Ụlọ Ọrụ Ndozi Ụmụaka Shiloh

SHILOH YOUTH RVIVAL CENTERS MGBE

1968 Calvary Chapel na-akwado “oflọ Ọrụ Ebube” nke mbụ na Costa Mesa, California.

1969 Holọ Ọrụ Ebube nile “nyefere” John J. Higgins, Jr., Randy Morich, na Chuck Smith ka “ndị okenye”

Na 1970 Holọ Ọrụ Ebube kwagara Oregon wee were aha "Shiloh" na oku nke ndị pastọ "Open Bible Standard".

1970 Rev. Wonleey Gray (OBS Pastor) nyere ụlọ ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ nke "Oregon Youth Revival Center" na Shiloh.

1970 Shiloh zụtara acres 70 na nso Dexter, Oregon ("Ala ahụ") iji wuo ụlọ akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ Bible ("Shiloh Study Center").

1971 E hiwere Nzukọ Ndị pastọ nke mbụ na “Ala” ahụ.

1971 Shiloh malitere “Agricultural Foundation of Ministry,” mechara zụta ma ọ bụ gbazite ugbo ise na Oregon; ndị ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze na Mahadum Nevada, Reno malitere ịmụ Shiloh.

1971-1978 Shiloh zipụrụ ọtụtụ otu gafee US, US ókèala, na Canada iji mepee "lolọ Shaịlo" na "Mmekọrịta;" Ndị otu nọ n'etiti betweenlọ Ọrụ Na-amụ Ihe na Shaịlo, ndị otu ọrụ, na ndị otu nkwusa ozioma, bụ ndị mere "ntọala" obodo ọhụrụ.

1974 Shiloh weputara ihe omuma ya iji nye ohere maka nhazi na ichikota n'okpuru nkpuru okwu nke “otu ite obodo” wee bido inye “oke nke onwe” nke sitere na onodu.

1975 Shiloh gbahapụrụ ọchịchị mmekọrịta zuru oke ("otu ite") n'agbanyeghị uto nke ndị lụrụ di na nwunye wee bido "mmekọrịta" (ụka) maka ndị di na nwunye.

1978 A na-akwụsị Centerlọ Ọrụ Na-amụ Ihe / Ọrụ / Ọgwụgwụ; ozi “Bishọp,” John J. Higgins, Jr. ka ndị Shiloh Board of Directors kwụsịtụrụ na chụrụ ya n'ọrụ; Ndi otu malitere na otutu obodo 37 mepere n'oge a. Higgins kwagara Arizona iji malite Calvary Chapels.

1978-1982 Ken Ortize na-elekọta nchigharị Shaịlo ka ọ bụrụ "Ala ahụ" naanị. Ọ hapụrụ ịmalite Calvary Chapel na Spokane, Washington.

1982-1987 Joe Peterson, onye isi nke oflọ Elijah na Yakima, Washington, ka akpọrọ ka ọ duru Shiloh ma mee "Ala ahụ" ebe mgbaba.

Na 1986, Servicelọ Ọrụ Na-enweta Ego gbara Shiloh akwụkwọ maka akwụghị ụgwọ "Unretụ Isi Nweta Azụmaahịa Akwụghị Akwụ" maka ego ndị otu ọrụ ịhazi Shiloh na-enweta.

1987 “Nzukọ Ọchịchị Ikpeazụ” nke ndị òtù Shaịlo ka e mere na “Ala ahụ.”

1989 "lolọ Ọrụ Ntorobịa nke Shiloh Revival" enweghị nkwekọrịta.

1993 Lonnie Frisbee, otu n'ime ndị isi na Shiloh mbụ, nwụrụ site na nsogbu mgbe ọ butere ọrịa AIDS.

1998 "Shiloh 'Twentieth Reunion" emere na Eugene, Oregon.

2002 Keith Kramis na ndị ọzọ kere Shiloh na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ na mkparịta ụka dị ka oghere dị mma maka ndị nọ na Shiloh.

