David G. Bromley Stephanie Edelman

Chọọchị Okpukpe Apostolic nke Mexico nke dị na Mexico

MEXICAN-US CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC TRADITIONAL CHURCH TIMELINE

A mụrụ 1959 David Romo Guillen na Mexico.

1980s Romo ghọrọ onye isi nke ndị ozi ala nke obi nsọ na nke Filip nke Jizọs (ndị ozi ala ọzọ Misioneros del Sagrado Corazón na San Felipe de Jesús).

2001 (ụbọchị nsọ niile) Doña Queta wuru ụlọ nsọ na Santa Muerte n'èzí ụlọ ya na Tepito Barrio nke Mexico.

2002 Romo mere ntọala iwu nke ọnwụ ọnwụ.

2003 Romo na-edebanye aha na chọọchị dị na Mexico dị ka Chọọchị Ndị Apostolic Church nke Mexico na United States.

2005 Gọọmentị dị na Mexico kwụsịrị ọnọdụ ọchịchị nke chọọchị ahụ.

2009 (March) ọchịchị Mexico gburu obodo iri atọ na Santa Muerte na Nueva Laredo na Tijuana.

2009 (April) Romo kwupụtara "agha dị nsọ" megide Chọọchị Katọlik maka ikpebi Santa Muerte.

E jidere 2011 Romo na ebubo ndị omempụ ma maa ya mkpọrọ afọ iri na abụọ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Chọọchị Apostolic Traditional nke Mexican na United States tọrọ ntọala David Romo Guillen. Ihe omuma banyere oge nwata ya bu nke oma naanị (Chesnut 2012: 41-4). A maara na a mụrụ ya na 1958 nakwa na ọ nwere ahụmahụ nwere ọtụtụ okpukpe dị iche iche. Ọ maara ndị òtù nke Ndịàmà Jehova, bụ ndị ọ kwanyeere maka ntinye obi ha, na ndị òtù ezinụlọ ya sonyeere ndị Katọlik omenala Katọlik n'oge 1960s mgbe ha na-eme ka mgbanwe Vatican II kwụsị. Romo gara na-eje ozi na veteran nke ikuku nke Mexico, lụọ ma mụọ ụmụ ise (Freese nd). O mesịrị ghọọ onye ndú nke ndị omenala, ndị ozi ala nke obi dị ọcha na onye Filip nke Philip (ndị ozi ala ọzọ Misioneros del Sagrado Corazón na San Felipe de Jesús), n'oge 1980s. Ọ hiwere ebe obibi maka ụmụaka nwere nne na nna nwụrụ na AIDS na 1993, mana ụlọ ahụ mechiri mgbe naanị otu afọ nke ọrụ. N'afọ ahụ, ọ tọrọ ntọala chọọchị Mexico-USA Tridentine Catholic Church ma họpụta onwe ya ịbụ "Akwa Bishop." Romo rịọrọ ọchịchị Mexico maka ndebanye aha chọọchị ya na 2000, rịọrọ arịrịọ na 2003 ma gbanwee nanị afọ abụọ ka e mesịrị. Romo nọgidere na-edu chọọchị ahụ ruo mgbe e jidere ya na mkpọrọ na 2011.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

A na-arụrịta ụka banyere akụkọ mmalite nke Santa Muerte dị ka onye ụka Katọlik. Ihe ndị a na-agụnye na Santa Muerte pụtara na onye ọgwụ na Veracruz n'oge 19 nke narị afọ, si na nchịkọta nke òtù nzuzo na Mexico na Katọlik oge ochie, sitere na omume ofufe nke ndị ohu nke ndị ohu Africa nke ejikọtara na ọtụtụ omenala okpukpe Latin America. Iso Ụzọ Kraịst, ma si na njikọ nke Aztec eze nwanyị nke ifo (Mictecacíhuatl) na nke Katọlik ((Lorentzen 2009 Laycock 2009). Romo na-ekwusi ike na onyinyo ahụ sitere na Italy n'oge ahụhụ "(" Mexico " Ọnụ Ọchịchị Ọnwụ "2010) N'agbanyeghi mmalite nke mmalite ya, Santa Muerte adịwo na Mexico kemgbe narị afọ nke 18, ma n'oge 1960 nke ndị si mba Mexico kpọbata Santa Muerte site na ime obodo Mexico ruo Mexico City. n'oge 1990s (Grabman 2011). Ịdị iche nke Santa Muerte anọwo na nzuzo ruo 2001 mgbe Enriqueta Romero, nke a maara dị ka Doña Queta, wuru oche nke Santa Muerte n'èzí nke ụlọ ya na Mexico City bụ Tepito Barrio, na-ebute uto dị ukwuu n'ofufe ọha na eze n'afọ iri na-abịanụ (Neville 2011). Romo guzobere chọọchị ya na afọ sochirinụ.

