ndị na-arapara enshrine talismans ( kamifuda ) site na Nnukwu Shrine dị na Ise, n'agbanyeghị eziokwu ahụ bụ na omume ahụ bụ mmebi nke okpukpe Buddha Nichiren. Makiguchi jụrụ ime otú ahụ. Na July 6, Makiguchi, onye na-eso ụzọ ya Toda, na mmadụ iri na itoolu ndị isi Gakkai jidere na ebubo nke imebi Iwu Nchedo Udo. E boro ha ebubo na ha dara iwu Iwu Nchedo Udo ma tụọ ha mkpọrọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Sugamo dị na Tokyo. Makiguchi nwụrụ site na nri na-edozi ahụ na November 18, 1944.

Onye na-eso ụzọ Makiguchi Toda Jōsei dị ka onye ndụmọdụ ya, nke amụrụ na north Japan, toro na ịda ogbenye na agwaetiti Hokkaidō, wee jee n'isi obodo ukwu ahụ ịchụso ọdịmma ya na nkuzi. Ọbụna mgbe ọ hapụsịrị ọrụ nkuzi na mbubreyo 1922, Toda nọgidere na-ahụ onye nkụzi ya bụ Makiguchi, ma kwuo na ọganiihu ọfụma ya na azụmaahịa bụ nkuzi Makiguchi. Toda naanị gosipụtara nkwado zuru oke na Makiguchi site na ịjụ ikwenye na nrụgide steeti Japan iji kwenye nkwenye Nichiren Shōshū ya. Mgbe Toda nọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ, ọ hụrụ ọhụụ nke ọ sonyere na Bodhisattvas na-apụghị ịgụta ọnụ nke (wa ( jiyu no bosatsu ) na Vulture Peak ebe Buddha Śākyamuni na-anapụta ya Lotus Sūtra . Ọ kọwaara mkpughe a dị ka edemede maka ọrụ dị nsọ nke ịga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ nna ya ukwu Makiguchi iji gbasaa okpukpe Buddhist Nichiren Shōshū.

Mgbe a tọhapụrụ ya n'ụlọ mkpọrọ na July, 1945, izu ole na ole tupu Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ, Toda wepụtara onwe ya ịmaliteghachi ozi okpukpe nke Makiguchi. Ọ bụ ya na-agbanwe otu ndị site na obere mkpokọta ka ha nwee nzukọ otu okpukpe. Na 1946, ọ hapụrụ "agụmakwụkwọ" (kyōiku) site na aha, gbanwee aha otu ahụ na Ska Gakkai. Otu ndi emeghariri emegharia na mbu na ulo nke abuo nke ulo oru Toda na akwukwo mmuta di anya Nihon Shōgakkan. Na May 1, 1946, a họpụtara Toda ịbụ onye isi nchịkwa nke Ska Gakkai. Ka ọ gara n'ihu na-ebupụta azụmaahịa azụmahịa, ọ malitere inwe nzukọ ọmụmụ Gakkai mgbe niile (akpọrọ zadankai , ma ọ bụ “ịmụ akwụkwọ mkpagharị”) na ịhazi ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ndị ọhụrụ na-eme mgbanwe n'okpuru idu ndú nhazi nke otu a. Ọnọdụ akụ na ụba ọgba aghara nke Japan kpatara nsogbu maka azụmaahịa Toda, na November 12, 1950, Toda gbara arụkwaghịm dịka onye isi ụlọ ọrụ Ska Gakkai, na-ekwu maka ọdịda azụmahịa ya dị ka ihe akaebe nke nkwụghachi ụgwọ maka emezughị imezu iji wughachi nzukọ onye nkụzi Makiguchi. Ndị otu ahụ, bụ ndị nwegoro nwayọ nwayọ nwayọ nwayọ rue ugbu a, bidoro ịhazi maka ebumnobi mgbasa.

Na May 3, 1951, Toda nakweere nhọpụta dị ka onyeisi oche nke abụọ nke Ska Gakkai. N'oge nraranye ya, Toda gbara ndị òtù Gakkai aka ịgbanwe narị puku asaa na iri puku ise na Ska Gakkai tupu ọnwụ ya: "Ọ bụrụ na emezughị ebumnuche a mgbe m dị ndụ," ka ọ kwupụtara, "eburula m olili. Naanị tụfuo ozu m n'ime mmiri dị na Shinagawa. ” N'oge na-adịghị anya, ìgwè ahụ mepụtara aha ọma nke ọha na eze maka ime ntọgwara ike na ịkatọ okpukpe okpukpe na-agbasi ike. Tactzọ ndị a nwere ihe ịga nke ọma: site na 1951, Ska Gakkai toro site na puku mmadụ ole na ole iji kwuo ihe karịrị otu nde ezinụlọ na-agbaso na njedebe nke afọ iri. Imirikiti ndị mmadụ sonyeere otu ahụ n'afọ ndị sochiri agha bụ ụfọdụ n'ime nde ndị na-erikpu obodo Japan dị iche iche na-achọ nchekwa akụnụba, akụrụngwa mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na mmachi nke mmụọ. Toda dabere na nhazi nke nzukọ ahụ dị ka mkpakọrịta ọmụmụ (gakkai) gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ na-atụgharị uche na nkuzi Buddhist Nichiren ma na-adọta ndị mmadụ na-enweghị ikike na usoro iwu ziri ezi nke Ska Gakkai. Ọ dabere na mbụ otu ahụ mesiri ike n'echiche iji mesie uru ndị bara uru. Toda ji ihe bụ isi nke ofufe Nichiren tụnyere “igwe na-eweta obi ụtọ” nke na-enye ndị ọrụ ya ohere na-adịghị agwụ agwụ, ọ haziri ndị na-atụgharị uche ka ha bụrụ ndị ọchịagha na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma nke na-eji usoro aghụghọ na-enweghị mgbagha iji lụso “ịrọ òtù ụgha” (okpukpe ndị na-asọrịta mpi) ọgụ na ngbanwe ha. Ndị a tọghatara nwere obi ụtọ dị ka ndị na-abaghị uru dịka e nyere ha ọrụ nke ọ bụghị naanị ịmara iwu nke ozizi Nichiren Buddhist kamakwa ịkụziri ya ndị ọzọ. Ndị otu jikọtara ọmụmụ ha banyere Nichiren na Lotus na mkparịta ụka banyere uru, ụkpụrụ omume, na nyocha bara uru nke Toda sitere na Makiguchi yana akwụkwọ ikike nke nkà ihe ọmụma ọgbara ọhụrụ na akwụkwọ ụwa.

Approachzọ ire ahịa nke Ska Gakkai mere ka ọ gbanwee nke ndị ọhụrụ, ma ụzọ ike ya mekwara ka ìgwè ahụ nwee ihu ọha na-adịghị mma, karịsịa mgbe ọtụtụ mkparị gasịrị. Otu n'ime ihe ndị a kacha mara amara bịara bụrụ nke akpọrọ "Ememe Ogasawara" ma ọ bụ "Ememe Tanuki (Racoon Dog)." N’April 27, 1952, n’oge emume iji gosi akara ncheta narị afọ asaa nke abụ egwu Nichiren nke mbụ namu-myōhō-renge-kyō, otu ndi otu ndi otu ndi otu na ndi njem na Nichiren Shōshū isi ulo uka Taisekiji jidere onye nchu aja Shōshū aha ya bu Ogasawara Jimon. Ogasawara kwalitere atụmatụ arụmụka n'oge oge agha (nke Sōka Kyōiku Gakkai na ndị isi Shōsh opposed na-emegide) iji chịkọta ndị otu Nichiren niile n'otu ọgbakọ na-akwalite otu mba. Ndị Toda na ndị ntorobịa Gakkai boro ya ebubo na ha gwara ndị ọchịchị oge agha na Makiguchi jụrụ ịgbaso usoro ọchịchị Shintō, ma boro ya ebubo maka njide nke ndị isi Gakkai na ọnwụ nke Makiguchi. Onye ntorobịa Gakkai yipụrụ Ogasawara uwe mwụda ya, kpughee ya gburugburu ala Taisekiji, kwụnye ya mpempe akwụkwọ n'olu ya nke nwere ahịrịokwu a bụ "tanuki monk" (na-akpakọrịta ya na tanuki, anụmanụ nke pụtara na ọdịnala ndị Japan dị ka onye aghụghọ na-agbanwe agbanwe) ), ma kpọta ya n'ili Makiguchi, ebe a manyere ya ịbanye na mgbaghara ederede ederede. Akụkọ banyere ihe a merenụ na akwụkwọ akụkọ a ma ama mere ka ọha na eze nwee nkwanye ugwu maka Skaka Gakkai, onyonyo bịara kọwaa echiche ọha mmadụ banyere nzukọ na Japan kpamkpam.

