Chọọchị Saddleback Community Church

SADDLEBACK ỌZỌ ụka


AKWKWỌ SADDLEBACK

1954 (Jenụwarị 28) Richard Duane Warren mụrụ na San Jose, California.

1972 Warren gụsịrị akwụkwọ na kọleji wee debanye aha na California Baptist University dị na Riverside.

1973 Warren zutere WA Criswell mgbe ọ nụsịrị ka ọ na-ekwusa ozi ọma na San Francisco.

1979 Warren natara Nna-ukwu nke Chi site na Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary na Fort Worth, Texas ma mesịa soro nwunye ya, Kay gaa Saddleback Valley, California.

1980 (Ista Sunday) Warren duuru ọrụ izizi nke Saddleback Church na nnukwu ụlọ akwụkwọ Laguna Hills High School.

Ndị òtù Saddleback Community Church nke 1990s ruru ndị otu 10,000 na ụka malitere iwu ụlọ ọrụ ya ugbu a.

Akwụkwọ 1995 Warren, Nzube-Chụpụrụ Chọọchị, e bipụtara.

Akwụkwọ 2002 Warren, Nzube-Nke Ndụ, e bipụtara.

2005 Warren weputara atụmatụ PEACE ya iji buso ịda ogbenye, agụghị akwụkwọ na ọrịa na mba ndị ka na-emepe emepe gburugburu ụwa.

2005 Warren kpọrọ aha "Otu narị mmadụ kachasị emetụta mmadụ n'ụwa" site na TIME.

2009 (Jenụwarị) Warren nyefere ngọzi n'oge ntinye aka nke President Barack Obama.

AKỤKỌ

Richard Duane Warren, onye na-akpọkarị onwe ya Rick Warren mụrụ Jimmy na Dot Warren na Jenụwarị 28, 1954 na San Jose, California. Jimmy Warren bụ onye ụkọchukwu Baptist, onye malitere ụka asaa n'oge ọrụ ya, Dot dịkwa elu onye oba akwukwo. Rick Warren tolitere na ndagwurugwu Redwood ma nọrọ afọ iri na ụma ya na Ukiah, California. Ọ gara Ukiah High ebe ọ hiwere ọgbakọ Ndị Kraịst izizi, Fishers of Men Club. Warren gụsịrị akwụkwọ na 1972. Ọ lụrụ Elizabeth K. Warren, di na nwunye ahụ mụtakwara ụmụ atọ n'alụmdi na nwunye dị ogologo ndụ. Di na nwunye ahụ emeela ka a mata na ọ dịghị nke nwere mmasị na ibe ya na mbụ, kama nke ọ bụla n'ime ha chere na Chineke ahọrọ onye nke ọzọ dị ka di ma ọ bụ nwunye. Rick Warren tụrụ aro na ụbọchị nke abụọ ha. Dabere na ndekọ akụkọ ndụ ha, ha abụọ bụ ndị ọbịa ọhụụ n'oge alụm di na nwunye ha "Ha nwekwara ezumike nke di na nwunye jọgburu onwe ha ma taa nnukwu ahụhụ site na nghọtahie na nsogbu di na nwunye ndị ọzọ na mbido alụmdi na nwunye ha. Nrụgide nke nsogbu alụmdi na nwunye tinyere ọtụtụ ọrụ Rick dị njọ nke na ọ gara ụlọ ọgwụ. Ka ọ dịgodị, Kay kwuru na ya ekwenyeghị na ịgba alụkwaghịm n'ihi ya ọ na-eche na a mara ya ikpe na ndụ nhụjuanya "(Vu 2009; Sheler 2009).

Warren kọrọ na “ọ dị ya ka Chineke òkù ya ije ozi mgbe m dị afọ iri na ụma wee malite ikwu okwu dị ka onye ntorobịa na-ezisa ozi ọma mgbe m ka nọ n’ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị. Mgbe m dị afọ iri na itoolu, ekwusala m ozi gbasara nzukọ mmalite n'ihe dịka ụlọ ụka iri ise ”(Woman's Missionary Union nd). Warren kwuru na ya zutere WA Criswell na 19, onye ụkọchukwu nke Baptist Baptist nke dị na Dallas, dị ka ihe nyere aka na mkpebi ya ịghọ ụkọchukwu. Mgbe o gere Criswell ka ọ na-ekwu okwu na Jack Tar Hotel dị na San Francisco, Warren guzoro n'ahịrị nnata iji zute onye ụkọchukwu Baptist a ma ama. Mgbe a kụsịrị aka Warren, a kọrọ na Criswell tipụrụ, sị: “'Nwa okorobịa, ọ dị m ka m dikwasị aka n'isi gị ma kpee ekpere maka gị!'” Wee kpee ekpere, sị, “'Nna, ana m arịọ ka i nye onye na-eto eto a na-ekwusa ozi ọma òkè abụọ Mmụọ. Ka ụka ahụ ndi ozuzu aturu ya toro okpukpu abụọ nke Dallas. Gozie ya nke-uku, Onye-nwe-ayi '”(Woman's Missionary Union nd)