Romo adọtawo nke oma na ndi Katọlik, nke ndi Katistik omenala, n'ikike akwukwo nso nke Mexican-US Catholic Apostolic Traditional Church. O tinyewo ihe nke uka, ederede ekpere na ekpere, okpukpu rosary n'oru ndi o na-aru. Otú ọ dị, Romo kọrọ na ọ "adịghị anabata ikike nke Pope John Paul II" (Walker 2004). Ọ bụ ya na-ekepụta ụdị ngwongwo Katọlik na Santa Muerte ofufe nke na-egosi ọdịiche dị iche na Chọọchị Apostolic Traditional Mexico na United States si na ndị ọzọ dị iche iche nke ndị Katọlik. Ndị na-efe ofufe na chọọchị na-abụkarị ndị Katọlik, na-ekwupụta na ha nwere okwukwe na Jizọs Kraịst, Virgin Mary, na ndị Katọlik ndị Katọlik, ma ha na-etinyekwa nsọpụrụ nke Santa Muerte n'ime nkwenkwe na omume okpukpe ha.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

David Romo mepụtara usoro ihe omume maka The Mexico-US Catholic Apostolic Traditional Church otu ụzọ dị iche iche iji gosi ọdịiche dị na ọrụ ya na onye isi ya, Doña Queta. Ọrụ ndị a gosipụtara ọtụtụ ihe ọdịnala Katọlik nke ofufe, dị ka ịnweta udo na ikpe ekpere na roads (Walker 2004). Otú ọ dị, ndị mmadụ gbakọtara site na otu Roman Katọlik dị ka “emume ahụ na-adị iche mgbe ndị na-efe ofufe na-akpọ 'mmụọ nke Santa Muerte' wee kwuo ahịrịokwu ndị a, 'Ọnwụ dị ebube, ọnwụ dị ike.' Ndị na-eso Santa Santa Muerte na-ekpe ekpere na a ga-emeri ndị iro ha. Romo gọrọ na ebumnuche nke emume a bụ ime ka onye ọbụla nwụọ. O kwuru, sị: 'Anyị na-asị,' Ọnwụ ga-abụrịrị ndị iro m 'n'ihi ya, ha ga-akwụsị inye anyị nsogbu. 'Ọ bụghị maka mbibi anụ ahụ nke ndị iro anyị' "(Walker 2004; Wayward Monk nd). Romo na-ahụkwa maka ọtụtụ ihe ndị na-egosi nchegbu nke ndị na-efe ya. Ndị a gụnyere ọha mmadụ maka ndị ụka na-arịa ọrịa ma ọ bụ na-enwe mmụọ mmụọ ọjọọ nke gụnyere ịkwa iko na emume ịgwọ ọrịa. A na-akpọ ndị na-efe ofufe ka ha weta foto nke enyi ma ọ bụ onye ikwu na "oke maka ndị mkpọrọ" (Chesnut 2012: 89). Ekpere n'oge ọrụ ahụ na-abụkarị maka nchebe: “Oh, Kasị Santa Muerte, A na m akpọku gị ka, site na onyonyo gị, ị nwere ike ịtọhapụ m n'ihe ize ndụ niile, ma [ihe egwu ndị a] bụ nke anụ ahụ ma ọ bụ nke amoosu, na na site n'ọkụ a dị nsọ, ị ga-eme ka ahụ m dị ọcha pụọ ​​na ọtụmọkpọ niile na ọbụbụ ọnụ niile. wetakwara ịhụnanya, udo, na ụba. Otu a ka odi ”(Freese nd)