2010 Shiloh pụtara na Facebook.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Ndị otu North America Jesus Movement nke ngwụcha 1960 site na mmalite 1980 wepụtara ọtụtụ ndị otu okpukpe(Lofland na Richardson 1984: 32-39); ụfọdụ n’ime ha bụ lolọ Ọrụ Ntugharị Ndị Ntorobịa nke Shiloh, nke mbụ a maara dị ka “oflọ Ọrụ Ebube,” na mgbe e mesịrị “Shiloh” nye ndị so ya (Di Sabatino 1994; Goldman 1995; Isaacson 1995; Richardson et al. 1979; Stewart 1992; Taslimi et al. 1991). Shaịlo bụ otu n'ime ndị kasị ukwuu, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị nke kachasị, na ndị otu North America Christian (ma ọ bụ okpukpe ọ bụla ọzọ) e guzobere n'oge na obere oge oge hippie 1960. Atụmatụ obodo nke ndị gafere n'ọnụ ụzọ obodo 180 nke Shiloh ruru 100,000; ndi otu a kwuru ihe ruru ndi otu 1,500 na mpaghara 37 na ụka 20 ma ọ bụ "mkpakọrịta" na mbido 1978. Bodenhausen, na-esite na ndekọ ihe ndekọ nke Shiloh, kwuru nleta 11,269 na ntughari 168 n'ime izu ise na 1977. nke ngbanwe agha gafere na Evangelical Protestantism na etiti narị afọ nke iri abụọ North America.

Shiloh gabigara oge asaa dị mkpa na akụkọ nhazi ya na "ndụ mgbe a nwụsịrị" (Stewart na Richardson 1999a).

Oflọ nke Ọrụ Ebube malitere na May 17, 1969 mgbe John J. Higgins, Jr. (b. Eprel 1939 na Queens, New York ma zụlite Roman Katọlik) na nwunye ya, Jacquelyn, guzobere House of Miracles na Costa Mesa, California (Higgins 1973). N'ime afọ abụọ gara aga ha abụrụla ndị otu Calvary Chapel nke Costa Mesa n'okpuru ụkọchukwu nke Chuck Smith, onye bụbu onye ozi Foursquare Gospel. Calvary Chapel nyere nkwado ego maka nke mbụ a (Higgins 1973).

Mgbe Higgins soro otu ndị ọrụ udo gaa Lane County, Oregon n'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1969, ọ malitere usoro na rụpụtara inyegharị aha otu ahụ “Shaịlo,” site na iguzobe nnukwu ọgbakọ ime obodo na Dexter, Oregon, na site na isoro ndị isi nke ụka ụka Pentikọstal ndị ọzọ (Open Bible Standard ụka, na Faith Center, obere ụka Foursquare dị na Eugene). Na 1971, ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze bụ James T. Richardson duuru otu ụmụ akwụkwọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Shiloh "Berry Farm" na Cornelius, Oregon iji mụọ otu ahụ, mgbalị ndị gara n'ihu na usoro nke kọntaktị na 1970s wee mezuo nke ọma Haziri Ọrụ Ebube (1979). Otu ihe a na-atụghị anya ya bụ na otu isiokwu nke ndị otu ya bipụtara Psychology taa kpaliri ebili nke ndị na-achọ akwụkwọ bụ ndị degaara ndị ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze akwụkwọ banyere otu ha ga-esi sonye.

Na 1974, obodo niile nke Shiloh ghọrọ akụkụ nke akụ na ụba ahaziri iche. N'oge a Higgins de-mesie ike mmụọ ma kpughee echiche millenarian na etiti etiti. Inweta ego nyere Shiloh ohere ihiwe otu ọrụ, ịrịọ maka nchigharị na nkwekọrịta ọrụ ndị ọzọ, kwado ọrụ ụlọ akwụkwọ, na izipu ndị otu mgbasa ozi na United States niile, site na Fairbanks ruo Boston na Maui ruo Virgin Islands. Dika ndi mmadu luru ma si na mpaghara ndi ozo wepuo, a haziri uka ndi ozo nke Shiloh na usoro nke Franciscan “nke ato.”