E mere ka aha Gakka Gakkai mara omume ike mgbe ihe omume ọzọ a na-akpọ "Otaru arụmụka," mgbe ndị otu Ska Gakkai's Study Department gbara ndị ụkọchukwu nọ na Minobu Sect nke Nichiren Buddhism ka arụmụka banyere ozizi. Emere ihe omume a n'otu ụlọ ezumezu dị n'obodo Otaru (Hokkaido) nke ndị Gakkai juru, bụ ndị kwara ndị ụkọchukwu emo ma bo ha ebubo ofufe okpukperechi na nrụrụ ego. Ndị ụkọchukwu hapụrụ, Ska Gakkai kwupụtara na ha meriri arụmụka ahụ. Akwụkwọ ndị katụrụ Ska Gakkai site n'aka ndị otu Nichiren na òtù okpukpe ndị ọzọ malitere ịpụta n'ọtụtụ site n'oge a.

N'agbanyeghị na esemokwu na-arịwanye elu banyere usoro ya, Ska Gakkai nọgidere na-eto eto. Site na 1953, Ska Gakkai bidoro ijide ederede na nyocha "ntinye oge" (nin'yō shiken) iji nwalee ndị isi ntorobịa na ihe ọmụma banyere ozizi Buddhist Nichiren. Gọọmentị Gakkai gafere Japan gbasaa ngwa ngwa site n'oge a. Site na mmụba nchịkwa wee gbasaa na mpụga omume Buddha. Na May 9, 1954, Gakkai's Young Men Division Division onye ndu Ikeda Daisaku (1928-) guzobere Gungakutai (Military Band Corps), onye bu ụzọ nke Music Corps (Ongakutai) nke oge a, na-enwe mmasị na nkà na nzukọ ahụ ga-emikwu ike n'afọ ndị sochirinụ. Gungakutai rụrụ egwu egwu mbụ ya na mmiri ozuzo na Taisekiji na Ọktọba 31, 1954, mgbe Toda tụlere puku ndị otu puku ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ agbọghọ ka ha gbakwara ịnyịnya ọcha, ihe ndị nkatọ na-eme n'azụ otu ahụ lere anya dị ka ndị Japan. eze ukwu.

Ọganihu Gakkai kachasị ama na njedebe Buddha ọ gbasaa na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Site na Nọvemba 1954, Ska Gakkai guzobere Ngalaba Omenala (Bunkabu), otu ngalaba ahaziri iche maka ịhọrọ ndị ga-aga ime ntuli aka na ịchịkọta ndị otu iji chịkọta votu. N'April 3, 1955, ndị òtù Ska Gakkai's Culture Division meriri ntuli aka na kansụl obodo na mpaghara Tokyo na obodo ndị ọzọ; nke a kara akara oge mbụ Skaka Gakkai gbara ndị na-aga ime ya ọkwa. Na August 1, 1956, Toda weputara edemede nke akpọrọ "On the Harmonious Union of Government and Buddhism" (Utbutsu myōgō ron) na magazin ọmụmụ Gakkai Nnukwu White Lotus (Daibyaku agbaa), nke o kwuru na "naanị nzube anyị ji abanye na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị bụ iwu usoro nhọpụta nke mba (kokuritsu kaidan. ” Nkwupụta egwu banyere ụlọ ndị Gakkai nke Ska na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke mba ghọrọ usoro mgbasa ozi na Japan site n'oge a.

Oge mbụ nke Gakkai nke Gakkai banye na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nwere nsogbu. Na Eprel 23, 1957, otu ndị otu ụmụ nwoke na-eto eto na-agbachitere maka onye Gakkai na ntuli aka nke Osaka Upper House ka ejidere maka ikesa ego, sịga, na caramels n'ụlọ obibi ndị na-akwado ya, na imebi iwu ntuli aka, na July 3 n’afọ ahụ, na mbido ihe omume emere ncheta dị ka “Osaka Incident,” e jidere Ikeda Daisaku na Osaka. E jidere ya na ikike ya dị ka Skaka Gakkai's Ngalaba Ntorobịa nke Ndị Ọrụ maka ilekọta ọrụ ndị mejupụtara iwu nke ntuli aka. Ọ nọrọ izu abụọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ wee pụta n'ụlọ ikpe ugboro iri anọ na asatọ tupu ewepụ ya ebubo niile na Jenụwarị 1962. Ska Gakkai gosipụtara ihe a mere ka mmeri Ikeda meriri ọchịchị aka ike, na ikpe nke onye ndu na-eto eto kpaliri ndị òtù Ska Gakkai ka ukwuu mgbalị ime ka ndị mmadụ gbanwee na ịtụ vootu.

Ka ọ na-erule oge Toda Jōsei nwụrụ n'April 1958, Ska Gakkai kwuru na ihe karịrị otu nde ezinụlọ na-agbaso, na nha ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-eme ka nkwanye ùgwù, ọbụna site n'aka ndị ya na ya. E mere atụmatụ na ndị òtù Gakkai 250,000 jikọtara n'okporo ámá Tokyo iji lee ụda olu nke Toda ka ọ na-aga olili ozu ya na Eprel 20, 1957, ebe Prime Minister Kishi Nobusuke na Minista Mmụta Matsunaga Tō na-esurere onye ndu ahụ nwụrụ anwụ ihe nsure ọkụ.

Mgbe onye na-eso ụzọ Toda bụ Ikeda Daisaku weghaara ọkwa nke onyeisi oche atọ nke Gakkai na Mee, 1960, ọ malitere ịgbasa ìgwè ahụ. site na nzukọ ndị Buddhist nke lekwasịrị anya na Japan ka ha bụrụ ọrụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nwere iwu sara mbara n'okpukpe, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na ọdịbendị. N'okpuru nduzi nke Ikeda, Ska Gakkai guzobere alaka ụlọ ọrụ na Asia, Europe, North America, Brazil, na n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ụwa. N'okpuru Ikeda, Ska Gakkai guzobere usoro ụlọ akwụkwọ nke aka ya nke akwadoro, ndị otu na-akwado nkwado nka, na usoro mmụta ndị ọzọ na omenala.

Ska Gakkai gara n'ihu na-eto eto na Japan n'okpuru nduzi nke Ikeda na 1960s, na-akwado site na nchikota nke nzukọ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị site na otu Kōmeitō (tọrọ ntọala 1964) na ihe metụtara ya na ebumnuche nke iwulite "usoro nhazi mba" (kokuritsu kaidan). Ikpo okwu a, ụlọ ọrụ pụrụ iche nke temple maka emume, ka a ga-ewulite iwu gọọmentị iji gosi na ha mechara kẹsen rufu , nke Ska Gakkai sụgharịrị n'oge a pụtara ntụgharị nke otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ndị bi na Japan. Site na mbubreyo 1965, ndị otu Gakkai lekwasịrị anya na iwu nke Shōhondō, okeowuwu na Nichiren Shōshū isi temple Taisekiji n'ụlọ ahụ daigohonzon , mandala calligraphic nke Nichiren dere na 1279 nke na-ejere Sōka Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū ozi dị ka isi ihe ha na-efe. Ndị Shōshū na ndị isi Gakkai zoro aka na Shōhondō ruo ngwụsị afọ iri ka ọhụụ ziri ezi nke "ezigbo usoro nhazi" (nke honmon no kaidan), na-akanye ọrụ agwụla n'ịtụgharị ọha mmadụ.

