Mgbanwe nke Humanity

Okpukpe nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ


Okpukpe nke oge ụmụ mmadụ

1789–1799: Ntughari aka nke French.

1798 (Jenụwarị 19): A mụrụ Auguste Comte.

1830–1842: Comte bipụtara Ihe nkuzi nke Philosophie na mpịakọta ise.

1838: Comte gbalịrị ịtọlite ​​ụkpụrụ nke mmekọrịta mmekọrịta ọha na eze dị ka nkà ihe ọmụma sayensị na-eme ka a dị n'otu.

1844: Comte hụrụ Clotilde de Vaux n'anya.

1846: Clotilde de Vaux nwụrụ site na ụkwara nta, na-akpali Comte ịrara onwe ya nye n'echiche okpukpe ọhụrụ ya.

1851: Comte bipụtara Ndị ọzọ na-, nke gosipụtara emume na sacrament nke Positivist "Religion of Humanity."

1851–1854: Comte bipụtara mpịakọta anọ nke Système de politique nke oma, bụ́ nke gosipụtara okpukpe Positivist ọdịdị nuanced.

1857 (Septemba 5): Auguste Comte nwụrụ, na-ahapụ Pierre Laffitte dị ka onye isi nke ụka ya.

1865: John Stuart Mill dere Auguste Comte na Positivism, nke katọrọ mmepe nke okpukpe site na nkà ihe ọmụma Positivist.

1867: Mary Ann Evans bipụtara uri n'okpuru aha mkpado ya George Eliot, O Ka m sonye na ukwe nke anaghi ahu anya!, nke gosipụtara echiche Positivist banyere mmadụ dịka Ukwu-Être Suprême, Onye Kachasị Elu.

1867: Richard Congreve guzobere London Positivist Society ka ọ ghara ịgafe ikike nke ndị isi Pierre Laffitte.

1867–1868: David Goodman Croly na ndị ọzọ Positivist nọ na New York City hiwere First Positivist Society nke New York, dabere na ọha ndị England guzobere Richard Congreve.

1869: Otu ezigbo Ọtọdọks nke Positive Society of North America kewara site na First Positivist Society of New York.

1878: Richard Congreve guzobere Comtist Church of Humanity na London.

1881: Raimundo Teixeira Mendes guzobere ụka Positivist nke Brazil, Igreja Positivista ime Brasil, na Rio de Janeiro.

1897: Templelọ mmadụ nke mmadụ mepere na Rio de Janeiro.

1905: E hiwere ụlọ ụka dị na Temple of Humanity na Paris.

1974: London Positivist Society gbasasiri.

2009: Oké mmiri ozuzo dara dara n'elu ụlọ nke Templelọ Nsọ Mmadụ na Rio de Janeiro, ndị ohi na-echekwa atụmatụ mbụ nke ọkọlọtọ Brazil na akụ ndị ọzọ Positivist.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

N'ihi mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmekọrịta ọha na eze, nke ọchịchị, na nke amamihe nke mgbanwe French, onye ọkà ihe ọmụma bụ Auguste Comte [Image at ziri ezi] gbalịrị ike usoro okpukpe iji nye usoro omume na njikọta ọdịbendị mgbe ihe Comte hụrụ dị ka mbibi a na-apụghị izere ezere nke okpukpe metaphysical. Iwu okpukpe Comte chọrọ mere ka ọ kwalite “mmetụta nke obodo,” nnupụisi nke anyaukwu hụrụ dị ka ihe dị mkpa maka mmepe nke otu Republic siri ike. Okpukpe ahụ dabere na nkà ihe ọmụma Comte nke Positivism ma mesịa kpọọ ya Religion of Humanity (Nussbaum 2011: 8–9).

Auguste Comte bụ onye amaara nke ọma maka nkà ihe ọmụma ya nke Positivism mgbe ọ kpebiri ịmalite Okpukpe nke Okike. O kwenyere na ọganihu mmekọrịta ọha na eze na nke ọchịchị ga-eme ka òtù okpukpe ọdịnala, ọkachasị Katọlik, ghara ịdị ike na enweghị isi. Na 1844, Comte zutere ma daa ịhụnanya na Clotilde de Vaux [Foto dị n'aka nri], onye Katọlik gbara alụkwaghịm onye amachibidoro ịlụgharị di n'okpuru nkwenkwe Katọlik. Lovehụnanya ha nwere mmetụta miri emi, mana ọnwụ ọnwụ nke ụkwara nta gburu ya na 1846. Nke a bibiri Comte, onye nwere mmasị na mmepe nke okpukpe na-efe ndị Ukwu-ÊtreOkechukwu, Onye Kachasị Elu, ghọtara dị ka njikọ dị n'otu nke ụmụ mmadụ ndị ahụ tinyekọtara onwe ha na akụkọ banyere mmadụ site na nnukwu ọrụ ha. Gbaso ya gara aga Ihe nkuzi nke Philosophie, nke gosipụtara nkà ihe ọmụma Positivism, Comte mechara bipụta Système de politique nke oma na Ihe nlele, nke kọwara ọmarịcha ntọala na nhazi nke okpukperechi nke mmadụ. Fọdụ ndị na-enyocha Comte na-ele mgbanwe a anya dị ka ihe dị egwu:

N'ọnọdụ nke udo dị jụụ kwesịrị ịkọwa onye ọkà mmụta sayensị, enwere ịnụ ọkụ n'obi nke onye mọnk na-eme nkwusa bụ onye, ​​nke gafere ntakịrị banyere nkọwa yana ebumnuche. Okpukpe, nke a na-elelị dị ka ihe na-akpata nkwụsị na mgbochi sayensị, abụrụla ya nnukwu mmekọrịta mmekọrịta, na-eme ka ụmụ mmadụ na mba dị iche iche, usoro bara uru nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ga-esi mee iwu maka ịchị ụwa (Bryson 1936: 344) .

John Stuart Mill, enyi na enyi Comte, chọpụtakwara mgbanwe a siri ike:

N'ịtụle usoro nke okpukperechi, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na omume, nke n'ime ederede ya n'oge gara aga M. Comte wuru, ọ bụghị ihe dị mkpa iburu n'uche ụdị ahụmịhe nke onwe na mkpali nke ọ na-ekwukarị na ngalaba a nke nkà ihe ọmụma ya. Mana dịka anyị ga-enwe ọtụtụ ihe anyị ga-ekwu megide, karịa maka nkwubi okwu nke ọ nọ n'ụzọ a duziri, ọ bụ ihe ziri ezi ikwupụta na, site n'ihe akaebe nke ihe odide ya, anyị kwenyere n'ezie na omume ọma nke Madame Clotilde de Vaux n'elu akparamagwa ya nke ịbụ nke ennobling yana agwa dị nro nke ọ sịrị na ya (Mill 1968: 131-32).

Comte raara onwe ya nye ozugbo iji wuo okpukpe ya, nke o setịpụrụ ihe owuwu Catéchisme dị mma. Ihe mmepe obodo mepere emepe na-emepe emepe nke ụwa ọdịda anyanwụ na-eche Comte, bụ onye hụrụ na omume a na-emetụta, "ọgba aghara ime mmụọ na-arịwanye elu nke na-eyi egwu," ọha mmadụ nke oge a "na" mkpụmkpụ ụwa "(Wernick 2001: 81). Ọ bụrụ na Comte na-enwere okpukpe ochie anyaụfụ maka ihe ọ bụla, ọ bụ usoro ime mmụọ na nke omume ka ha jiri kpalie ọha mmadụ. N'ụzọ dị otú a, o mere ndokwa maka usoro okpukpe nke ya iji nye ụkpụrụ nduzi na-achịkwa ụkpụrụ na ụkpụrụ nke ụkpụrụ na-achịkwa. Ebumnuche ndị a dị oke mkpa ma chọọ mma achọtabeghị nkwado zuru oke ma ọ bụ ịtụkwasị obi iji mezuo ebumnuche nhazi ha, ọrụ ndị ụkọchukwu wee bụrụ okwu esemokwu n'etiti ndị na-eso ụzọ Comte na ndị nkatọ.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọhụụ Comte nke dochie usoro okpukpe dị iche iche emeghị ka ọ gbanwee n'ụzọ ọ tụrụ anya ya, akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Positivism bụ otu n'ime mmetụta ụwa a ma ama. Ndị edemede Bekee dịka John Stuart Mill, Mary Ann Evans (ya bụ, George Eliot) na Harriet Martineau bụ ndị Comte na Positivism nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu, ọ bụ ezie na ha esonyeghị na Okpukpe nke Humanmụ mmadụ ma ọ bụ soro na okpukpe okpukpe a haziri ahazi (Bryson 1936: 349).