Agbanyeghị, na oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1978 Shiloh's Board, nke bụ isi nke ndị ụkọchukwu ụlọ ochie nke oflọ Ọrụ Ebube na ụfọdụ ndị isi ọgbọ nke abụọ, kpaliri ma chụọ onye ndu ya dị ndụ. Otu a batara n'oge ọgba aghara, nkwụsịtụ, na ida na njedebe ka ntụkwasị obi dara. Ọtụtụ ndị nọchiri anya na-arụ ọrụ obodo ma ọ bụ mbipụta "rump", guzobere Calvary Chapels, ma ọ bụ mgbe e mesịrị, Vineyard Christian Fellowships. Workedfọdụ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka ndị nkwusa ozioma na ndị na-akụ osisi na Latin America, Ndịda Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia, na ebe bụbu Soviet Union.

N'ihe dị ka 1982, otu ndị fọdụrụnụ mepụtara nzube ọhụrụ iji nọgide na-enwe nzukọ etiti Shiloh na Dexter, Oregon, dịka ebe mgbaba. Ndị otu a kpọrọ Joe Peterson, onye bụbu onye isi "oflọ Elijah" (Yakima, Washington), ka ọ bụrụ onye isi. Na 1986, thelọ Ọrụ Na-ahụ Maka Ego na-ekpe Shiloh akwụkwọ maka ịkwụghị ụtụ isi na ụlọ ọrụ achụmnta ego na-enweghị njikọ, uwe nke mechara funahụ. E weghaara “ndị Ala” a hụrụ n'anya nye ndị ọkàiwu ụtụ isi n'ọnọdụ ego. Shiloh abanyeghi na 1989.

Ọ bụ ezie na mkpokoro ụlọ ọrụ adịkwaghị, mmadụ nile agala “ebe ọ bụla.” Ha abụrụla ndị otu ụka na ndị isi nke ụdị okpukperechi niile, sonyeere ndị ozi ala ọzọ, ma ọ bụ tụgharịa ma bụrụ ndị Buddha, ndị ekweghị na Chukwu, ma ndị ekweghị na Chukwu. Ọtụtụ rụrụ ọrụ ndu dị mkpa na Calvary Chapel na Vineyard. Otu onye n'ime ha bụ Lonnie Frisbee, onye otu ama ama na Shiloh, bụrụkwa onye ndu mbu, onye nwụrụ n'ọrịa AIDS n'afọ 1993. earnedfọdụ nwetara nzere dị elu, na-agụ ma na-ede maka ihe mere ha (dịka, Murphy 1996; Peterson 1990, 1996; Stewart 1992; Stewart na Richardson 1999a; Taslimi et al. 1991).

Ebe ha nwere oge iji hazie Shaloh nke ha, “mgbe a nwụsịrị” nke Shaịlo malitere inwe agụụ. Ndị ụkọchukwu gara aga haziri nzukọ ndị ọzọ (dịka, 1987, 1998, na 2010) na ọtụtụ ndị nwere mpaghara, bidoro ndepụta mkparịta ụka elektrọnik, yana webụsaịtị ewubere (Kramis 2002-2013). Ndị otu Shiloh kpọrọ usoro nke mbụ na nke abụọ "Old Shiloh," nke atọ "Shiloh ọhụrụ," chere nke anọ dịka "mgbukpọ ahụ" nke ihe atụ, ma gọnarị ịdị adị nke oge ndị sochirinụ. Shiloh "nchikota nke iri abuo" na 1998 akara oge site na ọdịda Higgins-ihe omume dị mkpa maka ndị otu Shiloh karịa ntọala (1968) ma ọ bụ disincorporation (1989). Njikọ a gosipụtara mgbalị site n'aka ndị na-ahazi njikọta na ọtụtụ ndị gara aga Shiloh Board (ndị ụkọchukwu nke Calvary Chapels ugbu a) iji weghachite aha Higgins, mgbalị nke gara n'ihu na-esochi.