Uto kwụsịrị na njedebe nke 1960s, n'otu oge mgbe a manyere Ska Gakkai na Kōmeitō ka ha kewapụ onwe ha. Nkewa gọọmentị a gbasoro ihe ọjọọ nke bidoro na Nọvemba, 1969 maka ihe ndị bịara mara dị ka "nsogbu na-egbochi nnwere onwe ikwu okwu na ndị nta akụkọ" (genron shuppan bōgai mondai ). Fujiwara Hirotatsu (1921-1999), onye ọkammụta na Mahadum Meiji, bipụtara akwụkwọ akpọrọ M katọrọ Skaka Gakkai ( Sịka gakkai o kiru ). O kwuru na ndị ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị Kōmeitō a ma ama na odeakwụkwọ General Liberal Democratic Party bụ Tanaka Kakuei gbara mbọ ka ha gbochie mbipụta ahụ. Mgbasa akụkọ banyere asịrị a gbara ndị ahịa ume Sịka gakkai o kiru na idei mmiri nke akwukwo ojoo maka Skaka Gakkai.

Na na na nke M katọrọ Skaka Gakkai asịrị, Ikeda Daisaku kwupụtara ọkwa nkewa nke Ska Gakkai na Kōmeitō na iwu Gakkai ohuru nke “nkewa nke ndoro ndoro ochichi na okpukpere chi” (seikyō bunri ). Nkewa nke okpukpe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị rụrụ ọrụ dị ka oge mmiri nye otu abụọ ahụ: Ska Gakkai so na obere obere ka nke a gasịrị, na Kōmeitō merụrụ ntuli aka na afọ iri na-esote. Ọbụna mgbe nkewa nke ndị gọọmentị ahụ gasịrị, ndị Gakkai dị nsọ nọgidere na-ele ntuli aka maka ndị na-aga ime Kōmeitō dịka akụkụ nke ọrụ okwukwe ha oge niile.

Site na mbido 1970s, Ska Gakkai si na ozi ya nke mmeba ike gbasaa iji zulite ọgbọ nke umu amuru nye ndi mbu ndi gbanwere na ndi na-eso uzo n'okpuru Ikeda Daisaku. Na October 12, 1972, n'oge emume akara akara mmeghe nke Shōhondō dechara na Taisekiji, Ikeda kwupụtara okwu na-ekwupụta mmalite nke Sōka Gakkai nke "Nke abụọ," na-akọwa ntụgharị site na mmụba iwe iwe na-eche Gakkai dị ka otu mba na-akwalite udo site na enyi na mgbanwe omenaala.

Nkwuputa ọkwa Ska Gakkai banyere ntụgharị ihu adịghị egbochi nkatọ si n'èzí ìgwè ahụ. Site na March 1976, tabloid Monthy Pen (Gekkan pen) bidoro ibipụta usoro dị iche iche dị n'etiti Ikeda na ụmụ nwanyị isii, gụnyere ndị isi ndị isi ụmụnwaanyị. Ska Gakkai gbara akwụkwọ maka mkparị, na Courtlọikpe Mpaghara Tokyo kpebiri maka ọdịmma ya; Gekkan pen A manyere ya ịrịọ mgbaghara, onye mbipụta ya Kumabe Taizō jere otu afọ na oge mmuta. Patternkpụrụ na-agagharị na ebubo tabloid na-esote ikpe Gakkai ghọrọ ihe gbanyesiri mkpọrọgwụ ike site na nke a, na-eme ka mbibi nke ọha Ska Gakkai mebie, na "nsogbu ụmụ nwanyị" (josei mondai) nọgidere bụrụ ọgụ nke ndị nta akụkọ na-aga n'ihu na-etinye n'ọrụ megide Ikeda ruo ugbu a.

Site na 1977, Ikeda malitere ịlụ ọgụ n'ihu ọha na ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū. N'ọtụtụ ihe n'ime afọ a Ikeda kwupụtara okwu yana edemede ebipụtara nke ọ mara ikike nke ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū aka. N'ime otu n'ime ndị a, edemede edemede akpọrọ "Ihe nkuzi banyere ihe nketa nke iwu kachasị mma nke ndụ" (Shōji ichidaiji ketsumyakushō kōgi) na Ska Gakkai bipụtara na ọtụtụ nde akwụkwọ nta, Ikeda kwusiri ike na Shōshū na-ekwu na otu agbụrụ na-alaghachikwuru onye guzobere Nichiren adịghị elu karịa njikọ ndị Gakkai maka Dharma site n'ịkpọ egwu namu-myōhō-renge-kyō. Mkparịta ụka siri ike n'etiti òtù abụọ ahụ dugara na Ska Gakkai na-ekwenye na usoro ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū na-ekwu, na 1979 Ikeda ka a na-amanye ịgbada n'ọkwa nke onyeisi oche Gakkai nke atọ iji were ọnọdụ nke Onyeisi Ala.

Ogologo n'etiti Sōka Gakkai na Nichiren Shōshū nọgidere na-agbasawanye na 1980s, na n'etiti afọ iri ahụ, ndị ụkọchukwu Shōshū hụrụ onwe ha na-enweghị obi iru ala nke otu nzukọ mba dị ike nke onye ọgụgụ isi ọha na eze na-eduzi nke nwere ike ikwu banyere Enlightenment nke Nkà ihe ọmụma Europe karịa ihe ọmụma nke ozizi Nichiren Buddhist kwere nkwa. Afọ ndị a hụrụ Ska Gakkai ka ọ na-eto eto na mba ụwa; gbasara udo, omenaala, na agụmakwụkwọ ụwa; hiwere isi na ikike Ikeda; ma dị anya na nzukọ nne na nna Nichiren Shōshū.

Na 1990, ọgba aghara nke abụọ dị n'etiti Ikeda Daisaku na ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū malitere. Mepee oghere dị n'etiti ndị nchụaja Shōshū na ndị ọchịchị Skaka Gakkai mụbara site na ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ n'etiti ogige abụọ ahụ. Ndị ụkọchukwu ahụ mere mkpesa banyere okwu Ikeda kwuru nke ọ katọrọ Abe Nikken. Ska Gakkai zara na ndepụta nke nchegbu ha banyere mmeso ndị ụkọchukwu na-emeso ndị otu ha. Site na mbido 1991, Ska Gakkai malitere ibipụta isiokwu na Seikyō shinbun nke na-akatọ Abe Nikken n'ihu ọha, nzukọ ahụ wee na-akwalite olili ozu nke ndị isi Gakkai na-enweghị ndị ụkọchukwu Nichiren Shōshū. Esemokwu dị n'etiti ndị isi abụọ ahụ ruru ebe njedebe na njedebe nke ọnwa Nọvemba, 1991 mgbe Nichiren Shōshū chụpụrụ Ska Gakkai; n’otu ụbọchị, ịrọ òtù chụpụrụ ihe karịrị pesenti iri itoolu na ise nke ndị ụka ya.

Gbochiri itinye aka na isi ihe ofufe ya nke enyere na Sh templeshū isi temple, Ska Gakkai mgbe 1991 kwadoro njirimara ya dị ka otu nzukọ nyefere kpamkpam na Ikeda. Na Eprel, 2002, Ska Gakkai nyere iwu ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ na-ekwupụta na a ga-akpọ Makiguchi, Toda, na Ikeda dị ka sandai kaichō (ọgbọ atọ nke ndị isi ala), "ndị ndụmọdụ ebighi ebi" ( eyen no shidōsha ) onye tọrọ ntọala ije; na nzukọ ahụ na-akwado ụkpụrụ nke shitei funi (“ihe jikọrọ nkekọ nke onye ndụmọdụ na onye na-eso ụzọ”); nakwa na ọkwa nke Skaka Gakkai bụ naanị nchịkwa. Ska Gakkai kwusiri ike ime ka onye isi ochichi gara aga Ikeda Daisaku.