Warren gara n'ihu inweta Bachelor of Arts na California Baptist University na Riverside, Master of Divinity si Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary na Fort Worth, Texas, na Dọkịta nke Nkụzi Ọzụzụ na Fuller Theological Seminary na Pasadena, California. Ọ kọrọ na mgbe ọ nọ na seminarị “ọ nwere ọhụụ nke iwulite ụka maka ndị na-anaghị aga ụka. Ọ dị ya ka Chineke gwara ya na ụka ga-enwe mmadụ 20,000 otu ụbọchị ma nọrọ na ihe onwunwe 100-acre ”(Vu 2009). Warren chịkọtara usoro mmepe ụka ya na ihe odide ya na 1993 na Fuller Theological Seminary, Chka ohuru maka ọgbọ ohuru: Churchka Churchka na-eru Babymụaka. Ihe Omume: Saddleback Valley Community Church. O dere na “Anyị ga-ehiwe ụlọ ụka ọhụrụ iji rute ọgbọ ọhụụ nke ndị America. Ọ ga-achọ ụlọ ụka ọhụrụ ga-aghọta ụdịrị Ọganihu Bomụaka ma bụrụ nke e mere iji gboo mkpa ha, ihe masịrị ha, na ihe ndị na-amasị ha. ”

In 1979, Rick na Kay Warren kwagara Saddleback Valley, California, tinyere ngwongwo ha niile n'azụ gwongworo U-Haul. Warren kwuru na ya chọrọ imepụta "ebe ndị na-afụ ụfụ, ndị dara mbà n'obi, ndị gbagwojuru anya nwere ike ịchọta ịhụnanya, nnabata, enyemaka, olileanya, mgbaghara na agbamume" (Rick Warren nd). Ihe ghọrọ ụka Saddleback malitere dịka ọmụmụ otu ezinụlọ na ezinụlọ ọzọ gbakọtara n'ụlọ Warrens. Otu ukpepn̄kpọ Bible emi ama ọkọri esịm owo 250. Na Easter Sunday na 1980, Saddleback Community Church nwere ọrụ izizi nke ọha, ya na ndị bịara 205. Ka oge na-aga n'otu afọ ahụ, Warren malitere iduzi ọgbakọ ya na mgbatị ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị akwụ ụgwọ. N'ime afọ iri na-abịanụ, o jiri ọtụtụ ebe obibi ụlọ ọgbakọ ya, site na ụlọ mgbakọ ruo n'ụlọ ntu na ihe nkiri nkiri (Gladwell 2005). Ma, ọ “gbara ọkụ n’ịchụpụ ìgwè atụrụ ya. O mechara daa n’etiti okwuchukwu ya n’ụbọchị Sọnde ma daa mbà n’obi. Warren nọrọ afọ na-esote mkpụrụ obi na-achọ ụzọ iji nyere ndị mmadụ aka ịghara ịda mbà ọzọ ”(Steptoe 2004). Ọ bụ oge a mere ka e nwee ike ịmalite Warren maka ozi ama ama ebumnuche ya.

Chọọchị ahụ gara n'ihu na-eto n'ime afọ iri abụọ sochirinụ, yana ndị otu 10,000 site na 1990s. Saddleback nwere n'ikpeazụ mepụtara gaa otu n'ime ụlọ ọrụ megachị ndị ama ama na America, nke nwere mmadụ 10,000 ma bụrụkwa onye na-aga kwa izu karịrị 20,000 "na-ezukọ na ebe ofufe oche 3,500 dị na Lake Forest, California (Watson and Scalen 2011). E nwere ihe karịrị ndị 50,000 na mpịakọta chọọchị ahụ, ebe nrụọrụ weebụ nke ụka na-enweta ọtụtụ narị puku kwa ụbọchị.


ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

A maara Rick Warren nke ọma maka echiche "ebumnuche ya," nke ọ mepụtara n'ụzọ dị iche iche. Ọ na-ekwu na Chineke kere nzube ise maka ndụ mmadụ ọ bụla. Ha bụ “iwetara ya obi ụtọ, ịbụ akụkụ nke ezinụlọ ya, becomeomie ya, ijere ya ozi, na isoro ndị ọzọ kerịta ya. Pagwọ ịkwụ ụgwọ maka ịgbaso iwu ndị a, nkwa Warren, belatara nrụgide, mgbatị siri ike, mkpebi dị mfe, nnukwu nghọta, na nkwadebe dị mma maka mgbe ebighi ebi ”(Steptoe 2004). Ọ kọwawokwa "ebumnuche bụ isi" maka ụka: ofufe, mkpakọrịta, ịbụ onye na-eso ụzọ, ozi ọma na ikwusa ozi ọma. Na mgbakwunye, enwere "Global Goliath" na-eche ụka ihu taa. Nsogbu abụọ dị na ya bụ ihe efu na mmụọ na-enweghị isi; nsogbu ọha mmadụ atọ bụ oke ịda ogbenye, ọrịa na-efe efe na agụghị akwụkwọ. Ebumnuche nke Warren na-achọ iji dozie nsogbu ndị a na nsogbu ndị ọzọ ma n'ime ụka ma na nnukwu obodo.

N’akwụkwọ ya, Warren na-ekwu na ụka ọ bụla kwesiri inwe nkwupụta nke nzube, na-arịọ “ndị na-agụ ya ka ha tụlee otu ebumnuche na-akpali ụka ha. Ọ bụrụ na ha enweghị ike ikwu ihe ọ bụ, ọ na-agba ha ume ịkọwa nzube nke mmụọ nsọ dabere na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ”(Byassee 2004). Nkwupụta nke Saddleback bụ ebumnuche bụ “ịkpọbata ndị mmadụ n’ebe Jizọs nọ na ndị ezinụlọ ya, ime ka ha tozuo oke ka Kraist, na ịkwadebe ha maka ije ozi ha na ụka na ọrụ ndụ n’ụwa, iji bulie aha Chineke elu” (Rick Warren nd) .

Na-elekwasị anya na ibi ndụ ebumnuche ebumnuche, Warren na-agbaso echiche ọdịnala nke Evangelical nke mmehie, nke ọ na-akọwa mmehie dịka enweghị ntozu oke ime mmụọ (Myev 2009). Mmadu nwere ike itozu oke site na oganihu nke mmuo. Kama imehie, nke na-eweta obi amamikpe na ọdịda, Warren kwusiri okwu ọnwụnwa ike. Onye ọ bụla, gụnyere Jizọs, enwetawo ọnwụnwa, nke akwụkwọ ikike na-egosi abụghị akara nke adịghị ike mana ohere maka omume ka mma (Warren 2002: 202-206).

Warren nwekwara ụzọ pụrụ iche iji kwusaa ozi ọma. Ọ na-ekwusi ike mkpa ọ dị ịdọta ndị ọhụrụ na chọọchị, nke e mere na ministri nke Jizọs na Pọl: “Dị ka Warren si kwuo, ụzọ a ga-esi ministryomie ozi a nke Jizọs na Pọl bụ iji gboo 'mkpa ndị mmadụ nwere,' na iwebata ha. chọọchị ahụ site na ọrụ nkwusa ozi ọma na-enweghị ọgwụgwọ nke na-eweta naanị ozi ọma, ebe ọ bụ na ndị mmadụ enweela akụkọ ọjọọ zuru oke izu niile ”(Byassee 2004). Dika otutu ndi ụka choro ngbasa ozioma, enwere ike na ikesa otutu ndi mmadu ozi oma (Great Commission), nke egosiputasiri ike na mmuta ndi otu uka. Warren na-eme ka okwuchukwu ya dị na ego ọnụahịa site na weebụsaịtị nke o guzobere maka ndị ozuzu aturu; weebụsaịtị ahụ na-enweta ọtụtụ narị puku kwa ụbọchị (Gladwell 2005).