Ọbịbịa Shiloh na Facebook na 2010 kwere ka Shiloh Alumni (ma ọ bụ "Shilohs" dịka ha na-akpọ onwe ha) si niile oge na mpaghara iji chọpụta ibe. Fọdụ aghọtabeghị ihe mere na 1978 wee chọọ ịmata nkọwa nke akụkọ ntolite nke ha. Ndị ọzọ wepụtara oge kọọrọ ha foto ochie ha ma cheta ha.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Nkwenkwe Shiloh ga-ejikọ "Nkwupụta nke Okwukwe" maka National Association of Evangelicals. Shaịlo, ọkachasị na mbido ya, bụ Charismatic / Pentikọstal na omume. Agbanyeghị, ndị otu Shiloh nwere nsogbu na ndị Evangelicals na Pentikọst n'ihi na otu a kwere ka ndị otu hippie ya buru ogologo ntutu ("ihe ihere" dịka kwa 1 Kọr. 11:14) ma buru kwa ihe nile n’enye aka (Olu 2: 44-45). Malite na “ntinye” nke mbụ na Higgins n’afọ 1969 wee gaa n’ihu na nzukọ ndị ọzụzụ atụrụ na-eme kwa afọ site na 1971 gaa n’ihu, “Shilohs” kwere nkwa na Shaịlo na ndị okenye ya na nzukọ afọ ofufo. Nke a gụnyere inye ihe onwunwe (“ịtọgbọ ya n'ụkwụ ndịozi, Ọrụ 4: 34-35), ụgwọ ọrụ, na ihe ndị ọzọ. N’akụkọ ndụ Pierson nke George Muller (2008), onye otu Plymouth Brethren na nwa mgbei, mere ka Shaịlo dabere n’ekpere maka inye ya ego. A hụrụ onyinye sitere na ndị otu dị ka nsonaazụ.

E wezụga ịnakwere na ihe ùgwù nke onyinye na-adọrọ adọrọ na ntinye aka na ihe kpatara ya, ndị edemede ozioma dịka AW Tozer na nke ya Ọmụma nke Nsọ (1992) na ndi amuma ikpeazu dika Chuck Smith na ihe omumu ya banyere akwukwo nso nke akwukwo nso (dika nkpuru obi tupu nkpagbu; obibia nke Kraist) nyekwara aka na nzuko nke ndi Shiloh. N'oge mgbe Higgins kwadoro ọchịchị ya (1972-1978), ọ kwusiri ike "olu ndị ọzọ" ebe ọ na-ekwusi ike nkuzi ya. Otu n'ime ozizi ọhụrụ ndị ahụ dị na Ekliziastis 11: 3, “n'ebe osisi dara, ọ bụ ebe ahụ ka ọ dị.”kwa nkọwapụta Shiloh). N'oge ahụ nke a pụtara na onye ọ bụla nke na-emehie n'echiche, n'okwu, ma ọ bụ n'omume n'oge (ọnwụ) ga-anata ntaramahụhụ ebighị ebi. (E mechara kpọọ nkuzi a “nchekwa ebighi ebi”). Nkwupụta dị otú ahụ bụ nnukwute ụzọ dịpụrụ adịpụ na Calvary Chapel “Calminianism-a calque for Calvinism + Arminianism, ya bụ, ụzọ dị n'etiti ụzọ akara aka nke onye kwere ekwe rue" nzọpụta "na nnwere onwe nke onye kwere ekwe ịhọrọ na jigide “nzọpụta.” Ihe omuma nke abuo, banyere "ulo nzuko nke Setan" (Mkpu 2: 9; 3: 9), bu ndi esemokwu nke ndi isi ochichi, nke mere ka nsogbu nke 1978.

Ndụ mmadụ na-eduga n'ọtụtụ ọnụ ọgụgụ iwu iji belata esemokwu nke ndụ ọnụ. Iji maa atụ, olulu-ụlọ ịsa ọcha ga-enwe ihe ịrịba ama na-echetara ndị otu ka ha tụtụkọta ogbe nzu nke ugbo mgbe ojiji ọ bụla were tinye, "Onye kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi pere mpe ga-ekwesị ntụkwasị obi n'okwukwe" (ntụgharị asụsụ Shiloh nke Matt 25:21). Echiche a, yana nkuzi nke “nzọpụta-enweghị ntụkwasị obi” nke dị n'elu, nyere ụzọ maka ndị otu "ịdụ ọdụ" ma ọ bụ jiri ikike ime mmụọ ha nwere n'etiti ibe ha. Thedị mkpa ọ dị maka Ọbịbịa nke Ugboro abụọ ya na egwu nke nsonazụ ebighi ebi nke mmehie maka adịghị mma oge gara aga mee ka ndị Shilon rubere isi na ndị isi, nrube isi nye iwu, na "nkwa." Shiloh bụ "nnukwu nkwekọrịta" nzukọ. Dị ka otu onye otu kwuru: “wentfọdụ gara Vietnam; anyị gara Shaịlo. ”