N'oge a, yana Comte malitere nzukọ ma soro ndị ọkà mmụta ọmịiko sitere na Europe na North America na-akparịta ụka ndị nwere mmasị na ihe nhazi nke Okpukpe nke Okike. Otu n'ime ndị nkwado kacha nwee obi ụtọ na Comte zutere na 1850s bụ Richard Congreve [Foto dị n'aka nri], bụ onye guzobere ọtụtụ òtù Positivist na England. Otu ụmụ akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na Wadham College, Oxford, nke a na-akpọ Mumbo Jumbo, malitere nzukọ na 1850s n'okpuru onye edemede na onye ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme bụ Frederic Harrison. Ha tụgharịrị n'ihu ọha banyere ọnọdụ okpukpe nke oge a na Europe, na-ewute Harrison, bụ onye hụrụ ụfọdụ n'ime mkparịta ụka doro anya banyere Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst na enweghị okwukwe Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Richard Congreve bụ onye nkuzi chiri echichi n'ọdịnala Anglịkan na kọleji Wadham, ọ wee bụrụ onye nkuzi nye ndị otu mkparịta ụka a. Harrison na-akọ na n'oge a, Congreve apụlarị n'okwukwe Ndị Kraịst, ma ọ bụ ezie na ọ kwadobeghị Comte na nkwenkwe ya, ọ malitelarị ịgwa Comte okwu na France, nke ga-aga n'ihu ruo afọ ise ruo mgbe Comte nwụrụ na 1857 (Bryson 1936: 345–47).

Na 1854, Congreve gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọkwa ya na kọleji Wadham wee bido ịrara onwe ya nye ọmụmụ nke Positivism na usoro a chọrọ nke ụka Positivist. Ọ malitere ịsụgharị Système de politique nke oma na Ihe nlele n'ime Bekee, ya na ụmụazụ ndị ọzọ sitere na otu Mumbo Jumbo na Wadham. Congreve malitere ịmụ sayensị nke anụ ahụ ka ọ gụkwuo agụmakwụkwọ ya iji tozuo maka ọrụ onye ụkọchukwu Positivist. Ọnọdụ a chọrọ agụmakwụkwọ n'ọtụtụ akụkụ, ma mesịa nweta ọnọdụ nke dọkịta. Na 1867, Congreve guzobere London Positivist Society, nke ndị Positivist Society na-azaghachi na Paris. Afọ iri ka nke ahụ gasịrị, “ngagharị nke enweghị afọ ojuju,” bilitere n'akụkụ idu ndú nke Pierre Laffitte, onye mmezi nke ala Comte, onye a hoputara ịbụ onye ntụzi ọrụ nke ụka French. Na 1878, Congreve kewara si na ndi otu French wee hibe ulo uka nke mmadu na Oxford. Na nzukọ ya, ọ dịghị onye dị elu karịa Congreve, onye na-agaghị aza Laffitte ma ọ bụ ụka Parisian (Bryson 1936: 348–52).

Okpukpe ahụ gbasara site na Paris ruo London / Oxford ruo New York, ebe ọ dọtara, “ndị isi na-eme echiche […] tinyere nchịkọta na-akpali akpali nke ndị ọka iwu, ndị dibia, ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ, ndị nta akụkọ, na ndị na-ede uri, ụfọdụ n'ime ha ga-abụ ndị ama ama na mba. afọ ndị na-abịanụ ”(Harp 1991: 508-09). Congreve's London Positivist Society, na mgbe e mesịrị na Church of Humanity ya, karịa ụka Parisian nke Laffitte bụ onye isi, kpaliri mwepụta nke izizi Positivist Society nke New York n'etiti 1867 na 1868. Site na 1872, ndị otu ahụ azawo ihe ruru mmadụ iri anọ na-abịa ya. , na okwu banyere mgbanwe okpukpe (nke a ghọtara dị ka nnabata nke okpukpe nke Positivism) weghaara ụda na ọdịnaya nke nzukọ ha, nke Onye isi ala Henry Evans duziri, onye bidoro ịkọwa onwe ya dị ka onye ụkọchukwu. (Harp 1991: 514-18). Ndi otu Positivist nke New York weputara otutu aha, nhazi nke ndi ndu gbanwere nke oma, obu ezie na ndi mbu adighi agbanwe agbanwe. Ndị omekorita mere ka oge ju n'etiti Congreve, Laffitte, ma, na ha abụọ, na otu mechara gbasaa na 1890s (Harp 1991: 521–22).

Usoro ọmụmụ ọzọ nke ụka ahụ gbasaa site na France ruo Latin na South America. Na Brazil, ebe Positivism nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ọkachasị gbasara agụmakwụkwọ, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na okpukpe obodo, Okpukpe nke Humanmụ mmadụ ka ndị obere Positivists na-eme (Hennigan 2014). Ọ bụ ezie na Mexico na Argentina nwekwara ndị otu Positivist, njikọ ha na ndị Brazil Positivists bụ, nke kachasị mma, na-adị egwu:

Na Europe, na-amalite site na mmekorita n'etiti ndị okike nke positivism, Comte na Mill, na mmetụta pụtara ìhè nke Bekee positivism na [French Positivist, Hippolyte] Taine, enwere mmekọrịta dị n'etiti positivism nke France na nke England. N'ime ọtụtụ iri afọ nke positivism nwere nke kachasị na-eso ya na Mexico, Brazil, na Argentina, enweghị nkwukọrịta n'etiti ndị positivists na mba atọ ahụ. (Ardao 1963: 516)