Na-etinye ọkụ kandụl na Santa Muerte, yana agba nke kandụl ọ bụla jikọtara ya na nsonaazụ chọrọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-agbanye kandụl ọlaedo maka ike akụ na ụba na ihe ịga nke ọma, ọkpụkpụ maka udo na nkwekọ, uhie maka ịhụnanya na agụụ, ọcha maka ịdị ọcha, acha anụnụ anụnụ maka itinye uche, akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ maka nsogbu iwu, na edo edo maka ọgwụgwọ (Freese nd). Ndị na-efe ofufe na-enyekwa Santa Muerte onyinye. Onyinye kwesịrị ekwesị nwere ike ịgụnye mkpụrụ ego, sịga na sịga, okooko osisi ọhụrụ, swiiti, mmanya na mmanya, mkpụrụ osisi dị iche iche, mmiri mgbata, achịcha, ma ọ bụ ihe nsure ọkụ (Chesnut 2012: 66-79; Laycock 2009). A ghaghị ịchụ àjà n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị iji nweta nsonaazụ achọrọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a ga-agbanye sịga na sịga ma gbanye anwụrụ ọkụ gafee Santa Muerte.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Nchikota nke Santa Muerte abughi onye ozo ruo 2001 mgbe Doña Queta wuru ihe oyiyi nke Santa Muerte n'èzí nke ulo ya na Tepito Barrio. David Romo esetịpụla omenala ndị Mexicoist USA Tridentine Catholic Church ma họpụta onwe ya dị ka "Akwa Bishop" na 1993. Ndị na-efe Santa Muerte mechara bụrụ ndị òtù nke ọgbakọ ya, mgbe ọ rịọrọ ka e denye chọọchị ya na 2000, a na-etinyelarị nkwenkwe na omume Santa Muerte n'ime ememe chọọchị. E guzobere chọọchị ahụ n'ụlọ ezumike nyere onyinye na Calle Bravo (Ferocious Street) na Tepito. Ọnụ ụzọ nke ụka ahụ bụ ihe osise abụọ nke Santa Muerte kpuchiri.

Na mbụ, a na-akpọ chọọchị ahụ Ebe Nsọ nke Mmụọ Mmụọ Nsọ nke Ọnwụ Ọjọọ tupu Romo achọọ ịdebanye aha ya dị ka Chọọchị Ndị Apostolic Church nke Mexico na United States. David Romo ejewo ozi dị ka achịbishọp na primate site na mmalite chọọchị (Freese nd). N'etiti 2002 na 2011, mgbe e jidere ya, Romo kụziri ọtụtụ mmadụ na Sunday ọ bụla. Chọọchị akwadoro onwe ya ego site n'inye onyinye na ire ere dị na Santa Muerte n'ụlọ ahịa ụlọ ahịa ya. Romo mepụtara atụmatụ tupu e jide ya iji mepụta seminarị nke ga-azụ ndị nchụàjà ọhụrụ, na-ezi ha nkà ihe ọmụma na asụsụ dị iche iche (Walker 2004).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Davidlọ ụka David Romo echewo ihu na asọmpi nke ime obodo maka nnọchi anya Santa Muerte na mmegide mpụga site na Roman Catholic Church na gọọmentị Mexico. Enwere ọtụtụ ndị asọmpi ndị ọzọ maka nnọchite nke Santa Muerte na Mexico City, ọkachasị Doña Queta, onye a na-ahụta dị ka nne nne nke usoro ahụ. Ọ bụ Doña Queta bụ onye kere ụlọ nsọ Santa Muerte nke ọha na eze na 2001 ma hazie rosaries ọha na eze na ụlọ nsọ Tepito ya na 2002. Kemgbe ahụ ọrụ ofufe kwa ọnwa na ebe nsọ nke Queta na-adọta ọtụtụ puku ndị na-efe ofufe. Onye na-asọ mpi nke abụọ bụ Jonathan Legaria bụ onye họpụtara onwe ya onye ụkọchukwu nke Holy Death International. Legaria, onye kpọrọ onwe ya "Commander Panther" na "Godfather Endoque," wuru nnukwu ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke Santa Muerte na ọtụtụ obere ụlọ arụsị, guzobe ụlọ ahịa na-ere ihe Santa Muerte na ọrụ mmụọ, wee hiwe ụlọ ọrụ redio ("A Mexico Okpukpo Osimiri 2010). Mgbalị ya rụzuru ngwa ngwa soro ndị ukwu. Agbanyeghị, ndụ Legaria dị mkpụmkpụ mgbe na 2008 mgbe ọ dị afọ 26 mgbe a gbagburu ya na ikuku ọkụ ọkụ. Legaria na Romo enweela esemokwu na-aga n'ihu, mana egbuola ya na agha ndị agha. Mama Legaria, Enriequeta Vargas, tere onwe ya “Panther” ọhụrụ wee bido iduzi okpukpe. N'otu oge Romo gbanwere aha chọọchị ahụ na Otu na Nanị National Sanctuary nke Santa Muerte iji gosi na ọ bụ isi karịa ndị Santa Muerte ndị ọzọ. Nkwupụta Romo nke onye ndu Santa Muerte dugara na nkatọ zuru oke banyere Romo n'ime obodo Santa Muerte na "ọ na-anwa ịbụ onye ndu nke ntinye nke nwere ike inwe enweghị onye ndu mana Santa Muerte n'onwe ya" (Wayward Monk nd).