N'oge a na-alụ Vietnam, Shiloh kwere ka ejiri akọ na uche ya mee ma mmadụ ò kwesịrị ido onwe ya n'okpuru ya ma ọ bụ na ọ gaghị akwado ya. N'ihi ya, ụfọdụ “Shaịlo” chọrọ ka e were ha ịbụ “onye jụrụ ije agha n'ihi akọ na uche ya,” na-eji ihe ndị Kọmitii Etiti Mennonite depụtara na-eme ihe. Na 1970, otu onye ndu Shiloh jụrụ ịbanye na ndị agha wee gaa mkpọrọ ọnwa ise. Otú ọ dị, nkwa mbụ a maka ọnọdụ udo adịgideghị afọ iri.

Shaloh 'iwu ya "na ọjụjụ nke" nchekwa nke onye kwere ekwe "bụ echiche na-adịghị mma nke echiche ndị Kraịst oge ochie banyere" amara ". Ndị isi na-eto eto (ndị nọ n'afọ iri na ụma na iri abụọ na anọ; Higgins n'ime iri afọ atọ) gbalịsiri ike na mgbagwoju anya ha banyere nke a (Higgins 1974a). Ọ bịaghị n'okpuru mkparịta ụka nkà mmụta okpukpe na-arụ ọrụ ruo mgbe ngwụsị nke oge "New Shiloh" ahụ. N'ezie, nkà mmụta okpukpe Shiloh niile ka nọ n'usoro. Mmetụta Chuck Smith nwere na Higgins dugara n'usoro ọgụgụ ọgụgụ Bible nke ndị ụkọchukwu ụlọ na-eduzi kwa afọ “n'ọmụmụ ihe iri abụọ na abụọ.” N'ihe o doro anya, e nyere Bible “dum” ikike ịgụ ya na ịgụ ya nyere aka na-aga n'ihu na nkà mmụta okpukpe. "Shilohs" kọwara ma kwado King James Bible na okwu, abụ, akwụkwọ ozi, mbipụta, mmemme, na nka na nka (Stewart 1992).


NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Shiloh si na ndi ochichi onye kwuo uche ya, ndi ochichi obodo, na ndi mmadu na-acho acho, nke gosiputara site na ngosi nke charismata site n'aka onye obulaya mere ndi nwere onyinye, ndi otu ndi ndu, na nzukọ ndi Quaker dika ndi n’enye aka-ebe na ebe a na-ekpe ekpere, na “akwukwo nso” nke ndi ndu nwere ikike n’eduba ya. Ndị ndu mbu nwere ndị di na nwunye anọ: John na Jacquelyn Higgins, Lonnie na Connie Frisbee, Randy na Sue Morich, Stan na Gayle Joy (Higgins 1973; 1974a; 1974b). Ndị Frisbees, Morichs, na Stan Joy hapụrụ Shiloh site na 1970; Jacquelyn Higgins hapụrụ n'etiti 1970s. Naanị Gayle Joy na John Higgins gara n'ihu, ha abụọ lụgharịrị. Nke a mere ka Higgins mee ka ikike ya sie ike.