N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ndị otu Gakkai abịawo mụta banyere Budhi Buddhist Nichiren n'ihe odide nke akwụkwọ Ikeda, na ndị raara onwe ha nye na-edozi ndụ ha na kalenda na-arụ ọrụ nke nnukwu na obere ihe Gakkai nke na-eje ozi dị ka mgbapụta nke ndị na-eso ụzọ ha n'okpuru Onye isi Ala.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ska Gakkai bụ nke a na-ahụkarị dị ka usoro nkịtị n'ime ọdịnala Buddhist Nichiren Shōshū. Otú ọ dị, dị ka akụkọ ihe mere eme nke e depụtara n'elu na-egosi, ọ karịrị nzukọ Buddha ma kama nke a ghọtara nke ọma dị ka onye nketa maka ihe nketa ejima: (1) ọdịnala nke ịzụlite onwe ya site na omume Nichiren Shōshū Buddhism, na (2) ọgụgụ isi ebili mmiri nke jupụtara na ngwụcha narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ na Japan na-atụle agụmakwụkwọ, nkuzi, na ụmụ mmadụ, nke sitere na nkà ihe ọmụma na ọdịnala Euro-America nke oge a nke dabara na usoro "ọdịbendị". Ihe nketa abụọ a na-emetụta nkwa, nkwupụta okwu, na ngwakọta nke nkuzi na omume ndị Ska Gakkai so.

Ndị otu na-agbaso usoro ọdịnala Buddha dịka omenala Nichiren Shrenshū. Ndị a gụnyere:

?? Abụ. Ndị otu na-ekpe ekpere ụtụtụ na mgbede n'ihu ebe ịchụàjà nke ụlọ ha na-abụ abụ a kpọrọ Ugochukwu, n'ụzọ nkịtị “ịdọgbu onwe gị n'ọrụ.” Ugboro abụọ a na-abụ abụ kwa ụbọchị gụnyere Isi nke Abụọ, "Expedient Means" (Hōben), na ngalaba nke Isi Iri na Isii, "Life Span" (Juryō), nke Lotus Sūtra. The s .tra ngalaba na-esochi ugboro ugboro incantations nke aha nke Lotus, a na-akpọ daimoku, nke nwere nkeji akwụkwọ asaa namu-myōhō-renge-kyō, na site n’ekpere n’ime obi.

?? Nsọpụrụ maka daigohonzon . Nke a bụ "nnukwu ihe a na-efe ofufe," a calligraphic mandala kwuru na Nichiren dere ya n'ụbọchị nke iri na abụọ nke ọnwa nke iri nke 1279 maka mmadụ niile. Ndi nnabata na Ska Gakkai kwadoro site na nnabata nke a gohonzon , oyiri nke daigohonzon . Ska Gakkai enweghi ike inweta daigohonzon mgbe Nọvemba 1991 na omume otu a kemgbe ahụ n'ichepụta ihe gohonzon dabere na oyiri emepụtara na 1720 na-enye aka na esemokwu nkwenkwe na-aga n'ihu n'etiti Gakkai na ndị Nichiren dị iche iche, ọkachasị Nichiren Shōsh the na ụlọ ọrụ Shūsh Fu nke Fuji Taisekiji Kenshōkai.

?? Ihe ntughari mara dika shakubuku. Shakubuku nwere ike ịsụgharị dị ka “ịgbaji ma zuo ike [itinye mgbakwunye na nkuzi na-adịghị mma].” Nichiren kwalitere ya dị ka naanị omume kwesịrị ekwesị maka mba, dịka Japan, nke na-ekwutọ dharma. Afọ ole na ole gara aga ahụwo Ska Gakkai, ọkachasị mba ya SGI, na-agba ume ka ị pụọ shakubuku na ihu ọma nke shụju , usoro ntọghata a kwalitere n'ọdịnala Nichiren nke iji nwayọọ arịọ ụlọ ọrụ site na arụmụka ezi uche dị na ya. Agbanyeghị, ndị nkịtị nọ na Japan anaghị ekwukarị banyere ịtụgharị ndị ọzọ na Ska Gakkai n'ihe ọ bụla ọzọ karịa usoro shakubuku , ọ bụ ezie na nkọwa nke okwu a agbanwegoro site na usoro ndị siri ike na-ere na mmalite afọ iri gara aga na usoro ndị na-esighi ike n'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya.

?? Ozi nke kẹsen rufu , nke na-achọ mgbasa nke Lotus n'oge mappō, ụbọchị ikpeazụ nke Dharma Buddha. Okwu ahụ, nke a pụrụ ịsụgharị ịbụ “na-ekwupụta ma na-agbasa [eziokwu nke Lotus Sūtra ], ”Na-arụ ọrụ n'ime Ska Gakkai dị ka ụzọ isi kọwaa ọrụ ọ bụla na-akwalite uto nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ.

?? Nkwenye na ugbu a bụ ụbọchị ikpeazụ nke Dharma Buddha (mappō). Nzọụkwụ atọ nke akụkọ ntolite na ọdịnala Buddhist East Asia bụ afọ shịbō , ma ọ bụ “ezigbo Dharma”; afọ nke zọhụ , ma ọ bụ "ọdịdị Dharma"; na nke ikpeazu nke mappō , ghọtara na ọ malitere n'afọ 1052. Ndị òtù Ska Gakkai na-akwado nkwenkwe Nichiren na naanị ụzọ nzọpụta dị mappō bụ ịmakụ ndị Lotus Sūtra ma jụ ozizi ndị ọzọ niile dị ka ụgha (Nkume 1999: 383-84).

?? Nsọpụrụ Nichiren na akwụkwọ ya. Ndị na-eso ụzọ ọdịnala Nichiren Shōshū, gụnyere ndị otu Ska GakkaiNichiren dị ka avatar ụwa nke Buddha ebighi ebi ma ọ bụ nke mbụ. Dika odi, ndi Gakkai na-ele ihe ndi o dere anya ka ha buru ndi akwukwo kariri nke nke s .tra s nke Buddha Śākyamuni.

?? Ọ bụ ezie na ilekwasị anya n'okwu a agbadaala nke ukwuu n'ime Ska Gakkai kemgbe 1970, ndị otu a na-echegbu onwe ha nke ukwuu ịghọta ikpeazụ nke Nichiren's Great Great Secret Dharmas (sandai hihō). Ndị a bụ (1) ndị honmon no daimoku , aha nke Lotus , namu-myōhō-renge-kyō ; (2) ihe honmon no honzon, ma ọ bụ ezigbo ihe a na-efe ofufe, calligraphic mandala with the daimoku nke e dere na etiti ya nke Nichiren chepụtara maka ụmụazụ ya; na (3) ihe honmon no kaidan, ma ọ bụ “ebe a na-edo ndị mmadụ echichi,” bụ́ ebe a na-ahọpụta ndị ụkọchukwu nke ga-aghọ ebe mmadụ niile na-anọ, ya egosi na kẹsen rufu , ma ọ bụ ngbanwe nke mmadụ niile gaa ofufe a na-ekewaghị ekewa nke Lotus . Onye Nicmaren rụpụtara mmadụ abụọ nke atọ dị omimi nke Dharmas site na Nichiren n'onwe ya, nke atọ wee bụrụ ebumnuche dị elu na nke dịpụrụ adịpụ maka ndị na-eso ụzọ Nichiren ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ, ya bụ, ruo mgbe Skaka Gakkai malitere ịdọta ọtụtụ nde ndị tụgharịrị n'ime afọ mgbe Agha IIwa nke Abụọ gasịrị . Toda Jōsei kpaliri Skaka Gakkai ka o tinye aka na ndoro-ndoro ochichi na 1950s n'ihi ighota nke ato nke ato ato nke Dharmas: ichota nkwado nke ala maka owuwu nke honmon no kaidan, nke a maara n’oge a dị ka kokuritsu kaidan, ma ọ bụ “ikpo okwu echichi mba,” chọrọ, dị ka iwu Nichiren Buddhist si kwuo. Ska Gakkai gbahapụrụ ya kokuritsu kaidan Ebumnuche mgbe o kewapụrụ onwe ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya Kōmeitō na 1970.