RITUALS

Ọrụ ụka na Saddleback jikọtara ndị ụka Kraịst na ndị megachurch. Ebe ọ bụ na Saddleback nwere mmekọ na Mgbakọ ndị Baptist Baptist, sacrament ndị ụka na-agbaso usoro ọrụ izisa ozi ọma kamakwa na-egosipụta liturgy pere mpenke ọdịnala Southern Baptist. N'ezie, "Warren dọrọ aka na ntị megide ụka ndị 'gafere ihe nnọchianya okpukpe' na ụlọ ha" (Byassee 2004). Dị ka megachurch, ọrụ Saddleback gosipụtara na-abụghị usoro ụka, usoro megachurch yana. A na-akọkarị Megachurches dị ka ụka dịkarịa ala ma ọ dịkarịa ala ndị bịara 2,000 kwa izu ma kesaa ọtụtụ omume ọma, usoro ọmụmụ na nhazi (Bird and Thumma 2011; Thumma and Davis 2007; Chaves 2006). Ha "etinyela otutu mgbanwe okpukpe, gụnyere mgbanwe dị ukwuu na nhazi ụlọ ọrụ ụlọ ofufe, omume ọdịnala ọdịnala, usoro chọọchị dị iche iche, na iji usoro mgbasa ozi ọhụụ" (Watson and Scalen 2011). Dị ka Trueheart (1996) si kwuo, “Ọ dịghị ndị spi. Ọ dịghị obe. Enweghị uwe. Enweghị olu olu. Enweghị ike pews. Enweghị ndị ikpere. Ọ dịghị Akwụkwọ Nsọ gobbledygook. Enweghị ekpere. Enweghị ọkụ, enweghị brimstone. Enweghị akụkụ ọkpọ. Enweghị egwu egwu nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ. Enweghị mmanye mmanye. Ọ dịghị Sunday finery. Enweghị efere nchịkọta. Servicedị ọrụ ụka ọdịnala gbanwere site na okwu okwu mkpụmkpụ ma na-abawanye oge na ohere enyere egwu, ihe ngosi na ngosipụta site na ihe nkiri na ngosipụta ike. Megachurches na-enyekwa ọtụtụ atụmatụ ndị ọzọ, dịka kọfị na ụlọ ahịa kọfị, akwụkwọ na ụlọ vidiyo, yana ọrụ nlekọta ụmụaka (Twitchell 2004, nke edepụtara na Watson na Scalen 2011). A na-ewepụkarị pulp iji zere ọdịdị nke onye ọzụzụ atụrụ na-enweghị isi.

Saddleback's Center Center na-anabata ndị na-efe 3,000 ma na-egosipụta obe osisi a kwụsịrị na nnukwu vidiyo vidiyo. Ọ bụ ezie na ụka bụ Southern Baptist, ọ nweghị njikọ na-ahụ na ihe ịrịba ama ụka ma ọ bụ ụlọ (Byassee 2004). Dị ka Gladwell (2005) si kwuo, “Saddleback dị ka ogige kọleji, na nnukwu ụlọ nsọ ahụ dị ka mgbatị ụlọ akwụkwọ. Ingdọba ụgbọala hiri nne. Oche dị mma. Enwere igwe okwu na igwe onyonyo ebe niile na-agbasa ozi ofufe, ọnụ ụzọ niile ghe oghe, yabụ onye ọ bụla nwere ike ịpụ ma ọ bụ pụọ, n'oge ọ bụla, na amaghị aha nke igwe mmadụ ahụ. ” Dị ka megachurch, Saddleback na-enye ọtụtụ ofufe dị iche iche: “Na ngwụsị izu, ndị otu 20,000 na ndị na-abịa ya na-ahọrọ ọrụ na oge isii dị iche iche na ebe 10 dị iche iche gburugburu ogige ahụ - ụfọdụ nwere ndị na-ekwu okwu ndụ, ụfọdụ na TV mmechi - na-enye ọtụtụ ofufe na ụdị egwu dị iche iche sitere na ukwe dị jụụ na mkparịta ụka dị omimi 'ewepụghị' na nzukọ tent nke na-enye abụ otuto ozioma "(Steptoe 2004). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ndị na-efe ofufe nwere ike ịhọrọ site na ọrụ gosipụtara oke okwute, ozioma, ukwe ọdịnala na ụdị egwu egwu Hawaii; nke ọzọ, Terrace Café na-enye nhọrọ nke ikiri ọrụ na ntanetị telivishọn dị ndụ (Myev 2009). N'èzí thelọ Ọrụ Ofufe, ọtụtụ ụlọ ntu na-enye ndị na-abịa nzukọ ọmụmụ ihe isiokwu ndị sitere na ịzụ ụmụ na nkwalite alụmdi na nwunye na atụmatụ mmefu ego ezinụlọ na mgbake site na ị abuseụ ọgwụ ọjọọ. Enwekwara ụlọ ọrụ dị iche iche, ndị na-akụ afọ-maka ụmụaka. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụlọ akwụkwọ ụmụ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, Mpaghara Mmụta, nwere ebe ofufe nke ya yana ọmụmụ ihe na oghere ntụrụndụ, ebe a na-ere kọfị na ebe egwuregwu. Childrenlọ ọrụ ụmụaka nwere ebe egwuregwu Akwụkwọ Nsọ na egwuregwu vidio.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Warren ghọrọ onye ụkọchukwu Christian a na-ahụ anya nke ukwuu dịka ngwaahịa nke nzukọ ya karịa ihe ọmụmụ ihe ọmụmụ ya (Gladwell 2005; Maresco 2008). N'etiti akwụkwọ ya ọ kacha mara amara maka akwụkwọ abụọ kacha ere ahịa, Ebumnuche Ebumnuche Chọọchị (1995) na Nzube Nke Ndụ (2002). Akwụkwọ ndị a mere ka ọha na eze nwee mmasị na ịzụ atụrụ na ọrụ Warren na-arụ na nzube ya na ọrụ nke megachurch na ndụ okpukpe America nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu. Na mkpokọta, akwụkwọ abụọ a eresịwo iri nde kwuru nde. Nzube Nke Ndụ atụgharịwo gaa n’asụsụ 56, akwụkwọ a esonyekwara na akwụkwọ akụkọ, kalenda, na ozi mkpali na isiokwu nwere nzube. Ahịa nke Nzube Nke Ndụ bụ onye edere na 2005 mgbe onye gbara ọsọ ndụ nke gburu mmadụ anọ, Brian Nichols, jidere ma jide Ashley Smith Robinson ruo awa asaa tupu ya ahapụ ya mgbe ọ gụụrụ ya otu isi n'akwụkwọ Warren, "Olee otú ezigbo ndị ohu si eme" (Kelley 2010) .