O nwere ike ịbụ na enweghị nkwekọrịta a n'etiti ndị Positivist Latin na South America mere ka mbelata nke Positivism okpukpe Mexico na Argentina, ma ọ bụ ọ nwere ike bụrụ na enweghị nhazi a mere ka ndị Positivist nke Brazil ghara ịdaba site na ọdịda nke mmegharị ahụ na steeti Latin na South America ndị ọzọ. , ma n'ihi ihe doro anya kpatara, otu Positivist ole na ole nke Brazil bụ naanị ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike ma na-eleru anya banyere ọgbakọ nke Humanity na New World. Ndị Positivist nke Brazil malitere udo ha na Rio de Janeiro Positivist Society na 1876. Na 1891, Templelọ Nsọ nke Templemụ mmadụ nke mbụ ka emechara na mpaghara Glória bara ọgaranya, ugbu a bụ ụlọ nke ụlọ ndị dị n'etiti (Hennigan 2014). Na 1897, e hiwere Templelọ Nsọ nke Abụọ nke abụọ na Rio de Janeiro. Oge zuru oke n'oge a iji chọta obodo atọ ọzọ nke Positivist nke Brazil na ụlọ arụsị nke aka ha, na Positivism ghọrọ otu n'ime ihe na-akpali akpali na mba ịchụpụ alaeze na nguzobe nke Republic na Nọvemba 1899 (Ardao 1963: 519) . Na 1889, Positivist Raimundo Teixeira Mendes mere ọkọlọtọ Brazil nke oge a site na iji ụkpụrụ Positivist bụ "Ordem e Progresso." Afọ iri ka e mesịrị, a nakweere ya dị ka ọkọlọtọ nke mba ọhụrụ ahụ mgbe mgbanwe ọchịchị mba ahụ na mba ahụ (Hennigan 2014).

Na 2009, elu ụlọ nke ụlọ nsọ Brazil nke Humanity dara. Ihe onyonyo igwe onyonyo Google na egosi temple, ugbuagbara ụlọ elu-ụlọ elu dị elu gbara gburugburu, nke tarpaulin buru ibu kpuchie ya [Foto dị n'aka ekpe]. Onye isi ụka a n'oge a, Danton Voltaire Pereira de Souza, haziri mkpọsa iji kwụọ ụgwọ nwughari ụlọ. Mgbe ọ nwụrụ na July 2013, nwa ya nwoke Alexandre weghaara mgbalị nwughari (Hennigan 2014).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Centralkpụrụ atọ dị mkpa nke Okpukpe nke Mmadụ, dị ka e debere na Comte Système de politique nke oma, bụ imesapụ aka, ma ọ bụ ihe na-esite na mmesapụ aka na achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị; n'usoro, n'ụdị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na nke omume; na agam n’ihu, ngagharị nke mmadụ na-enwe n’ọdịnihu dị ukwuu. A na-atụ anya na ndị niile nwere okwukwe Positivist ga-egosipụta ịdị oke mma, nhazi, na ọganihu n'okwu na omume ha niile (Simons 2015).

Na Religion of Humanity, ajụjụ “Gịnị bụ Chukwu,” “Gịnị bụ mmadụ,” na “Ihe na-eme ma mmadụ nwụọ,” nwere njikọ chiri anya. Ọhụụ Comte banyere Humanity rụpụtara echiche na-akwadoghị nke chi, ihe ọ kpọrọ “Nouveau Ukwu-Suptre Suprême, ”Onye Kachasị Elu ọhụrụ. Na Système de politique nke oma, Comte kọwara Humanity dị ka, “ihe na-aga n'ihu [l'akoa] nke ihe ndị na-agbanwe agbanwe, ”ma kọwakwuo ya:

Ndi mmadu abughi ndi mmadu nile ma obu ndi mmadu, oge gara aga, na odi di n'ihu, na-adighi iche.agglomerés). Onweghi ezigbo ihe enwere ike iweta, belụsọ site na ihe ndị dị 'na-emetụta'. Onye guzobere Onye Ukwu site na nkwekọ, ma ọ bụ n'oge ma ọ bụ na mbara igwe, nke ndụ ndị 'nwere ike ịba uru,' ma ọ bụ, na okwu ndị ọzọ, zuru oke nke itinye ya. Ndị a na-edebanye aha na agbụrụ abụghị ndị otu mmadụ (Wilson 1927: 95).