Ọ bụ ezie na okpukpe Buddha Nichiren bụ isi nke njirimara Ska Gakkai dị ka nzukọ nkịtị, ntọala nke otu ahụ dị ka usoro mgbanwe mmụta metụtara usoro ọmụmụ na ọdịnala na-eduzi ụkpụrụ na omume nke ndị otu. Karịsịa, ndị otu taa na-akọwa onwe ha dịka ndị Gakkai na-akwado ya n'ihe gbasara ịbụ ndị na-eso ụzọ n'okpuru Onye Isi Ọchịchị Ikeda Daisaku. Ha chepụtara ihe ha na-eme dị ka ndị na-arụ ọrụ n'ime mmekọrịta mmekọrịta otu na otu na Ikeda, ọ bụ ezie na ha anaghị ahụkarị ya anya, ha na-agba ibe ha ume mgbe niile ka ha nwee "mmekọrịta na-apụ apụ nke onye ndụmọdụ na onye na-eso ụzọ"shitei funi) site n'ichepụta ebumnuche ha niile na mmezu ha dị ka nraranye nye Onyeisi Nkwanye ugwu.

A na-azụlite ndị otu na-asọpụrụ Ikeda site na nmikpu oge niile na Gakkai media. Ndị otu Gakkai raara onwe ha nye nwere ike ịnata ma ọ bụ ọbụna ozi ha niile site na nzukọ. A na-enweta ozi site na nzukọ na mgbasa ozi satellite ha na-aga na Culturelọ Ọrụ Omenala na site na akwụkwọ akụkọ kwa ụbọchị Seikyō shinbun , magazin a na-amụ amụ Daibyaku agbaa , vidiyo nke ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe Shinano Kikaku mepụtara, na ọtụtụ puku akwụkwọ, akwụkwọ akụkọ, CD, weebụsaịtị, na isi mmalite ndị ọzọ. Taa, ndị otu nwere ike ịchọta akwụkwọ Nichiren na Lotus Sūtra site na nkwuputa okwu na edemede nke Ikeda dere. A na-eji foto Ikeda na onyonyo nke ndị akụkọ ihe mere eme chọọ ụlọ ọrụ omenaala mma. ọ na-abụkarị, ewezuga ebe ịchụàjà nke na-ekpuchi ya gohonzon , ọ dịghị ihe ọdịbendị "Buddhist" ma ọ bụ ọbụna Japanese ga-ahụ n'ụlọ Gakkai. Ikeda toro Napoleon, Ludwig van Beethoven, Martin Luther King Jr., Mahātmā Gandhi, na ndị ọzọ akụkọ ihe mere eme amaara ama n'ihi na ha achọpụtala ọhụụ ha gabigara n'oge nsogbu. A kpaliri ndị otu mmụọ ịkpụzi ndụ ha na ihe atụ nke ndị dike a, na nmikpu na Gakkai mgbasa ozi na-agba ha ume ịkọwa akụkọ ndụ nke ndị akụkọ ihe mere eme mmeri na nke Ikeda. A na-azụlite nsọpụrụ maka Ikeda site n'ịgụ akwụkwọ ndị o dere, ọkachasị Mgbanwe nke mmadu (Ningen kakumei) na usoro ya Mgbanwe Ọhụrụ Mmadụ (Shin ningen kakumei), akụkọ ihe mere eme nke akụkọ nke Ska Gakkai na ndị isi oche ntọala ya nke ndị òtù ahụ na-ewere dị ka inwe de facto Akwụkwọ Nsọ ikike.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Na mgbakwunye na ugboro abụọ-kwa ụbọchị recitation nke ngalaba nke Lotus Sūtra na ugboro ugboro nke namu-myōhō-renge-kyō , Ndi Gakkai tinye aka n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-eme emume nsọ na otu ahụ. Ndị a gụnyere:

?? Nzukọ ọmụmụ ihe: Ndị otu Gakkai nọ na-ezukọ n'ụlọ ndị otu ọ bụghị maka ọmụmụ Buddha kwa se ma na zadankai , kwa ọnwa “nzukọ mkparịta ụka” ma ọ bụ “ebe a na-amụ amụ.” Ndị otu na-ezukọ na Culturelọ Ọrụ Omenala maka nzukọ ka ukwuu na ịga mgbasa ozi nke gụnyere okwu nke Onye isi oche Onye Isi Ọchịchị Ikeda. Ndị otu a ga-abịakwa ọtụtụ nzukọ ndị ọzọ akpọkọtara maka ọgbakọ ndị Gakkai ndị ha so na ha, dị ka Di na Nwunye Ndị Nwanyị ma ọ bụ Ngalaba Ndị Na-eto Eto, na otu ọrụ aka dịka ngalaba Dọkịta, Ngalaba Ọzụzụ, Ngalaba Artist, ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ .

?? Chịkọta ndenye aha maka akwụkwọ Gakkai: Ndị òtù Ska Gakkai na-arịọ ndị enyi, ndị ikwu, ndị enyi, na ibe ha ka ha debanye aha ha iji nweta akwụkwọ akụkọ dịka akwụkwọ akụkọ Seikyō shinbun . Otu a kpọrọ omume ịrịọ maka akwụkwọ akụkọ ya "nghọta akwụkwọ akụkọ" (shinbun keimō) ma ọ bụ iji okwu European (ọ bụghị Buddha) mee ihe maka "nghọta" ( keimō ) iji mee ememe edemede nke ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ ọhụrụ.

?? Mgbasa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị: Otu ihe dị mkpa nke omume ndị otu a raara onwe ya nye bụ ịme ntuli aka maka ndị na-aga ime Kōmeitō ma ọ bụ, n'oge ụfọdụ, maka ndị otu ya na Liberal Democratic Party. Ska Gakkai na-ekwusi ike na ntaneti ntuli aka nke kachasị ike na Japan, nke bụ isi ya bụ nke Married Women Division, ndị na-achịkọta votu maka ndị ga-eme ntuli aka ọ bụla, site na kansụl ime obodo na agbụrụ maka oche na National Diet. Ọ bụ ezie na Ska Gakkai na Kōmeitō dị iche iche, ọtụtụ ndị òtù nwere obi ike na-akpọ maka K campaignmeitō dịka akụkụ nke ọrụ ndị okwukwe ha na-eme.

?? Nleta na saịtị Gakkai dị mkpa: Kemgbe 1991, mgbe a machibidoro ha njem njem na daigohonzon na isi ụlọ nsọ Nichiren Shōshū Taisekiji dị na Shizuoka Prefecture, ndị otu ewerela njem njem gaa ebe metụtara onye Ikeda Daisaku. Ndị a gụnyere isi ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị Ska Gakkai na Shinanomachi dị na etiti Tokyo, ogige osisi nke Mahadum Sōka dị na Hachiōji, na Tokyo Fuji Art Museum. Ndị na-akwado ya ga-eme nleta kwa afọ na ụbọchị dị mkpa na akụkọ ndụ Ikeda, dị ka ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya na Jenụwarị 2, na ụbọchị nke ntụgharị ya na Ska Gakkai na August 24. Ememe ndị a kwa afọ abiala iji dochie anya nenchū gyōji, ma ọ bụ “usoro ihe omume kwa afọ” nke ndị nne na nna Buddhist dabeere na Gakkai bụ Nichiren Shōshū na-elekọta.

?? Ntinye aka ọdịbendị: Site na ngwụcha 1950s, ndị otu Gakkai bidoro ịme ihe omume ọtụtụ mmadụ mere na mpaghara egwuregwu, yana site na 1960s n'ime mmalite 2000s Culture Festivals (bunkasai) nke gosipụtara ọtụtụ puku ndị otu na-eme ihe nkiri nke ọtụtụ puku ndị na-eme ihe nkiri na-ahazi ya mgbe niile. Afọ iri abụọ gara aga ahụwo ọdịda na emume ndị a na-akwado ndị otu na-aga ihe ngosi na Centers Culture, na-eleta Tokyo Fuji Art Museum, na ọrụ nkwado nke Min-on Concert Association na-akwado. Ndị otu na-eto eto na-akụ egwu (ọkachasị) Western oge gboo na orchestras, egwu egwu, na ọgbakọ ndị ọzọ nke Ndị Na-ahụ Maka Ndị Na-eto Eto Na-eto Eto (Ongakutai) na Ndị Ntorobịa Na-eto Eto Fife-and-Drum Corps (Kotekitai)

?? Ritual n'ikuku nke a gohonzon : N'adịghị ka oge ndị gara aga, mgbe a gbara ndị na-atụgharị ume ka ha gbanwee na Ska Gakkai ozugbo, a na-agba ndị na-achọsi ike ume ugbu a ka ha mee Ugochukwu ruo ọnwa isii tupu ha anata nke ha gohonzon oyiri na emume a na-akpo gojukai, “iwere iwu” ma ọ bụ ịkwado naanị nsọpụrụ maka gohonzon .