Ma ndi otu okpukpere chi ma ndi nke ulo-uka akwadola usoro ihe omume ha na ulo akwukwo, ihe kariri puku ulo uka iri ise n’uwa nile emeela mmemme “40bọchị 40 nke Nzube” nke sitere n’udi akwukwo a. Warren azụlitewo echiche ahụ n'ụzọ ndị ọzọ. O guzobela usoro "Speakingsụ n'usoro" nke na-elekwasị anya n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ụka (okwuchukwu, akwụkwọ, obere ọrụ otu, ọrụ ọrụ) gburugburu otu isiokwu n'oge izu anọ na asatọ. Ihe omume ọzọ metụtara ya bụ "ụbọchị XNUMX nke Ọha." A gwara ndị na-efe Saddleback ka ha hazie onwe ha n'obere obere, họrọ ọrụ ga-abara obodo uru, wee duzie ọrụ ahụ ruo ụbọchị iri anọ. Ihe oru ngo a bu site na nzacha na mkpocha obodo na ebe obibi ndi mmadu gaa na nri nri na otu ekpere.

N'ihe banyere ihe ịga nke ọma ya dị ka onye edemede, Warren ji aka ya kwụsịtụ ịkwụ ụgwọ $ 110,000 kwa afọ Saddleback wee weghachite ụgwọ niile ọ kwụrụ na chọọchị. Na mgbakwunye, ndị Warren na-enye onyinye niile ma ntakịrị pasent nke akwụkwọ akwụ ụgwọ ha na Saddleback yana ntọala ebere ha guzobere. Ọrụ ebere ndị a gụnyere ịlụ ọgụ maka ịda ogbenye, agụghị akwụkwọ na ọrịa, na-ekwusi ike na ọrịa AIDS (Steptoe 2004).

A haziri Saddleback n'ụdị ohuru, ụdị ụlọ ọrụ nke na-emesi ike ebumnuche nke Warren. Principleskpụrụ nhazi gụnyere ịkọwapụta ebumnuche nzukọ doro anya, na-ekwusi ike na nhazi nzukọ karịa uto, na-agbanwe agbanwe na-agbazinye ego site n'aka ndị ọzọ, na-ezere akụrụngwa dị oke ọnụ, na-enye ndị bịara ya ihe ha na-agaghị ahụ ebe ọzọ, na-achọ ndị na-agaghị ụka ("Saddleback Sams") , na-ama ndị otu aka na ntinye na ebumnuche, na-eji teknụzụ na ụzọ dị egwu, na ịme ihe dị mkpa (Watson and Scalen, 2011). Magazin Forbes kwuru, "A sị na ọ bụ azụmaahịa, a ga-eji Saddleback tụnyere Dell, Google ma ọ bụ Starbucks" (Karlgaard 2004). Saddleback bụ ụka izizi nke anọchitere anya na ịntanetị ma jiri ọtụtụ teknụzụ dịnụ (pọdkastị na ihe ntanetị weebụ, YouTube, na Myspace) iji nọgide na-enwe mmekọrịta na ndị sonyere na netwọkụ zuru ụwa ọnụ. Site na nzukọ ya na nkuzi DVD Saddleback kuziere ọtụtụ narị puku ndị ozi gburugburu ụwa (Warren 2007). Ndị otu ụka a na-elekọta ọtụtụ narị ndị ọrụ a kwụrụ ụgwọ na ọtụtụ puku ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-elekọta ọtụtụ minista na mmemme nke ụka na-arụ ọrụ n'ụlọ ọrụ ụdị ụlọ ọrụ.