Ndị isi mbụ ahụ kwuru na ha nwere ikike amụma site n'ọhụụ na nyocha (Higgins 1974b). Dị ka ihe atụ, Higgins zọọrọ na aha nzukọ ahụ, Shaịlo, bịakwutere ya site n'amụma ma dabere na Jenesis 49:10. Mana ka ọ na-erule 1978, ndị isi na-ahazi nke ọma: Higgins dị ka "Bishọp" n'elu; Ndị torskọchukwu nke ndị okenye n’usoro nke abụọ; Ndị pastọ ụlọ na ndị nlekọta, nke atọ. Womenmụ nwanyị enweghị ike ịkụziri ụmụ nwoke na ndị nwunye ka ha doo onwe ha n'okpuru di ha. Shaịlo nakweere Agba Ọhụrụ “Koodu Ezinaụlọ” (dịka, Ndị Efesọs 5: 22-6: 9) iji lekọta mmekọrịta mmekọrịta ya. Ka osila dị, Shaịlo kwere ka ụmụ nwanyị nọrọ n'ọfịs nke Exhorter, Diaconess na Patroness (ndị nke akpọrọ aha ya bụ ịhọpụta ụmụ nwanyị, ụmụ nwanyị a na-agakarị "Girllọ Nwanyị") n'ọnọdụ yiri nke nwoke Mbugharị a gosipụtara obere ebe obibi maka ụmụ nwanyị na-amụ nwa na 1970s. Na 1977, Jo Ann Brozovich, ghọrọ onye nchịkọta akụkọ nke Shaịlo Magazine , na-eduga ndị ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị. Ka o sina dị, ndị otu niile ga-edo onwe ha n'okpuru ndị "nọ n'elu" ha.

Ndi otu ndi pastọ iri na abụọ, na enweghị ụmụ nwanyị nọ ma ewezuga onye na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ, na-ezukọ kwa izu iji mee ihe n'okpuru Higgins 'aegis. Ndi ndu nke “ọgbọ” nke abuo a gụnyere ndi ozuzu aturu nke oflọ nke Ọrụ Ebube ise, ụfọdụ ndị nkuzi si na Shiloh Study Center (tinyere Ken Ortize onye ga eweghara Shiloh na-agagharị na 1978), na ụfọdụ ndị isi ngalaba ọrụaka.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Maka oge mbụ Shiloh, njikwa nke ọtụtụ ndị ntorobịa na-agagharị agagharị na-achọ ebe obibi nọchiri anya isi
ịma aka. Nke abụọ abụrụ nke a bụ inye nri na-edozi ahụ. Ndị isi iri abụọ na Shaịlo hụrụ na ha lekọtara ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ndị mmadụ. Na nzaghachi, Shaịlo mepụtara ya Shaịlo Akwụkwọ Nri Ọchịchị Ndị Kraịst na Ezi ntụziaka nke ise, 25, na 50 servings, haziri ndozi mmiri na mkpofu iji megharịa nri, tinye maka nri nri USDA, wee kụọ ubi obodo. N'ịgbaso nghọta “amụma” nke bụ́ na “ọrụ ugbo ga-abụ ntọala nke ozi ahụ,” Shaịlo zụrụ otu ubi mkpụrụ osisi, ahịhịa ndụ, mmiri ara ehi ewu na anụ ụlọ; agbazinye ugbo beri azụmahịa; gbabara ụgbọ mmiri azụmahịa; ma mepee cannery iji nye ma ego ma nri iji kesaa na sistemụ obodo ya.

Ọnọdụ ego na-abụkarị nchegbu. Otu ọrụ dị iche iche na-akwado kọmpụta ahụ gbasoro mbọ ọrụ oge mbụ iji gbaa ala melon na Fontana, California na 1969; iji buputa osisi ndị dị n’isi mmiri ụlọ iji wuo “Ala ahụ” n’afọ 1970; na iburu apụl na Wenatchee, Washington. Ọrụ ngo Shiloh na-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma sitere na nkwekọrịta azụmaahịa a na-emegharị weyerhauser, ihe mechara bụrụ na nnwale IRS iji nwetaghachi ụtụ isi maka “Ọnọdụ enweghị ụtụ isi nke Shiloh 501 (c) (3). Ndị Shilon na-alụ ma na-amụ ụmụ ghọkwara ihe agaghị ekwe omume na 1972-1973. Ndị di na nwunye na-abụghị ndị isi wepụrụ site na obodo iji kwado onwe ha. Ọchịchọ maka nkwụsi ike ego iji zụọ nri, ụlọ, na ilekọta ndị otu Shiloh sitere na mbido ịdabere na ekpere na onyinye iji gbalite mbọ ezi uche dị na etiti, atụmatụ, na njikwa.