Ọhụụ a nke Humanity, na Okpukpe mmadụ, bụ isi ihe a na-efe ofufe. N'ikpeazụ, oge nke mmadu n’eme ka ihe mmadu putara buru ihe efu ma o buru na mmadu emeghi ihe n’ime ndu ha nke kwesiri ncheta n’elu onwu ha. Onyinye a na ihe omuma nke mmadu chetara mmadu n'ime ihe Mary Ann Evans kporo, "ndi ukwe a na-adighi ahu anya / Nke ndi nwuru anwu anwu ndi di ndu ozo / N'uche nke mere ka ha di nma site na onu ha" (Stedman 2003). Na Chapelle de l'Humanité na Paris, a na-ese busts ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị n'akụkụ mgbidi nke ụlọ nzukọ ofufe [Foto dị n'aka ekpe].

Clóvis Augusto Nery, owo Brazil emi ekedide Positivist anam an̄wan̄a ekikere ndutịm Positivist:

Positivism na-ahụ ihe atọ iji nwee ọganiihu - nke anụ ahụ, nke ọgụgụ isi na, nke kachasị, ọganihu omume. Ọganihu nke omume bụ ihe kachasị mkpa na ihe Brazil kacha mkpa n'ihi na anyị na-ahụ ebe niile taa na
okwu omume abughi ihe ziri ezi. (Hennigan 2014)

Continuedga n'ihu na-elekwasị anya n'usoro omume na-aga n'ihu na-egosipụta ebumnobi mbụ nke Comte iji gbochie ọgba aghara omume ọha na eze ọ kwenyere na ọ ga-esochi ọdịda nke okpukpe ahaziri ma ọ bụrụ na ọ nweghị ihe ga-ewere ọnọdụ.

Iji mee ncheta njikọta nke nnukwu mmadụ, Comte guzobere kalenda Positivist [Image # 6 in endnotes]. Kalenda ahụ na-ekewapụta ezigbo ndị mmadụ na-eche echiche na ọkwa atọ: iri na atọ n'ime ndị kachasị eche echiche nke mmadụ bụ ndị ahọpụtara ịnọchite ọnwa, a họpụtara mmadụ iri ise na abụọ na-eche echiche izu ụka ọ bụla na Sọnde na-akpọ aha ha, na ndị ọzọ na-akwado mmadụ 312 a họrọ ihe ọmụma iji gosipụta ụbọchị ndị fọdụrụ n’afọ. Comte kọwara nsọpụrụ a: "kalenda bụ ụlọ ọrụ na-adịru nwa oge, nke a kara aka maka narị afọ gara aga, iji bụrụ mmalite maka ofufe nkịtị nke mmadụ" (Simons 2015).

Maka ụbọchị ọ bụla nke kalenda ahụ, a na-echetara Positivists ọrụ nke otu nnukwu onye na-enye aka na Humanity, a gwara ha ka ha tụgharịa uche n'ihe mere onye ahụ ji ruo eru ịbanye na Onye Ukwu. Ngosipụta a na-arụ ọrụ dị ka nsọpụrụ ofufe nke Onye Kachasị Elu yana ntuziaka na-atụgharị uche banyere otu esi esonye Onye Ukwu ahụ. Ọnwa ndị ahụ, nke nọ n'ọkwá dị elu karịa aha 344 ndị ọzọ, ka akpọrọ Moses, Homer, Aristotle, Archimedes, Julius Caesar, Saint Paul, Charlemagne, Dante, Gutenberg, Shakespeare, Descartes, Frederick the Great na Bichat; a hoputara ndi a dika ndi akachasị uche na teologi, nkenke, sayensi, na nka site na mgbe ochie na uwa.

Maka ọkwa nke ọ bụla anyị ji gosipụta ọfụma n'oge gara aga, usoro usoro oge ji eme ihe na-ewepụ edochaghị anya n'ọnọdụ ọ bụla ụdị enyere; […] ”Comte kọwara,“ belụsọ gbasara nrịgo izizi; ebe ahụ kacha mma ndị ohu nke Onye Ukwu hụrụ nsọpụrụ ha kachasị elu n'inye aha ọnwa iri na atọ nke afọ Positivist "(Simmons 2015). Ná ngwụsị nke afọ ọ bụla, a na-akọwapụta ụbọchị nke na-enweghị ọnwa ọ bụla ma kpọọ ya n’aha onye ọ bụla. Emere ezumike a nke okpukperechi nke mmadu banyere ncheta nke ndi nile nwuru n’ime afo gara aga ndi gara sonye na mmadu.

