Mountain nzoputa

UGBU AHỤ

MGBE AHỤ UTỤTA

1931 (Nọvemba 1) Leonard Knight mụrụ na nso Burlington, Vermont.

1967 Knight nabatara Jizọs mgbe ọ dị afọ 36.

1980 Knight gara West gaa Nebraska.

1980 Knight bidoro mepụta balloon dị ọkụ.

1984 Knight gara Southern California.

1986 Knight kere Mountain Salvation nke dịdebere Slab City, California.

1989 Ugwu izizi dara.

1989 Knight malitere iwughachi ugwu.

1994 Imperial County Supervisors nwara ịkwatu ugwu ahụ.

1998 Knight wuru Hogan anyị.

E weere 2000 Salvation Mountain dị ka Ebe Ọdịdị Ntaneti Mba.

Akpọrọ 2002 Salvation Mountain dị ka akụ mba na Congressional Record nke United States.

Ugwu nzoputa 2007 putara na ihe nkiri “n’ime ohia”.

E debere 2011 Knight n'ụlọ ọrụ na-elekọta ogologo oge.

2011 (Disemba 13) Kevin Eubanks, onye enyemaka Knight, nwụrụ.

2012 E hibere nzukọ na-enweghị uru, Salvation Mountain, Inc., iji nwaa ichekwa ugwu Salvation.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

A mụrụ Leonard Knight na November 1, 1931 dị na Burlington, Vermont. Ọ kọwaa onwe ya dị ka ihe a na-ebibi na
nwatakịrị nwata na-enupụ isi. O nupụụrụ ya isi na ọ ga-arụ ọrụ na ubi ugbo ezinụlọ ma cheta na e nwere "nnukwu ọrụ nke na-ezughị egwu" (Sims 2004a). Ihe omuma ya mere ka o ghara iga akwukwo. Knight kọwara na ọ bụ ihe na-akwụ ụgwọ na na ụmụ akwụkwọ ibe ya na-akwa ya ọchị mgbe niile n'ihi na ọ na-eme ihe ọjọọ. Nchikota nke enweghị mmasị na ụlọ akwụkwọ na nchịkwa site n'aka ụmụ akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ mere ka ọ daba na ọkwa iri, ọ bụ ezie na o kwuola na ọ dịghị enwe obi ụtọ na ọ kwụsịrị ịga ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị (Metz 1998: 1). Ozugbo Knight si n'ụlọ akwụkwọ pụta, ọ ghaghị ịmụta otú e si ebi ndụ na ya. Ka ọ na-ele anya n'azụ nwata, ọ na-echeta na ọ rọrọ nrọ banyere otu ụbọchị na-aga California. O kwuola na ugwu ya bụ nrọ ọ bụ nwata (Metz 1998: 5).

Na 1951, mgbe ọ dị afọ 20, a họpụtara Knight n'ime Agha ka Agha Korea na-agbada. Knight na-atụ anya ịhụ ụwa ka ọ na-aga Kentucky wee gaa Fort Knox. Ke enye ama okokụre utom ukpepn̄kpọ, enye ama ọdọn̄ enye aka Korea, edi ekọn̄ ama ọyọhọ usen duop ke enye ama ekesịm. O we laghachiri na Vermont mgbe o nwetasiri ndi di ebube. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na Army, Knight kwadoro onwe ya site n'ịrụ ọrụ ndị na-adịghị mma, dị ka eserese ụgbọala na inye ihe ọmụmụ guitar. O mechara kpochapụ ụgbọala ruo ihe karịrị afọ iri abụọ ma kụziere ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ guitar. Knight kwenyere n'ịmalite na ala ma na-ebuli elu iji mụta ihe, ma ọ hụtụbeghị ọganihu dị ukwuu (Metz 1998: 7).

Mgbe Knight bụ 36, ọ na-echeta na mberede na-enweta edemede ime mmụọ. Usen kiet ke ini enye okokopde eyenete esie etịn̄ aban̄a Jesus, enye ama enen̄ede ọsọn̄ọde onyụn̄ ọkpọn̄ n̄wan esie. Ọ na-echeta na ka ọ nọdụrụ naanị ya na mberede ya agụụ maka Chineke bịara na mberede. Ọ malitere ikwughachi Ekpere Mmehie, "Jizọs, abụ m onye mmehie, biko bịa n'ahụ m na n'obi m." Ọ na-ekwu na "Ruo nkeji iri abụọ m na-ekwu ya ugboro ugboro, ọ gbanwere ndụ m kpamkpam nye ihe ọma. "Nke a malitere oge ndụ ya nile, nrara ọ raara onwe ya nye Jizọs (Metz 1998: 13)