A na-atụ anya ka ndị otu mee ihe karịa ịga ọrụ; a na-atụ anya na ha ga-esonye n’ọgbakọ na ebum n’uche ha. N'ezie, Saddleback na-agbadata ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu site na mpịakọta ndị na-adịghị agagharị na ndị otu ma gosipụta uto a site na ọgbụgba ndụ, na-enye mmesapụ aka ma na-emepe site n'aka ndị otu n'ime ndị ozi "(Byassee 2004). A na-atụ anya ka ndị otu chọrọ itolite ịbụ ndị ozi sonye na ministri dịka Warren's ụka-to-church PEACE Plan, nke na-ewere "Global Goliaths" ise, ọrịa na-efe efe, agụghị akwụkwọ, ịda ogbenye, ndị isi chọrọ ọdịmma onwe ha naanị, na enweghị mmụọ. Ihe ngwọta maka mmemme a bụ PEACE, nke na-akwado ịkwalite mmekọrịta, ịkwadebe ndị isi, inyere ndị ogbenye aka, ilekọta ndị ọrịa, na ịkụziri ọgbọ na-esote mba ndị na-emepe emepe gburugburu ụwa (Gramby-Sobukwe and Hoiland 2009). Warren chọrọ ka otu puku obere puku abụọ nke Saddleback nabata obodo dị na mba na-emepe emepe, gaa njem ozi ala ọzọ ebe ahụ, ma ziga ndị bi na ya ihe mmụta na ọgwụ, yana nkwado ime mmụọ na nke ego.

Saddleback aghọwo nnukwu ụka na netwọkụ ụwa. Chọọchị ahụ na-ekwu na ihe karịrị mmadụ 70,000 nọ na chọọchị ya na ihe karịrị mmadụ 20,000 na-aga na nkezi Sunday. E wezụga Saddleback campus n'onwe ya, ụka bụ isi nke ọtụtụ puku "ụlọ dị iche iche" na-ezukọ kwa izu. Saddleback akwadowokwa mmepe nke ọtụtụ narị ụka ndị ọzọ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Achka Megach n'ozuzu anatala nkatọ dị ukwuu n'ime obodo ndị Evangelical. Dịka otu n'ime ụlọ ọrụ megachị ndị ama ama, Saddleback na-enyocha ma na-akatọ ya maka enweghị ike ịgbaso nkuzi na omume Evangelical. Iji maa atụ, Dennis Costella, onye ozi nke amentalka Akwụkwọ Nsọ bụ isi na Los Osos, California, na-eleghara ozi ebumnuche anya dị ka "atụmatụ ahịa" (Steptoe 2004; Costella 1998). A katọrọ usoro ahia a dị ka mbenata okpukpe na nhọrọ ndị na-azụ ahịa na mkpa onye ọ bụla ma n'otu oge ahụ na-ebelata mgbakwunye nke Ndị Kraịst na okwu okwu (Watson and Scalen 2011). Site na ndị nkatọ, Warren na-agbagha ụkpụrụ omume na nke okpukpe nke ezi ụzọ Ndị Kraịst. N’ikwu ya n’ụzọ dị mfe, chọọchị abụghị ụlọ ahịa ebe ndị ahịa na-ahọrọ ngwá ahịa okpukpe. Bennett (nd) chịkọtara nke a dị ka “ikwusa ozi-ọma ụgha na inye mmadụ otuto.” A na-arụ ụka na iji teknụzụ dị elu, dị ka ọrụ dị iche iche, na-achọ ịgbasawanye òkè okpukpe nwere ike ime ka njikọ dị n'etiti onye na-efe ofufe na ụka belata (Watson and Scalen 2011). A na-adọ Warren aka na ntị maka ịghara ịgbaso ụzọ na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe na nsogbu mmekọrịta ọha na eze. Ọ kwadoro nkwupụta California nke 8 na-akọwa alụmdi na nwunye dị ka n'etiti nwoke na nwanyị naanị mana ọ pụtala maka ịlụ ọgụ megide okpomoku ụwa, ịda ogbenye na ọrịa AIDS; na-erute Alakụba; na imegide mmekpa ahụ. Esemokwu a banyere ụzọ Warren rutere ruo na ọkwa ụka. Churcheska dị iche iche kewapụrụ dịka ndị otu ọdịnala nke ọgbakọ ụka jikọtara mgbalị iji mejuputa ọhụụ megachurch (Sataline 2006; "Wall Street Journal Article" 2006).