Kalenda Positivist tinyekwara Christian “BC / AD“ otu afọ ”na 1789 na kalenda Gregorian, afọ mbụ nke mgbanwe French, ihe Comte kpọrọ," Nnukwu Nsogbu. " Dị ka ihe atụ, ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke Comte na kalenda Gregorian, “nke iri na itoolu nke Jenụwarị, 1798 n’afọ nke Onyenwe anyị,” ka a ga-eme na kalenda Positivist, “nke iri na itoolu nke Mozis, n’afọ nke iri nke Nnukwu Nsogbu.” Bọchị tupu Ntughari aka nke French ka ekwuru na ọ mere tupu Oké ọgba aghara ahụ, yabụ ụbọchị ọdịnala nke mbinye aka nke Nkwupụta Nkwupụta Onwe Onwe nke America ga-abụ 18 Charlemagne, 13 BGC, kama nke July 4, 1776 AD (McCarty).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

O doro anya na ọrụ ndị dị n'ụlọ arụsị Positivist sitere na ofufe Katọlik na nke Anglịkan nke ukwuu nke na Thomas Henry Huxley boro Comte ebubo ịtọhapụ Katọlik: "Nkà ihe ọmụma nke Comte [bụ naanị] Katọlik na-ewepu Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst" (Huxley 1893: 354), na-eme ka o doo anya na ọ bụ , “Sheer Popery na M. Comte n’oche St Peter, ma aha ndị nsọ gbanwere” (Huxley 1870: 149).

Templelọ nsọ Brazil nke dị na Glória, Rio de Janeiro nwere ọrụ mgbe niile ruo 2009, nke ji nwayọ hapụ ụkpụrụ Katọlik:

Ememe positivist nwere egwu oge gboo, ịgụ site na ọrụ Comte, arụmụka na arịrịọ nye Onye Kachasị Elu. A na-eduzi ya kwa izu ruo otu abalị na 2009 mgbe elu ụlọ, osisi ndị osisi ya na-eme ka ọ ghara ịda mbà na Brazil, na mberede (Hennigan 2014).

Na mgbakwunye na nzukọ ndị a kwa izu, ụbọchị ọ bụla nke kalenda Positivist na-akpọ onye a ga-ahụ onyinye ya na Humanity. Ememme ndị ọzọ a na-eme n'afọ ahụ kwesịrị ịbụ, “a haziri ha n'ihe omume ndị dị n'usoro ndụ mmadụ — ọmụmụ, ntozu okè, alụmdi na nwunye, ịbụ nne na nna, ịka nká, ọnwụ — na gburugburu usoro nke akụkọ ihe mere eme mmadụ. […] Na mkpokọta, a ga-enwe ememme iri asatọ na anọ, si otu a kwa izu ”(Nussbaum 2011: 9–10). Nkwadebe nke emume na ememme ndị a ka a ga-ekenye ndị omenkà, ndị na-agụ egwu, ndị na-ede uri, na ndị edemede, bụ ndị Comte nyere ndụmọdụ zuru ezu. Na mgbakwunye na ndị a, Comte kwuru na ndị niile nwere ezi uche ga-etinye awa abụọ kwa ụbọchị n'ekpere na ntụgharị uche nke otu n'ime ndị isi nke mmadụ, na-ekwupụta, n'ụdị Islam, ọbụlagodi ọnọdụ anụ ahụ mmadụ ga-ewere n'oge ekpere.

A kọwara sacrament ọmụmụ nke Herbert Croly, nwa nwoke New York Positivist David G. Croly dị ka ihe na-esite na sacrament ndị Richard Congreve mere na England. A họpụtara di na nwunye abụọ, otu sitere n’ezinụlọ nne na otu sitere na nna, ịbụ ndị nchebe ma ọ bụ ndị nlekọta nke nwa ahụ. Enwere ike ịkọwa sacrament ahụ n'onwe ya 'baptism akọrọ', na-etinye ọtụtụ ihe nke sacrament Katọlik:

N'ime oge ọrụ a niile, ejiri arịrịọ nke "Chukwu mmadụ" dochie anya ntụaka Ndị Kraịst banyere Chineke. “Site na sacrament mbụ a,” ka ụkọchukwu ahụ ga-akọwa, ““ okpukpe na-enye nraranye nhazi maka ọmụmụ ọ bụla, ma na-ejikọ njikọ dị mkpa nke jikọtara anyị na onye ọzọ, na mmadụ niile. ” Ọgụgụ sochiri Comte Catechism nke Positivist , mgbe ahụ, kama ịjụ ekwensu, a gwara ndị nne na nna ka ha jụ “mmehie nile nke ịchọ ọdịmma onwe onye nanị gabiga ókè.” "Ihe ngosi" kwubiri na "ihe ịrịba ama nke Lovehụnanya, Iwu na Ọganihu" a na-eme n'egedege ihu nwatakịrị ahụ na ịgụghachi ụdị positivist nke Ekpere Onyenwe Anyị (Harp 1991: 518).

Ememe na liturgy nke Religion of Humanity gosipụtara otu ihe ahụ na Katọlik, mana nke ọ bụla nwere ntụgharị Positivist nke ha, na-agbanwe ihe a na-asọpụrụ n'ememe ndị a na Humanity, Onye Kachasị Elu.