?? Ememe olili ozu na ememe ncheta: Kemgbe 1991, a gbara ndị otu ume ka ha nwee “olili ozu” ( Ogechi Iheanyichukwu ) nke ndị nlekọta Gakkai si na Liturgy Division (Gitenbu) na-arụ Ugochukwu maka onye nwuru anwu ma mekwa ihe ndi ozo ndi Nichiren Shōshū mere.

N'agbanyeghị ụdị nzukọ Gakkai, mbido na njedebe nke nnọkọ pere mpe na nke dị elu nke ọnụnọ gohonzon ka akara akara site na ikwugharị daimoku sanshō : arịrịọ atọ nke namu-myōhō-renge-kyō.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ska Gakkai na-ekwusi ike nchịkwa nke gọọmentị nke yiri nke gọọmentị mba nke oge a na obodo yaọrụ. Onye isi oche a na-asọpụrụ bụ Ikeda na-ese n'elu nnukwu ngwongwo pyramidal nke onye isi ala (nke ugbu a onye isi nke isii Harada Minoru) nke na-elekọta ihe karịrị narị ndị osote onye isi ala, ndị isi oche, na ọtụtụ ndị nchịkwa ndị ọzọ akwụ ụgwọ na-elekọta ọrụ nke ọtụtụ Gakkai nkewa. A na-achịkọta ndị otu site na afọ, ọnọdụ alụmdi na nwunye, okike, ọnọdụ, ọrụ, na ọtụtụ echiche igwe mmadụ. Ndi otu okpuru ulo-ala bu ndi umu okoro na ndi umuaka, ndi nke di na ndi nwoke. Undermụaka nọ n'okpuru afọ iri na asatọ so na Ngalaba Ọdịnihu. Ndị otu gafee Japan sitere na usoro nhazi nke kwụ na ezinụlọ (setai) na-ahazi n'ime blocks (burokku), ógbè (chiku), isi (yabu), isi ụlọ ọrụ mpaghara (honbu), wards (ku or Ken), na ndị isi (Ken), nke otu mpaghara iri na atọ na-elekọta; ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọrụ nlekọta niile na-eme ka ọrụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-arụ kwa ụbọchị nke ngalaba ndị a. Otu onye otu nọ n'ọrụ nwere ike ijide ọtụtụ ọrụ nlekọta afọ ofufo na ọkwa dị iche iche nke nzukọ ahụ, site na mgbochi ahụ gaa n'ihu, na ọnọdụ nke ọ bụla ga-agụnye ọtụtụ ibu ọrụ. Ndị otu na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mpaghara dị na mpaghara ndị lụrụ nwanyị, ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ndị na-abịachi ọmụmụ ihe anya bụ ụmụ nwanyị, ndị otu nọ na ọchịchị Skaka Gakkai, ewezuga Ọdịnihu, Women'smụaka Ndị Nwanyi, na Ndị Nwanyị lụrụ di na nwunye. ka ụmụ nwoke.

Na mgbakwunye na ọrụ gọọmentị nke oge a nke ndị isi oche na-elekọta, Ska Gakkai na-ejigide atụmatụ nhazi ndị ọzọ nke gosipụtara omume nke otu mba. Ndị a gụnyere:

?? A ọkọlọtọ Gakkai Skaka: A na-acha uhie uhie, odo, na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na-acha odo odo na ọkọlọtọ mba Europe nke na-egosikarị ifuru lotus dọtara na etiti. A na-amata ókèala Gakkai na Japan ozugbo ọkọlọtọ n'elu ụlọ, ụlọ ndị otu, ma ọ bụ azụmahịa nke ndị na-akwado ya.

?? Anthems: Ndị otu Gakkai na-amụ Ska Gakkai egwu ma na-abụ abụ na nzukọ. Egwú ndị ahụ na-abụ mkpọkọta mkpọkọta nke na-ekekọta ndị otu na ncheta ụlọ ọrụ, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị a niile bụ njem ndị agha edere maka arụmọrụ kacha mma site na-abụ abụ na otu egwu egwu.

?? A Ska Gakkai aku na uba: Nzukọ a na-akwado akụ na ụba na-eme nke ọma na-adabere na ya zaimu (n'ụzọ nkịtị "ego"), ma ọ bụ onyinye ego sitere n'aka ndị òtù. Ska Gakkai dabere na ego na ọtụtụ ijeri yen na ngwongwo ndị enyere dị ka onyinye nke ndị otu nye ụlọ ọrụ ahụ.

?? Otu alaeze mgbasa ozi: Ndị otu natara ozi banyere ọrụ otu ahụ, nkuzi nkuzi, nduzi site na Ikeda, na ụdị ozi ndị ọzọ sitere na mgbasa ozi ọhụụ, ọdịyo, edemede, na ụdị ndị ọzọ nke nzukọ ahụ nyere. Ha na-ejikọta na Ska Gakkai mgbasa ozi site na omume ndị a na-ekwu na ya dị ka ịbuga akwụkwọ akụkọ, ịrịọ maka ndenye aha ọhụrụ, ma jupụta shelf ha, ákwà ngebichi, na stereos na ederede Gakkai, ihe oyiyi, na ụda.

?? Lọ akwụkwọ: Kemgbe afọ 1968, otu a arụọla usoro mmụta agụmakwụkwọ onwe onye a na-akwanyere ùgwù site na ụlọ akwụkwọ ọta akara ruo Mahadum Ska, na n'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya agbakwunyela ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ na mba ofesi. Ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ Ska Gakkai na-ejigide njikọta ndụ ha niile, n'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, nzukọ ahụ ejirila ndị ọrụ gụrụ akwụkwọ na-akwụ ụgwọ ya na ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ nke ya.

?? Mpaghara Saka Gakkai: Nzukọ a na-ahụ maka ọtụtụ puku Centlọ Ọrụ Omenala na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ gafee Japan nke ndị ọkachamara pụrụ iche a zụrụ azụ na-elekọta, na-abụkarị ndị Gajōkai (Nchebe Nchebe) na Sōkahan (uetù Na-ahụ Maka Uru) nke Ngalaba Ndị Na-eto Eto.

N'agbanyeghị ọkwa ha raara onwe ha nye nchịkwa otu ma ọ bụ oke nke ha na-etinye onwe ha na ndụ n'ime ụdị otu mba ahụ, ndị otu Gakkai ghọtara na ha nọ na mmekọrịta mmekọrịta dị mkpa na Ikeda Daisaku, mmekọrịta nke nwere ike na oge na-eme ka ọrụ gọọmentị dị elu nke Ska Gakkai.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Dị ka nnukwu, nzukọ mgbasawanye nke bịara na-achịkwa ala okpukpe Japan ma mee ka ọnụnọ ya dị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, agụmakwụkwọ, mbipụta, na ọtụtụ mpaghara ndị ọzọ, Ska Gakkai akpalitela ọtụtụ esemokwu. Nọmba ndị a bụ:

?? Aha mara nke ime ntọghata ike. Ọ bụ ezie na usoro nke shakubuku agbanweela nke ukwuu, site na nkọwa ya n'okpuru Toda dị ka ntụgharị nke ike nke ihe niile iji gbaa ume mkparịta ụka n'etiti ndị enyi taa, Ska Gakkai nwere aha ọma maka enweghị ndidi nke okwukwe ndị ọzọ ma chọọ ka ndị otu ya gbanwee.