N'aka nke ya, Warren na-ekwusi ike na ọ gaghị agbahapụ kama ọ na-emeghachi ụkpụrụ ụkpụrụ Ndị Kraịst dị larịị. O kwuru na "M na-atụgharị eziokwu ahụ n'asụsụ narị afọ nke 21, o doro anya na ọtụtụ ndị na-ege ntị." Ọ na-agbachitere usoro ya dị ka "usoro izisa ozi ọma, ọ bụghị nkwenye nke nkà mmụta okpukpe," na-ekwu na onye a na-amaghị na Kraịst chọrọ iru ha ebe ha nọ ma ghara ịhapụ ha ebe ahụ (Warren 1995a: 199). Warren kwenyesiri ike na mba ahụ nọ na njedebe nke edemede ime mmụọ, ebe ndị mmadụ na-achọ mmezu ha na-enwetaghị site na ọrụ ngwa ngwa ma ha enweghị ike ịzụta kaadị ọla edo. "Omenala ahụ na-ajụ, sị, 'Olee otu m ga-esi mejupụta oghere a n'obi m?" "Echere m na Chineke bụ azịza ya" (Steptoe 2004). Site na echiche Warren, ọbụlagodi na enwere ụfọdụ nkwekọrịta na usoro ya, ha ga-akwụ ụgwọ maka ihe ịga nke ọma na ime ka ndị mmadụ bịakwute Kraịst. Dika o nyochaputara nkatọ nke usoro ya, "I nweghi ike inwe mgbanwe n'enweghi onye na-emegide ya," Warren gwara ndi Associated Press. "Ọ bụrụ na anaghị m eme mgbanwe, ọ dịghị onye ga-a payinga ntị" (Matta 2008). Mgbe ahụ, uto ndị otu bụ ngosipụta doro anya nke eziokwu nke ozi Evangelical na usoro o ji gbasaa ozi ahụ. Ọ bụkwa eziokwu, na, ka uto ndị otu ụka na-ebelata, arụmụka ihe ịga nke ọma nke Warren na ndị isi ndị megachurch ndị ọzọ na-eme ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-adịghị ike (Grossman 2008).

Ọ bụ ezie na Warren anatawo nkatọ dị ukwuu n'ime obodo Evangelical, ọ belatabeghị mmetụta ya. The

Nzube Ndụ A Na-akwagharị nọ n'ọkwá dị elu nke ukwuu na oge a na-ere n'etiti akwụkwọ ndị na-abụghị akụkọ ma sụgharịa ya n'asụsụ 56. Ihe kariri ulo uka 50,000 kariri uwa nile anabatala atumatu ebumnuche ya, ndi mepere echiche na omume ndi ozo na-edeputa otutu onu ogugu ndi mmadu. Mmetụta ya agafewo n'okpukpe. Warren nyefere arịrịọ ahụ n'oge ntinye aka na 2004 na-esote ntuli aka 2004 na ntuli aka n'oge nhọpụta onye isi ala na-esote ntuli aka 2008. Akpọwo ya otu n'ime ndị Evangelicals 25 kachasị emetụta (Steptoe 2005).

References

Byassee, Jason. 2004. “Gịnị bụ Chọọchị Maka?” Narị Afọ Ndị Kraịst. 9 Mach 2004, peeji nke 28-32.

Bennett, Richard. nd “Adupe nke Mmadu Nzube Nke Ndụ.” Ndụ Ndụ Ebighị Ebi. Nweta site na http://www.eternallifeministries.org/rb_tpdl1.pdf.

Nnụnụ, Warren na Scott Thumma. 2011. Afọ iri nke Megachurches: Profaịlụ 2011 nke Nnukwu endga Attka na United States. Nweta site na http://hirr.hartsem.edu/megachurch/megachurch-2011-summary-report.htm na April 30, 2012.

Chaves, Mak. 2006. "Ihe okike niile dị ukwuu na obere: Megach ụka na Ọnọdụ." Nyochaa banyere Nnyocha Okpukpe 47 (2006): 329-46.

Costella, Dennis. 1998. "Nnyocha nke" Ebumnuche Ebumnuche nke Chọọchị Rick Warren. " Ntọala Foundation (Machị-Eprel). Nweta site na http://www.a-voice.org/discern/saddle.htm na March 25, 2012.

Gladwell, Malcom. 2005. "Chọọchị Cellular." New Yorker. 12 September 2005. Nweta site na http://www.gladwell.com/2005/2005_09_12_a_warren.html on March 25, 2012.

Gramby-Sobukwe, Sharon na Tim Hoiland. 2009. "Nrị elu nke Mgbalị Mega-Church na International Development: A Brief Analysis and Areas for further Research." Mgbanwe: International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies. 2009 26: 104. Nweta site na http://trn.sagepub.com/content/26/2/104 na February 28, 2012.