Nrụgide nke gọọmentị mara aka, na n'ikpeazụ, gbagọrọ echiche echiche Shiloh. Nchịkọta nke machibidoro “ndị ọbara na-enweghị njikọ” chere ndị na-eme ememe ncheta n'ọtụtụ obodo ikpe. Ihe nzaghachi Shiloh nke emere nye kansụl obodo na bọọdụ nhazi bụ: “Chineke emewo site n’otu ọbara mmadụ niile” (Shiloh ịkọwapụta Ọrụ 17:26). Ya bụ, enwere ike imebi iwu obodo na iwu Chineke. Ntughari nkwado na ndụmọdụ ndụmọdụ enyere ndị Shiloh na-ajụ akọ na uche na-eduga na nyocha site n'aka ndị FBI. Ichere ajụjụ ma ọ bụrụ na a kwụọ ụgwọ maka onwe gị "na-eduga" na-eduga na mmụta banyere ọdịdị nke "ịkekọrịta ihe niile," "nkwa nke ịda ogbenye," na ịjụ ịba amị n'ihi akọnuche. Shaịlo nwere ndị ọka iwu ya ka hazie akwụkwọ mmakọ ọhụrụ iji mee ka ọ bụrụ 501 (d) "ọgbakọ ndịozi apostolic" (dị ka ndị Hutterites), mana n'ikpeazụ gbachiri ịgbaso. Na nke a, Shaịlo zigara otu onye ndu ya ka ọ gaa leta ndị obodo Hutter. Na 1976, ndị IRS nyochara ndị isi Shiloh bụ ndị kwupụtara nkwa ịda ogbenye na nloghachi ụtụ ha; na 1978, ndi IRS nyochara nloghachi 990 nke nzukọ a. Na nzaghachi nke nrụgide IRS, Shilo kwuru na ọrụ niile dị ka ọrụ "mmụọ" ma tinye nkwupụta maka nke a na iwu ya dị ka mbọ iji gwa ndị gọọmentị okwu (Stewart na Richardson 1999a; 1999b). Shaịlo emeela ka ọhụụ ya doo anya na ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụwa na ụwa dị nsọ; ihe nile di nsọ nye onye kwere ekwe na nche. Ná ngwụsị nke afọ ndị 1970, a tọọrọ ma kpuchie ndị òtù abụọ nke Shaịlo mgbe ụfọdụ ndị kpọrọ nzukọ a "òtù nzuzo". Ọbụna dị ka Shaịlo na-agbanwe gaa n'usoro omume Ndị Kraịst bụ isi ma na-agbanye ụfọdụ n'ime ọnọdụ ọdịnala ya, ọ boro onwe ya ebubo. Nke a na - eduga na ịkọ nkọ n'ime obodo na ụtụ isi, akara aka dakwasịrị ndị otu ọhaneze Jesus Movement ndị kwadoro onwe ha site na otu ndị ọrụ (dịka, Ozizi Ozi Ọma; Ozi Ohu), bụ nke gọọmentị kpuchiri "mgbochi nzuzo". Otu a hụtara onwe ya ugbua dika mkpagbu.

Ihe ịma aka ikpeazụ nye Shiloh-as-commune / ity bụ ihe a ga-eme onye isi ya mbụ. Fọdụ ndị isi ghọtara na Higgins dị na-eduga Shaịlo n'ụzọ na-adịghị anakwere. Otú ọ dị, echichi 1978 nke sochiri mere megharia mmeghari a site na otutu nzuko ndi mmadu gha acho uzo ha na uwa.

References

Bodenhausen, Nancy. 1978. "Ahụmahụ Shiloh." Ndagwurugwu Willamette 4/5: 10.

Di Sabatino, David. 2007. Frisbee: Ndụ na Ọnwụ nke Onye Nkwusa Hippie: Akụkọ Bible. Jester Media.