Ozugbo enwere mmasị ime mmụọ nke Knight, ọ na-esi chọọchị aga chọọchị iji kwusaa ịnụ ọkụ n'obi ya. N'ụzọ dị mwute, ozi ya bụ "Chineke bụ Ịhụnanya" adịghị anabata obiọma. Chọọchị kweere na echiche Knight dị mfe, ọ bụ ezie na ịdị mfe bụ akụkụ bụ isi nke ozi ahụ. Ka ọ na-atụgharị uche na oge ahụ, "M hụrụ Jizọs n'anya nke ukwuu ma chọọ ka ndị mmadụ mara ma ọ dịghị onye na-ege m ntị" (Metz 1998: 13).

N'iji aka ya mee ihe, Knight mepụtara echiche ọhụrụ; kpebiri ịgbasa ozi ya site na balloon ikuku ọkụ. O kwenyere na nke a ga-abụ ụgbọala zuru oke iji kwe ka Ekpere Mmehie rute ọha na eze. Ruo afọ iri na-esote, Knight kpere ekpere maka balloon ikuku ọkụ, mana ekpere ya azaghị ya. Ka ọ na-echere ịnata balloon, Knight na-aga West na njem njem na 1980. Otú ọ dị, van ya kwụsịrị na Nebraska. O zubere ka ọ nọrọ na Nebraska ruo ụbọchị ole na ole, ma ọ kwụsịrị ịnọ ruo afọ ise. Knight na-echeta afọ iri ahụ dị ka oge kachasị ogologo ndụ ya, n'oge na-adịghị anya, ọ ghọtara na ọ bụrụ na ọ chọrọ balloon ọ ga-achọ iji ya nweta onwe ya. Ọ malitere ịzụ ákwà ma na-ejikọta balloon n'aka. Ihe mgbaru ọsọ ya bụ iwuli balloon kasị elu ikuku na ụwa; ọ ga-ebu okwu bụ "Chineke bụ Ịhụnanya" na nnukwu akwụkwọ ozi ọbara ọbara maka mmadụ niile. Ọrụ ahụ ghọrọ ihe ịma aka karịa ka Knight chere na ọ na-eto eto na-adịghị edozi ya, ọ gaghị adaba n'ụzọ dị mma, ma malite ịmịkọrọ n'ihi nhụjuanya Nebraska siri ike (Metz 1998: 17-25).

Knight hapụrụ Nebraska maka Southern California na 1984. Ọ nọgidere na-agbalị ma malite balloon ma o mezughị. Ha dị ihe karịrị ugboro iri abụọ na-anwa, mana nnukwu balloon ahụ mere ka bọlbụ ahụ gbazee. Knight mechara kwụsị nrọ ya bụ ikuku ikuku na-ekpo ọkụ, mana ọ bụghị nrọ nke ịgbasa ozi ya. N’ịgbalị ikpeazụ ọ gbalịrị ịkwalite ozi ya, Knight malitere iwu obere ihe ncheta na Niland, California, nke dị nso na Slab City. Ojiri naanị bọket, shọvelụ, na akpa simenti, Knight bidoro mepụta ihe ga-abụ Ugwu Nzọpụta. Ka oge na-aga, Knight tinyekwuru ciment, ájá, na ihe mkpofu ndị ọ tụkọtara na ebe a na-ekpofu ahịhịa. Mgbe etinyere ciment na irighiri ihe, Knight ga-eji ihe osise a tụrụ atụ chọọ ugwu ahụ mma. Ugwu ahụ nwere “Chineke Bụ Lovehụnanya” nke ọ ma ama na Ekpere nke Mmehie.