NDỤMỌDỤ / ỤLỌ

N’ileghachi anya n’oge n’oge njikọ mbụ ya (1826–1842) Comte nwere mmasị n’iche onwe ya dịka Aristotle nke Positivism. Site na mmemme okpukpe, nke ekwuputara na nke abụọ, ọ chọsiri ike ịbụ St Paul ya - ọ bụghị naanị dị ka onye nkwusa ozioma maka okwukwe ọhụrụ ahụ, mana karịa ihe niile dịka onye nhazi nke itska ya. E wezụga ọgbakọ, e nwere ụlọ ụka nkịtị a ga-ewu, nke ebe a na-eli ozu ndị gbara ya gburugburu, na ndị ụkọchukwu Positivist ka a ga-ewe, zụọ ha ma malite ọrụ. Okpukpe nke Humanity ga-enwe narị ndị isi ụlọ obibi abụọ na France naanị, yana otu ụkọchukwu n'ime mmadụ 6,000 bi na ya. E wezụga nke ahụ, malite na obodo kachasị elu nke Western Europe, wee gbasaa site na 'agbụrụ ọcha' gaa na 'mpaghara ndị pere mpe' nke Asia na Africa, ọ ga-agbasa n'ime nzukọ zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ndị otu kansụl na mpaghara mpaghara na-achịkọta, n'okpuru ntụzịaka nke 'obodo ukwu asaa', nke a ga-ebi na mbido nke sacordoce na Paris (x: 323-7). Ọ bụghị naanị St Paul; n'eziokwu, Comte ga-abụ Positivism's St Peter, na-emeghe ụlọ ọrụ nke Grand-prêtre de l'Humanité na onye onwe ya (Wernick 2001: 5).

Enweghi ike ịhazi usoro a nke nnukwu usoro, ọ bụ ezie na Comte wepụtara onwe ya dịka onye isi nke ụka nke ụka ya. Anglo-American Henry Edger chọrọ ịhazi usoro ọchịchị obodo America n'ụzọ Positivist:

“Iji doo onwe anyị n'okpuru ndị nọ n'okpuru ya,” ka Edgar kwupụtara, "n'ọha na-elekọta mmadụ" bụ ezigbo omume. A ga-ekewa ndị isi obodo n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị na ndị isi mmụọ na nke anụ ahụ, nke mbụ mebere ọkwa Positive nke nkwado site na ndenye aha. (Harp 1991: 511)

Ihe ndị ikike nke oge pụtara pụtara bụ ike ọchịchị gọọmentị nke dabara adaba. N'ezie, Edger hụrụ ụdị ọchịchị Chineke ebe gọọmentị na okpukperechi na-arụ ọrụ n'okpuru njikọta nke Positivism, na ebe enyere ndị isi nke ụlọ ọrụ ụgwọ nna na nna maka ndị ọrụ ha dị iche iche. Ndị isi omume nke Okpukpe nke Okike mmadụ ga-ahụ na ndị isi nke ụlọ ọrụ na-eme omume ọma ma na-ebute ọdịmma nke ndị ọrụ ha n'uche.

E kwesịrị ịhọpụta ndị nchụaja site na ndị nwere nnukwu agụmakwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ na sayensị na nka. Nke mbụ, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri abụọ na asatọ, onye ọ bụla nke chere na ya tozuru oke nwere ike itinye akwụkwọ dị ka “onye chọrọ”. Tupu iri atọ na ise, ha ga-enwerịrị ọzụzụ iji banye na "vicariate," na iri anọ na abụọ, ụka ga-ahọrọ "ndị ụkọchukwu nke Humanity" bụ ndị nọchiri anya n'okpuru Nnukwu Onye Nchụ aja nke Mmadụ, na mbụ Auguste Comte n'onwe ya . Comte chọrọ ịgbasa ndị ụkọchukwu ya na West, tupu ịgbasa na Asia na Africa, na ebumnuche nke otu ụlọ nsọ Positivist maka ezinụlọ puku iri (Simons 2015).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ndị ọkachamara nke oge a nke Okpukpe nke Okike, ọ bụrụ na ọgbakọ ole na ole nọ n'ọgbakọ iri na abụọ zuru ụwa ọnụ ka nwere ike ịkpọ onwe ha otu okpukpe, enweghị ụdị nhazi siri ike nke Positivists chere na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. Na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ihe dị iche iche nke ịnwale nhazi jupụtara ebe niile, na-adị ndụ naanị na Brazil. Ọbụna na Brazil, na congregang na-ebelata, nnukwu ụlọ nsọ na-ebibikwa nkebi. Kama usoro nke ndị ụkọchukwu a na-akwụ ụgwọ na-ejedebe na onye isi obodo, ndị isi Brazil na-agbaji n'etiti ndị otu nọọrọ onwe ha n'ụlọ arụsị atọ na-akawanye njọ (Hennigan 2014).