Grossman Cathy Lynn. 2008. “Ka Ọnụ Ọgụgụ Ha Nọ, Megachọọchị Na-achọ‘ Ndị Na-achọ ’.” USA TODAY 8 Septemba 2008. Nweta site na http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2008-09-08-megachurches-numbers_N.htm n'April 25 2012.

Karlgaard, Ọgaranya. 2004. “Nzube Akwaga.” Forbes 16 February 2004. Nweta site na

http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2004/0216/039.html on March 25, 2012.

Kelley, Raina. 2010. "Ashley Smith Robinson." Akwụkwọ akụkọ 20/10. Nweta site na http://2010.newsweek.com/top-10/happiest-endings/ashely-smith-robinson.html na March 5, 2012.

Matta, Hector. 2008. "Ndị na-akatọ Rick Warren gụnye ndị ọzọ Evangelicals: Ọtụtụ Na-eche Ọ Na-adịghị Conservative Zuru, Ọbụna Dị ka Ndị gay kpọrọ ya ajọ mbunobi." Associated Press 22 Disemba 2008. Nweta site na http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28354114/ns/us_news-faith/t/rick-warrens-critics-include-other-evangelicals/#.T6BmPNnhd5J na May 1, 2012.

Myev, Alexandra Rees. 2009. Nzube Ọhụrụ: Rick Warren, Megachurch Movement, na Early Twenty-First Century American Evangelical Discourse. Ph.D. Nkesa, Oxford, Ohio: Mahadum Miami.

"Rick Warren." nd Nweta site na www.rickwarren.com, na February 28, 2012.

Sataline, Suzanne. 2006. "Ọgba Nsọ." Wall Street Journal 5 Septemba 2006. Nweta site na http://sataline.com/veneration-gap on April 28, 2012.

Sheler, Jeffrey. 2009. Amụma Nzube: Ndụ nke Rick Warren. New York: Ụbọchị abụọ.

Steptoe, Sonja. 2005. "Ndị Mostka Mgbasa Ozi 25 Dịkarịsịrị Ike" Time 7 February 2005. Nweta site na http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1972656_1972712_1973828,00.html na May 1, 2012.

Steptoe, Sonja. 2004. “Nwoke Nwere Nzube Ya.” Time. 21 March 2004. Nweta site na http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,603246,00.html na February 28, 2012.

Thumma, Scott na David Travis. 2007. Beyond Echiche Meggha Megachurch: Ihe Anyị Pụrụ Learnmụta na Chọọchị Kasị Ukwuu nke America . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Ezigbo, Charles. 1996. "Nzukọ na-esote." Nke Atlantic Monthly 278 (Ọgọst): 37-58.

Vu, Michelle. 2009. "Rick Warren Biography na-ekpughe Rocky Alụmdi na Nwunye, Ndakpọ Obi." Christian Post 3 Disemba 2009. Nweta site na http://www.christianpost.com/news/rick-warren-biography-uncovers-rocky-marriage-depression-42115/ na March 21, 2012.

"Wall Street Journal Nkeji edemede na Ebumnobi Ndị A Na-emegharị Emegide Na-agwa Akụkụ nke Akụkọ." 2006. Lighthouse ilszọ ụkwụ Research Project 5 Septemba 2006. Nweta site na http://www.lighthousetrailsresearch.com/wsjarticle.htm na April 29, 2012.

Warren, Richard. 1993. Chka ohuru maka ọgbọ ohuru: Churchka Churchka na-eru Babymụaka. Ihe Omume: Saddleback Valley Community Church. Pasadena: Seminarị nke usoro mmụta okpukpe zuru oke.

Warren, Rick. 2007. "Ike nke ndị ụka." Magazin Forbes 5 Ka 2007. Nweta site na http://www.forbes.com/free_forbes/2007/0507/210.html.

Warren, Rick. 2002. Nzube Ebumnuche Nke ndu: Gini n’uwa ka m no ebe a?. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Warren, Rick. 1995. Ebumnuche Ebumnuche Chọọchị: Ọganihu Na-enweghị Imebi Ozi Gị na Ozi Gị. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan ..

Watson, JB, Jr. na Walt Scalen, Jr. 2011. "Na-enyocha Jesus: Megachurches, Chọọchị Uto Movement na Njikwa Foto na Ọdịnala Ndị Ahịa." Stephen Mahadum F. Austin State. Afọ 2011 Usoro nke ASSR-SW 11.

Nwanyị Missionary Union nd Nweta site na http://web.archive.org/web/20071214010511/http://www.wmu.com/rickwarren/ na February 28, 2012.

Authors:
David G. Bromley
Stephanie Edelman

Ụbọchị Post:
2 May 2012

 

 

 

 

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