Mgbe afọ anọ gasịrị, Knight gbakwunyere ájá dị ukwuu n'ugwu ahụ na ọ dabara na nnukwu ájá. Kama ịnakwere mmeri, nchekwube nke Knight meriri ozo dika o weghaara odida dika ozi di nma sitere na Chineke. A kọrọ na Knight kwuru, "Daalụ, Chukwu, maka iwere ugwu" (Metz 1998: 29). O kwere nkwa ịmalite ihe ncheta ahụ ọzọ, mana oge a ka a ga-eme ya "ụzọ ziri ezi" (Metz 1998: 25-29). Na 1989, Knight malitere iwu ugwu nke abụọ ya, na nke ugbu a bụ naanị na ụrọ Adobe na ahịhịa, nke mere ka ugwu ahụ sie ike ma sie ike kpamkpam. Mgbalị nke abụọ a mere ka a nwee ugwu nzọpụta dị ugbu a, nke dị ihe dịka ụlọ elu atọ. Ihe eji eme ndi mmadu bu ihe eji emeputa ihe di iche iche, nke aturu na ihe kariri uwe iri, nke na eme dika ihe ozo, na-echekwa ugwu ahu ka o ghara idi. Knight na-anabata onyinye n'ụdị agba, yana saịtị ahụ nwere ike ịnweta ihe karịrị galọn 100,000 nke ndị ọbịa na ndị na-akwado ya nyere (Sims 2004b). A na-achọ ugwu ahụ mma na okooko osisi mara mma, nsụda mmiri, nnụnụ, na ọtụtụ amaokwu Baịbụl na ozi mmụọ (Metz 1998: 41).

Knight gara n'ihu ịtinye ihe ndị ọzọ na nzọpụta Mountain. Na 1998, Knight wuru Hogan, ụlọ obibi nke yiri nke adobe na ọka nke ahịhịa nke na-egosi na omenala Navajo nke ọdịnala, mgbe ahụ ọ kpuchie ya na agba ma chọọ mma. Na mgbakwunye na Hogan, o wuru "Museum." A na-ewu ụlọ a mgbe ọ gbalịsịrị ịmepụta balloon ọkụ. "Museum" ka na-aga n'ihu ma "osisi" na-akwado ya site na taya na-ekpuchi. A na-ese ihe nkiri "Museum," dị ka ugwu, ma chọọ ya mma. Ma Museum na Hogan bụ akụkụ nke Ugwu ahụ ma gbakwunye ihe n'ememe ncheta (Sims 2004c).

Ike Knight nwere ịnọgide na-ewu ma na-echekwa ugwu Salvation bụ nke mmebi ahụ ike mebiri. Na 2011, ọ nweghị ike ịga n'ihu na ozi ya ma tinye ya n'ụlọ ọrụ nlekọta ogologo oge.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Leonard Knight nwere ozi na ọ chọrọ ịkọrọ ụwa. Ozi ya bụ onye Kraịst kama ọ dị mfe ma na-abụghị nke ụka: Chineke bụ ịhụnanya. Nabata Jizọs n'ime obi gị, chegharịa mmehie gị, ma zọpụta gị (Sims 2004a). Ot'odi, otutu ndi ndu uka kweere na ozi a di oke nfe na otutu ihe karia ighota Chineke na nzoputa. N'agbanyeghi oke okwu a, Knight kwenyere na ugwu ya ga-agwa ya okwu ma gbasaa ozi ya karia ma o buru ya onwe ya (Metz 1998: 15).

Knight gbara ume ma kpọọ onye ọ bụla ka ọ gaa njem nleta Mountain Mountain. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ndị bịara ileta abụghị okpukpe, Knight kwupụtara olileanya na nkà ya ga-emetụ ha niile aka. "... Nke a na-atọ m ụtọ karịa ihe ọ bụla n'ihi na ndị a ga-asị - Jizọs, abụ m onye mmehie, biko bata n'ime obi m - gbanwee," ka Knight kwuru gbasara ndị ọbịa ya (Metz 1998: 65). Knight kwukwara na ọ ga - eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe mara mma karịa ikwusa ozi ọma na imejọ mmadụ (Metz 1998: 71).