?? Esemokwu na òtù okpukpe ndị ọzọ. Ska Gakkai gbawara otutu nde ndi na-eso uzo ya n'ime iri afo ole na ole site na igbanwe ndi ozo nke okpukpe ndi ozo. O mere nke a n'otu akụkụ n'ihi arụmụka ndị o mere megide “ozizi ụgha” na ihe ọ lere anya dị ka ụdị ofufe heterodox. Ikekwe ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya, usoro a dugara ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ okpukpe okpukpe ndị ọzọ dị na Japan (gụnyere òtù Buddha, òtù ndị Shintō, okpukpe ndị Kraịst, na Okpukpe Ọhụrụ) iji tinye Ska Gakkai dị ka onye isi ha.

Esemokwu okpukpe kachasị njọ Ska Gakkai na-eche ihu taa bụ Nichiren Shōshū. Afọ ndị sochiri nkewa 1991 ahụla ebubo ndị e bipụtara na ọtụtụ narị ikpe na-akọwa mmekọrịta dị n'etiti otu abụọ ahụ. Otu abuo a achola ime ka ha dozie onwe ha; Nichiren Shōshū kwaturu Shōhondō na 1998, na Sōka Gakkai gọnarịsịrị izi ezi nke okpukperechi Shōshū. Soko Gakkai nke ndi Shōshū jikọtara, tinyere ndị otu Fuji Taisekiji Kenshōkai, lekwasịrị anya na ihe ha lere anya dị ka nsọpụrụ nke ndị Gakkai maka nsọpụrụ maka ihe odide sitere na 1720 Nichikan transcription nke daigohonzon .

?? Ntinye aka ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Ọrụ Gakkai Ska nke na-adọta ọtụtụ ndị mmegide ọha bụ nkwado ya na-aga n'ihu na Kōmeitō. Ndị nkatọ na-ebo Ska Gakkai ebubo na ọ na-emebi ihe edemede 20 nke iwu 1947 nke Japan, nke gbochiri òtù okpukpe ịnweta ikike sitere na steeti ma ọ bụ jiri ikike ọchịchị. N'ime oge 1950 na 60s, mgbe Ska Gakkai na-akwado maka iwu nke usoro nhazi site na iwu gọọmentị, ndị nkatọ na-ebokwa otu a ebubo imebi edemede 89, nke na-egbochi gọọmentị itinye ego maka uru nke ụlọ ọrụ okpukpe. Drohapụ ebumnuche nke iwu usoro nhazi ahụ emeela ka ọ dịrị Ska Gakkai mfe ịgbachitere ọnọdụ ya na ịkwado Kōmeitō adịghị emebi Iwu. Ska Gakkai na-ekwu na ya na ndị otu ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị bụ ụlọ ọrụ dị iche iche na-echetara ndị nkatọ na Iwu 1947 kwadoro nnwere onwe ikwu okwu na nnwere onwe nke nzukọ.

?? Rencesọpụrụ Onye isi ala bụ Ikeda. Ndị na-ekiri ihe na-emenụ na-achọpụta na Skaka Gakkai agbanweela site na nzukọ ndị isi by Ikeda ka otu raara nye na Ikeda. Ihe omume Buddha nke Gakkai Nichiren ka emebere ugbu a dị ka ụzọ isi meziwanye njikọ nke onye nkụzi na onye na-eso ụzọ (shitei funi) gbara ume n'ime ndị niile na-akwado ya. Ndị nkatọ na-asọpụrụ ndị otu Gakkai dị nsọ maka ịkwado Onye isi ala ha dị ka ihe akaebe na otu ahụ apụla na mmalite Buddhist Nichiren.

Ska Gakkai na-eche ihe ịma aka na-abịanụ ihu site na ya iche na Ikeda Daisaku: mgbe Onye isi oche na-asọpụrụ, ọ gaghị enwe onye ga-anọchi anya ya, ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ nwere ike ịnwe nsogbu na-egosipụta ikike na enweghị onye ndu dị ndụ.

N'ihi nsogbu ndị a na esemokwu ndị ọzọ (lee usoro iheomume na onye guzobere / akụkọ ihe mere eme n'elu), Ska Gakkai enwetawo aha ọha na eze na-adịghị mma na nke kachasị ogologo oge nke òtù okpukpe ọ bụla na Japan. Ndị Gakkai na-ebi ndụ ndị nkịtị na ọha ndị Japan, mana ọtụtụ na-ahụ ihere n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ha, ebe ọrụ ha, na ndụ onwe ha n'ihi mkpakọrịta na-adịghị mma na okwukwe ha.

References

Asahi Shinbun Aera Henshūbu, ed. 2011. Sōka gakkai kaibō. Tokyo: Asahi Shinbun.

Bessatsu Takarajima Henshūbu, ed. 2007. Ikeda Daisaku naki ato no Skaka gakkai. Tokyo: Takarajimasha.

Betel, Dayle M. 1989. Mmụta maka ibi ndụ okike: echiche na amụma nke Tsunesaburō Makiguchi. Nsụgharị nke Alfred Birnbaum. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Asano Hidemitsu. 1974. Watashi no mita sōka gakkai. Tokyo: Keizai isharaisha.

Bessatsu Takarajima, ed. 1995. Tonari no sōka gakkai: uchigawa kara mita gakkai'in to iu shiawase. Tokyo: Takarajimasha.

Asano Hidemitsu. 1973. Makiguchi Onye Okike Bara Uru, Onye Nkụzi Mgbanwe nke Japanese na Onye guzobere Ska Gakkai. New York: Weatherhill.

Ehrhardt, George, Axel Klein, Levi McLaughlin, na Steven Reed, ụmụ nwoke. Na-abịa. Kōmeitō: Ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na okpukpe na Japan . Berkeley: oflọ akwụkwọ nke East Asia Studies Japan Monograph Series.

Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette. 2012. Okpukpe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Japan oge a: Soka Gakkai Ntorobịa na Komeito. London na New York: Ntugharị.

Fujiwara Hirotatsu. N'afọ 1970. M katọrọ Skaka Gakkai. Site na Japanese site na Worth C. Grant si ya. Tokyo: Nisshin Hōdō.

Fujiwara Hirotatsu . 1969. Kono nihon wo dō suru 2: sọka gakkai o kiru . Tokyo: Nisshin Hōdō Shuppanbu.

Higuma Takenori. N'afọ 1970. Toda Jōsei / Ska gakkai. Tokyo: Shin Jinbutsu isharaisha.

Higuma Takenori. N'afọ 1983. Gendai shūkyōron. Tokyo: Shiraishi gbara.

Ikeda Daisaku. 1998-2013. Ikeda Daisaku zenshụ (Mpaghara 130 +). Tokyo: Seikyō Shinbunsha.

Ikeda Daisaku. 1998-2013. Shin ningen kakumei. Tokyo: Seikyō Shinbunsha (mpịakọta 25).

Ikeda Daisaku. 1971-1994. Ningen kakumei. Tokyo: Seikyō bunko (mpịakọta 12).

Inose Yūri. 2011. Shinkō wa dono yō ni keishō sareru ka: Sōka Gakkai ni miru jisedai ikusei. Sapporo: Hokkaidō Daigaku Shuppankai.

Itō Tatsunori. 2006 (Machị). "Kenkyū shiryō: sọka gakkai ka nichirenshū no 'otaru montō' saigen kiroku." Gendai Shūkyō Kenkyū 40: 630-77.

Itō Tatsunori. 2004 (Machị). “ Shakubuku kyōten kụshụ. ” Gendai Shūkyō Kenkyū 38: 251-75.

Itō Tatsunori. 2003 (Machị). "Kenkyū shiryō: kaisei sareta sịka gakkai kaisoku henkō sareta 'Ska gakkai' kisoku." Gendai Shūkyō Kenkyū 37: 154-225.

Kumagai Kazunori. 1978. Makiguchi Tsunesaburō. Tokyo: Daisan Bunmeisha.

Machacek, David na Bryan Wilson, ụmụ nwoke. 2000. Citizmụ amaala ụwa: Ska Gakkai Buddhist Movement na World . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Makiguchi Tsunesaburō. 1981-1987. Makiguchi Tsunesaburō zenshū (Mpịakọta 10). Tokyo: Daisan Bunmeisha.