The Chapelle de l'Humanité na Paris [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ naanị ụlọ nsọ Positivist fọdụrụ na Europe. Agakwaghị ndị ọbịa nke nọ n'ọrụ ọgbakọ okpukpe, ọ kachasị na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ebe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie ọhaneze. Emelitere weebụsaịtị ya na 2010.

Ọbụna mgbe otu narị afọ dara, ọ ga-abụ ihe na-ezighị ezi nye ndị fọdụrụ na Positivist ịkpọsa okpukperechi ha; otu o sila dị, a pụrụ ikwu n'ụzọ ziri ezi na Okpukpe nke Okike Mmadụ, na okpukpe Positivism n'ozuzu ya, eruola afọ ihe atụ ya nke Disemba afọ, ma ọ bụ na nyocha nke kalenda nke ha, ha na-abịaru njedebe nke Bichat.

Foto

Foto # 1: Ihe osise nke Auguste Comte, foto nke Jean-Pierre Dalbéra.
Isi mmalite: Wikimedia Commons.

Foto # 2: Foto nke Clotilde de Vaux, foto nke Jean-Pierre Dalbéra (kụrụ)
Isi mmalite: Wikimedia Commons

Foto # 3: Foto eserese nke Richard Congreve.
Isi mmalite: Archives Maison d'Auguste Comte.

Image # 4: Google Maps satịlaịtị oyiyi nke Usoro nke Humanidade na Rio de Janeiro, Brazil na-egosi ngalaba ụlọ dara ada.
Isi mmalite: nseta ihuenyo nke ndị edemede.

Foto # 5: Ihe osise nke busts nke ndị ọnwa Positivist kpọrọ aha.
Isi mmalite: Wikimedia Commons.

Foto #6:
Kalenda Positivist nke Auguste Comte dere.
Isi mmalite: Positivists.org (na mbụ, Bibliothèque nationale de France, 1849).
Lelee nha zuru oke na http://positivists.org/i/calendar.png.

Foto #7:
La chapelle de l'Humanité na Paris, foto nke Jean-Pierre Dalbéra (kụrụ).
Isi mmalite: Wikimedia Commons

References

Ardao, Arturo. 1963. "Assimilation na Ngbanwe nke Positivism na Latin America." Akwụkwọ akụkọ History of Ideas 24: 515-22.

Bryson, Gladys. 1936. "Early English Positivists na Okpukpe nke ”mụ mmadụ." Nyocha Amụma American 1: 343-62.

Harp, Gillis J. 1991. ”‘ Chọọchị Ndị Mmadụ ’: New York’s Worship Positivists.” Church History 60: 508-23.

Hennigan, Tom. 2014. "Okpukpe nke Comte's Positivism Na-azọrọ Ọrụ Dị Mkpa na Brazil." Oge Irish, December 31. Nweta site na
http://www.irishtimes.com/news/world/cult-of-comte-s-positivism-claims-key-role-in-brazil-1.2051387 na 30 May 2016.

Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1893. Anakọta edemede, Vol. 1. London: Macmillan.

Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1871. Okwuchukwu Dabere, Adreesị, na Nyocha. New York: D. Appleton.

McCarty, Rick. nd ”Interactive Positivist Kalinda.” Home Page maka kalenda Gbanwee. Mahadum East Carolina. Nweta site na http://myweb.ecu.edu/mccartyr/pos-cal.html na 16 June 2016.

Mill, John Stuart. 1968. Auguste Comte na Positivism. Ann Arbor: Mahadum nke Michigan.

Nussbaum, Martha. 2011. "inghaghachị Okpukpe Okpukpe: Comte, Mill, Tagore." Ọmụmụ Victoria 54: 7-34.

Simons, Olaf. 2015. "Okpukpe nke itymụ mmadụ." Ọdịmma. Nweta site na http://positivists.org/blog/religion-of-positivism na 14 June 2016.

Stedman, Edmund Clarence, ed. 1895. A Victoria Anthology, 1837–1895. Cambridge: Mpempe Osimiri Riverside.

Wernick, Andrew. 2001. Auguste Comte na Okpukpe nke Mmadu: Mmemme Post-Theistic nke French Social Theory. Cambridge: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press Cambridge.

Wilson, Mabel V. 1927. "Nkọwa nke Auguste Comte banyere mmadụ." International Journal of ụkpụrụ omume 38: 88-102.

Authors:
David G. Bromley
J. Reed Braden

Ụbọchị Post:
22 June 2016

 

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