Knight kwuru na o kere ugwu ahụ n'ihi na ọ hụrụ Chineke n'anya, hụ ndị mmadụ n'anya, ma chọọ ka onye ọ bụla kwuo banyere ịhụnanya Chineke. Knight kwenyere na ọ bụrụ na ozi ya nwere ike gbasaa gburugburu ụwa, ọ ga-enwe obi ụtọ n'ihi na ịhụnanya bụ ihe ụwa chọrọ n'ezie. O tinye ya n'ụzọ a: "Ekwere m na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya, m kwenyere na Jizọs mara mma ma mara mma, anyị kwesịkwara ịkọsara ịhụnanya Chineke na ịma mma nke Chineke" (Metz 1998: 71. okwukwe na ịhụnanya bụ ike kachasị ike n'ụwa ma nwee ike imeri ịkpọasị nke jupụtara ebe niile n'ụwa taa (Metz 1998: 63).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Obodo nzoputa choro oke nchekwa maka nchekwa ya, otutu ndi mmadu abiakwala inyere Knight aka n'ile ugwu. N'etiti ndi nzoputa nke ndi nzoputa, Kevin Eubank adawo; E kwuwo na ya bụ onye isi na-enye aka. Eubank wepụtara oge ya na Knight na nzọpụta Mountain iji gbasaa ozi ma chebe ugwu ahụ pụọ na nsogbu. Ihe mgbaru ọsọ Eubank bụ ịnọgide na-echebe ugwu mgbe Knight nwụchara ma chebe ya n'ụzọ iwu. N'ụzọ dị mwute, Eubank, dịka Knight, na-echekwa nsogbu nke ọrịa obi. N'ezie, ụbọchị ole na ole ka e debere Knight n'ụlọ ọrụ nlekọta, Euband nwụrụ n'ihi nsogbu metụtara obi (Zebulon 2011).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Uzo nzoputa chere ihu ma n ogide n’iru ihu otutu nsogbu. Ndị a gụnyere ahụ ike Knight na-agbadata, nkwado, na nchegbu gburugburu ebe obibi.

N’ụzọ doro anya, ọrụ Knight, dịka ọ hụworo na ọ rụchabeghị, yana, n’ihi ebumnuche ya o kwupụtara, ọ nwere ike ọ gaghị ezu ezu. Ọrịa ya gbochiri ya ịga n'ihu na mmepe nke ọrụ ya yana ọbụlagodi mmezi ọ na-achọ. Na 2011, Knight kwagara n'ụlọ ọrụ nlekọta maka ahụike ya na-akawanye njọ, nke gụnyere nkụchi obi, ọrịa cataract, na nsogbu ahụike ndị ọzọ. Kemgbe ọ banyere n'ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, ọ laghachila n'ugwu ya naanị ugboro ole na ole. O gosipụtaghị atụmatụ ọ bụla ịlaghachi n'ugwu ahụ na-adịgide adịgide, yabụ Salvation Mountain agaghịzi enweta nlekọta anya ya (Perry 2012).

N'ihe banyere ichebe, Knight kwuru na ọ ga-achọ ịnọgide na-etinye uwe na mkpuchi akwa na ugwu kama itinyekwu ihe na ya. N'ụzọ dị otú a, ọ tụgharịrị uche, enwere ohere ugwu ahụ ga-adị mma maka ogologo oge (Metz 1998: 41). Ka oge na-aga, ọnọdụ ihu igwe na-adịghị mma na-aga n'ihu ga-anọgide na-enwe nsogbu na ọdịdị ahụ ugwu ahụ. Ebe ọ bụ na idebe ihe ncheta ahụ na ọnọdụ zuru oke bụ ọrụ zuru oke, ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo ga-adị mkpa iji nụ nrọ Knight. Ugbu a, otu ụlọ ọrụ na-abaghị uru, nzọpụta Mountain Inc. na-elekọta ugwu ugbu a, nzọpụta Mountain Inc. Ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo amalitewokwa ịrụ ọrụ siri ike iji nọgide na-echebe ma na-echebe ugwu ebe Knight na-enwezi nkwarụ (Bremner 2012).

Ọ bụ ezie na ndị isi ụka anaghị akwado ozi na ozi Knight mgbe niile, ụfọdụ ndị otu ụka anwaala itinye ugwu ahụ maka ebumnuche nke ozi ala ọzọ nke ha. Knight agbanwewo ndị otu a mgbe niile ma jidesie ike n'ugwu ya, echiche, na ozi na Chineke bụ (hụnanya (Carone 2011).

Enweela nchegbu banyere gburugburu ebe obibi banyere Salvation Mountain, kpọmkwem ọnụnọ nke toxins dị egwu nyere oke oke agba eji eme ihe na ichebe ugwu ahụ. N’afọ 1994, ndị Nlekọta Na-ahụ Maka Ọchịchị n’perntanet kpọrọ ugwu ahụ “ihe nro na-egbu egbu.” Ndị isi obodo ahụ kwuru na ala ndị gbara ya gburugburu nwere nnukwu isi mmiri na-egbu egbu ma rịọ ka a kwatuo ugwu ahụ (Sims 2004c). O doro anya ma ebumnuche nke ógbè ahụ bụ gburugburu ebe obibi ma ọ bụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, agbanyeghị (Metz 1998: 86). Mountain Salvation dị n'ọnụ ụzọ Slab City, mpaghara nke na-ewepụ aha ya site na ogige ndị agha Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ ugbu a. Naanị slabs fọdụrụ. Ọtụtụ puku ndị na-ama ụlọikwuu ejirila slabs mee ihe ndabere maka ebe ha mara ụlọikwuu n'oge ọnwa oyi. Okeechobee ahu choro ime ka ebe ahu buru uzo ka ichota ego ndi ozo. Ndị ọrụ gọọmentị mechara kpebie na ihe ncheta okpukpe nke dị n'ogige gọọmentị nwere ga-eme ka enwee ịgba akwụkwọ ma chọọ iwepụ ya. Mgbe ndị na-akwado ugwu a nụrụ maka atụmatụ nke ime obodo, ha bidoro ịgba akwụkwọ arịrịọ, na-anakọta narị mbinye aka na-emegide atụmatụ gọọmentị. Knight jiri aka ya chịkọta ihe atụ nke ala ma nyefee ha na ụlọ nyocha, na-egosi na ala ahụ bụ n'ezie anaghị egbu egbu (Sims 2004c).

Ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ a ma ama abanyewo n'akụkụ Knight na nzọpụta Mountain. Na 2000, Knight natara onyinye site na Folk Art Society of America, na-ekwu na Mountain Nzọpụta bụ ihe ncheta kwesịrị nchebe (Yust 1999). Na May 15, 2002, a na-akpọ Mountain Nzọpụta dị ka akụ mba dị na Congressional Record nke United States (Sims 2004c). Ndị mgbasa ozi ejirila ebe ahụ pụrụ iche hụ, saịtị PBS na BBC na-emepụta akwụkwọ akụkọ. A na-ahụkwa Knight na nzọpụta Mountain na 2007 film, "N'ime Anụ." Ọ bụ ezie na nzọpụta nke kachasị na-anọgide na-adịgide adịgide, ọtụtụ puku ndị nleta kwa afọ na aha ya ka na-eto eto (Carone 2011). Na 2012, otu nzukọ na-enweghị uru, nzọpụta Mountain, Inc., e hiwere iji gbado ma chekwaa ugwu nchekwa dị n'etiti nsogbu na-aga n'ihu na nrụgide gburugburu ebe obibi, njikwa, na njikwa ala (Olson 2012).

Ntụgharịgharị:

Bremner, Lynn. "Leonard Knight: Nwoke nke Wuru Ugwu Owuwu." Nweta ya http://www.desertusa.com/mag09/jul09/leonard_knight.html na 25 January 2013.

Carone, Angela. "Ọdịnihu nke nzọpụta Mountain bụ n'aka." Nweta site na http://www.kpbs.org/news/2011/dec/20/future-salvation-mountain-uncertain/ na 25 January 2013.

Metz, Holly. 1998. Nzọpụta Mountain: Art nke Leonard Knight. Los Angeles: Akwụkwọ Ọhụụ Ọhụrụ.

Olson, David. 2012. "Nzọpụta Mountain Onye Okike Alaghachi." Press-Enterprise, November 4. Nweta site na http://www.pe.com/local-news/topics/topics-religion-headlines/20121104-religion-salvation-mountains-creator-returns.ece na 5 May 2013.

Perry, Tony. 2012. "Nzọpụta Ugwu Na-efu Ya Bụ Mmụọ Na-eduzi." Los Angeles Times, February 26. Nweta site na http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-salvation-20120226,0,2246706,full.story na 25 January 2013.

Sims, Robert W. 2004a. "Nwoke." Nweta ya http://www.salvationmountain.us/bio.html na 25 January 2013.

Sims, Robert W. 2004b. "Ugwu." Nzọpụta Mountain. Nweta site na http://www.salvationmountain.us/history.html na 25 January 2013.

Sims, Robert W. 2004c. "Nwụrụ ụra na-egbu egbu." Nzọpụta Mountain. Nweta site na http://www.salvationmountain.us/history2.html na 25 January 2013.

Yust, Larry. 1999. "Ọdụm Leonard Knight na-emekọrịta ihe." Òtù Art Society nke America. Nweta site na http://www.folkart.org/mag/leonard-knight na 25 January 2013.

Zebulon. 2011. "Leonard Knight hapụrụ ugwu nzọpụta." Eme njem na Mpaghara. Oh Inc., December 5. Nweta site na http://zebulonspleen.blogspot.com/2011/12/leonard-knight-leaves-salvation.html na 25 January 2013.

Authors:
David G. Bromley
Stephanie Urlass

Ụbọchị Post:
2 February 2013

Imelite kachasị ọhụrụ:
5 May 2013

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