Di Sabatino, David. 1994. "Ndi mmadu nke Jesus: Counterculture Revival na mmeghari ohuru nke ndi Evangelical." MTS edemede. Toronto: Mclọ akwụkwọ McMaster.

Goldman, Marion. 1995. "ityga n'ihu na Mmebi: Ọpụpụ si Shaịlo." Akwụkwọ akụkọ maka Ọmụmụ Sayensị nke Okpukpe 34: 342-53.

Higgins, John J. 1974a. “Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Ozi.” Mmiri Oyi 2/1: 21-23, 29.

Higgins, John J. 1974b. “Akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Ozi.” Mmiri Oyi 2/2: 25-28, 32.

Higgins, John J. 1973. "Gọọmentị nke Chineke: Akụkọ nke Ozi na Ọchịchị." Mmiri Oyi 1/1: 21-24, 44.

Isaacson, Lynne. 1995. "Makingrụ Ọrụ na Bregbasa na Nzukọ Ọchịchị Jizọs." Pp. 181-201 in Mmekọahụ, iesgha, na Nsọ, nke Mary Jo Neitz dere,. Greenwich, CT: JAI Pịa.

Kramis, Keith. 2002-2013. "Shiloh Ntorobịa Revival Centers Alumni Association." Nweta site na www.mkpomaka.com/ na 27 February 2013.

Lofland, John na James T. Richardson. 1984. "Okpukpe Movement Organisations: Elemental Forms and Dynamics." Pp. 29-52 na Nnyocha na mmegharị mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, esemokwu na mgbanwe, nke Louis Kriesberg dere, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Murphy, Jean. 1996. "Akụkọ Nwanne nwanyị Shiloh." Oha obodo: Journal of Cooperative Living 92: 29-32.

Peterson, Joe V. 1996. "Nbili na allda nke Shaịlo." Oha obodo: Journal of Cooperative Living 92: 60-65.

Peterson, Joe V. 1990. "Ndị Jizọs: Christ, Communes na Counterculture of the Late Twentieth Century na Pacific Northwest." Nna-ukwu nke Okpukpe. Eugene, OR: Northwest Christian College.

Pierson, Arthur Tappan. 2008. George Muller nke Bristol na Onyeàmà ya nye Chineke Na-anụ Ekpere . Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.

Richardson, James T. 1979. Haziri Ọrụ Ebube: Ihe omumu nke oge a, ndi ntorobịa, ndi otu ndi isi ochichi. New Brunswick, NJ: Akwụkwọ Akwụkwọ azụmahịa.

Stewart, David Tabb. 1992. "A Survey nke Shiloh Arts." Ọha obodo 12: 40-67.

Stewart, David Tabb na James T. Richardson. 1999a. "Ngwakọta undwa nke Ajọ: Otu Iwu Iwu Iwu na Iwu Ọchịchị Ndị Ọzọ Si Mụta Nkwenye na Omume nke Ndị Na-ahazi Ọgbakọ Jizọs." Akwụkwọ akụkọ American Academy of Religion 67 / 4: 825-47.

Stewart, David Tabb na Richardson, James T. 1999b. "Omume aku na uba nke ndi otu ndi otu Jesus." Journal of Contemporary Religion 14/3: 309-324.

Taslimi, Cheryl Rowe, Ralph W. Hood na PJ Watson. 1991. "Ntụle nke Ndị Bụbu Ndị Shaịlo: Ndepụta Ndepụta Ntụle Aha Afọ 17 Ka E mesịrị." Akwụkwọ akụkọ maka Ọmụmụ Sayensị nke Okpukpe 30: 306-11.

Tozer, Aiden Wilson. N'afọ 1992. Ihe omuma nke ihe di nso: akparamagwa nke Chineke: Ihe ha putara na ndu ndi Kraist. Niu Yọk: HarperOne.

Relọ Ọrụ Ntorobịa nke Ntorobịa, Inc. 1973. Shiloh Akwụkwọ nri nri otu ndi Kraist. Dexter, OR: Youthlọ Ọrụ Ntorobịa nke Ntorobịa, Inc.
Authors:
David Tabb Stewart

Ụbọchị Post:
4 March 2013

 

 

 

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