McLaughlin, Livaị. 2012. “Ndi Aum Gbanwere Ihe Niile? Ihe Soka Gakkai Na-aga, N'oge, na Mgbe Aum Shinrikyō Affair Na-agwa Anyị Banyere 'Ọzọ' nke Okpukpe Ọhụrụ na Japan. ” Akwụkwọ bụ Japanese Journal of Studies Religious 39: 51-75.

McLaughlin, Livaị. 2012. "Ska Gakkai na Japan." Pp. 269-307 na Akwụkwọ ntuziaka nke okpukpe ndị Japan nke oge a, nke Inken Prohl na John Nelson dere. Leiden: Brill.

McLaughlin, Livaị. 2009. "Ska Gakkai na Japan." Ph.D. akwukwo, Ngalaba Okpukpe, Mahadum Princeton.

Miyata Kōichi . 2000. Makiguchi Tsunesaburō: gokuchū no tatakai. Tokyo: Daisan Bunmeisha.

Miyata Kōichi . 1993 Makiguchi Tsunesaburō no shūkyō undō. Tokyo: Daisan Bunmeisha.

Murata, Kiyoaki. 1969. Okpukpe Buddha ọhụrụ nke Japan: Akaụntụ Ebumnuche nke Skaka Gakkai. New York: Walker / Weatherhill.

Nishino Tatsukichi. 1985. Denki Toda Jōsei. Tokyo: Daisan Bunmei.

Nishiyama Shigeru. 2004 (June). "Henbō suru sịka gakkai no konjaku." Sekai : 170-81.

Nishiyama Shigeru. 1998. “Naisei shūkyō no jiyūka ka shūkyō yshiki no kakushin: sengō dainiki no sịka gakkai no baai.” Na Shūkyō ka shakai seikatsu no shosō, nke Numa Gishō hakushi koki kinen ronbunshū deziri. Tokyo: Ryūbunkan.

Nishiyama Shigeru. 1989. “Seitōka no kiki ka kyōgaku kakushin:‘ Shōhondō ’kansei ikō no ishiyama kyōgaku no baai.” Pp. 263-99 n'ime Genkin Nihon bunka ni okeru dentō to henyō 5: genkin Nihon no “shinwa," nke Nakamaki Hirochika deziri. Tokyo: Domesu Shuppan.

Nishiyama Shigeru. 1985. “Butsuryūkō ka sọka gakkai ni miru kindai hokekei kyōdanhatten no nazo.” Na Nichiren ka hokekyō shinkō, nke Tamura Yoshirō et.al dere. Tokyo: Yomiuri Shinbunsha.

Nishiyama Shigeru. 1975. “Nichiren shōshū sịka gakkai ni okeru 'honmon kaidan' ron no hensen: seijiteki shūkyō undō to shakai tōsei.” Pp. 241-75 na Nichirenshū no shomondai , nke Nakao Takashi deziri. Tokyo: Yūzankaku.

Roemer, Michael. 2009. "Njikọ okpukpe na Contemporary Japan: Unanging the Dilemma." Nyochaa banyere Nnyocha Okpukpe 50: 298-320.

Saeki Yūtarō. 2000. Toda Jōsei to sono jidai . Tokyo: Mainichi Shinbunsha.

Shichiri Wajō. 2000. Ikeda Daisaku gensō no yabō: shōsetsu ningen kakumei hihan . Tokyo: Shin Nippon Shuppansha.

Shimada Hiromi. 2007. Kōmeitō vs. Ska gakkai . Tokyo: Asahi Shinsho.

Shimada Hiromi. 2006. Ska gakkai no jitsuryoku . Tokyo: Asahi Shinbunsha.

Shimada Hiromi. 2004. Ska gakkai. Tokyo: Shinchō Shinsho.

Shimazono, Susumu. 2006. “Teikō no shūkyō / kyōryoku no shūkyō: senjiki sịka kyōiku gakkai no hen’yō.” Pp. 239-68 na Iwanami kōza ajia / taiheiyō sensō 6: nichijō seikatsu no nka no sōryokusen, nke Kurazawa Aiko et. gha Tokyo: Iwanami gbara ọsọ.

Shimazono, Susumu. 2004. Site na nzoputa rue ime mmụọ: mmeghari okpukpe ndi a ma ama na Japan nke oge a . Melbourne: Trans Pacific Press.

Ska Gakkai. 1952. Shinpen Nichiren Daishōnin gosho zenshū. Tokyo: Ska Gakkai.

Ska Gakkai Kyōgakubu, ed. 1951 rue 1969. Shakubuku kyōten. Tokyo: Ska Gakkai.

Ska Gakkai Mondai Kenkyūkai, ed. 2001. Sōka gakkai fujinbu: saikyō shūhyō gundan no kaibō. Tokyo: Gogatsu Shobō.

Ska Gakkai Nenpyō Hensan Iinkai, ed. 1976. Sōka gakkai nenpyō. Tokyo: Seikyō Shinbunsha.

Ska Gakkai Yonjū Shūnenshi Hensan Iinkai, ed. N'afọ 1970. Sōka gakkai yonjū shūnenshi. Tokyo: Ska Gakkai.

Nkume, Jacqueline I. 2003. “Site na Iwu Imperial na Shogunal Iwu: Ndọrọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Esemokwu nke Ordination Platform na Modern Lay Nichiren Buddhist.” Pp. 192-219 na Buddha na ụwa nke oge a: Mmegharị nke ọdịnala oge ochie, nke Steven Heine na Charles Prebish dere. Oxford: Mahadum Oxford University.

Nkume, Jacqueline I. 2003. "Ndị nketa nke Nichiren: Ska Gakkai, Risshō Kōseikai, Nipponzan Myōhōji." Pp. 63-94. Na Action Dharma: Nnyocha ọhụrụ na okpukpe Buddha, nke Christopher Queen, Charles Prebish na Damien Keown dere. London: RoutledgeCurzon.

Nkume, Jacqueline I. 1999. Ihe omuma nke mbu na ngbanwe nke Buddha Buddha nke Medieval. Honolulu: Mahadum nke Hawai'i Press.

Nkume, Jacqueline I. 1998. “Na-abụ abụ Aha August nke Lotus Sūtra : Daimoku Practices na Oge Ochie na Medieval Japan. ” Pp. 116-66 na Re-ọhụụ "Kamakura" Buddha, nke Richard Payne dezigharịrị. Honolulu: Mahadum nke Hawai'i Press.

Nkume, Jacqueline I. 1994. “bbaara Ndị Iro nke Lotus : Nichirenist Exclusivism na Akụkọ Mere Eme. ” Akwụkwọ bụ Japanese Journal of Studies Religious 21: 231-59.

Sugimori Kji. 1976. Kenkyū / sọka gakkai. Tokyo: Jiyūsha.

Suzuki Hiroshi. N'afọ 1970. Toshiteki sekai. Tokyo: Seishin Shobō.

Tamano Kazushi. 2008. Skaka gakkai no kenkyū. Tokyo: Kōdansha.

Toda Jōsei. 1981-1990. Toda Jōsei zenshū (Mpịakọta 9). Tokyo: Seikyō Shinbunsha.

Toda Jōsei. 1961. Toda Jōsei-sensei kōenshị jō / ge. Tokyo: Ska Gakkai.

Toda Jōsei. 1961. Toda Jōsei-sensei ronbunshū. Tokyo: Ska Gakkai.

Tōkyō Daigaku Hokekyō Kenkyūkai. N'afọ 1975. Ska gakkai no rinen ka jissen. Tokyo: Daisan Bunmeisha.

Tōkyō Daigaku Hokekyō Kenkyūkai, ed. 1962. Nichiren shōshū sịka gakkai . Tokyo: Sankibō Busshorin.

White, James Wilson. N'afọ 1970. Sōkagakkai na Mass Society. Stanford: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press.

Yamazaki Masatomo. 2001. “Gekkan Pen” jijiji: Umoreteita shinjitsu. Tokyo: Daisan Shokan.

Banyere chepụtara:
Levi McLaughlin

Ụbọchị Post:
1 December 2013

 

Share