Chọọchị Romo na-enwekwa asọmpi site na ụlọ nsọ Santa Muerte ọhụrụ, nke kwụ ọtọ na chọọchị dị iche iche nke na-eto na n'akụkụ abụọ nke ókèala Mexico na obodo dị iche iche na United States (Gray 2007). Ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya nye obodo ukwu nke mba Mexico na Los Angles ghọrọ isi ihe dị na Santa Muerte ofufe na United States Death Death (Templo Santa Muerte) na Saint Death Universal Sanctuary (Santuario Universal de Santa Muerte), na Ụlọ Nsọ Ọnwụ Ndị Kasị Nsọ Ekpere (Casa de Oracion de la Santisima Muerte) bụ ihe atụ a ma ama banyere ebe ndị a na-efe ofufe na Los Angeles (Chesnut 2012: 89). Onye ọ bụla n'ime ụka ndị a apụta ma na-elekọta onwe ha, ha na-enyekwa ụdị ọrụ ndị Katọlik dị iche iche gụnyere agbamakwụkwọ, ndụmọdụ ime mmụọ, rosaries, na exorcisms.

Mmegide siri ike megide ụka Romo si na Chọọchị Roman Katọlik na ọchịchị Mexico. Ndị Katọlik katọrọ Santa Muerte n'ihu ọha. "Cardinal Norberto Rivera Carrera, bụ Achịbishọp nke Mexico, akpọwo ntinye aka na Santa Muerte na ozizi 'ndị Katọlik' na-ejide onwe ha" na "Archdiocese nke Mexico City wepụtara nkwupụta na-egosi na ntinye aka na 'Ọnwụ ọnwụ' adịghị ekwekọ na Katọlik" (Laycock 2009). Onye isi nzukọ Mexico nke Episcopal Jose Guadalupe Martin Rabago na Kadinal Carrera akpọwo Santa Muerte "Setan." Obodo Mexico na-ekwu na njikọ dị n'etiti ndị na-azụ ahịa ọgwụ ọjọọ na Santa Muerte mgbe ndị agha Mexico malitere ịchọta "ebe ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ na Santa Muerte na ụlọ ndị a ma ama ndị nwenụ "(Laycock 2009). N'April, 2005, ndị isi obodo ahụ kwuru na òtù Santa Muerte "ezughị iru eru maka okpukpe ma wepụ Chọọchị Apostolic Traditional Mexican na United States na ndepụta nke okpukpe ndị a ma ama, na-ekwu na ozizi ndị ọkà mmụta na-abịa na Council. nke Trent "(Laycock 2009). Mkpebi a bụ nnukwu ihe kpatara Romo ka ọ hapụrụ ụka n'enweghị ikike iji nweta ihe onwunwe ma ọ bụ bulie ego.

Romo azaghachiwo n 'ajuju nke okpukpe na nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị site n'ikwu na "Santa Muerte bụ ngwá ọrụ maka izisa ozi ọma n'etiti ndị obodo ahụ dịka Virgin nke Guadalupe bụ ụgbọala maka ịgbanwere ụmụ amaala America" ​​(Freese nd). Ọ malitekwara nzukọ ndị isi obodo Mexico City iji kwado mmepe mmekọrịta ọha na eze na ọrụ obodo ndị Santa Muerte na-akwado n'okpuru nzukọ ọhụrụ blanket, National Association of Altars and Sanctuaries of Santa Muerte (Asociación Nacional de Altares y Santuarios de la Santa Muerte), nke na-eji dochie anya Chọọchị Apostolic Traditional Mexican-US. "(Laycock 2009; Wayward Monk, nd). E nwekwara ihe ndị ọzọ kpọmkwem. Romo "nyere oku na-akpọ Santa Muerte votu megide akwukwo Secretary Creel, National Action Party (PAN) (Partido Acción Nacional), na Creel onwe ya na ndi ochichi nke 2006 Mexico.

N’agbanyeghi nguzogide siri ike ya, nsogbu ikpeazụ ochichi Romo nke ụka ya nwere ike bụrụ na Jenụwarị, 2011. Romoejidere ọtụtụ ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na ebubo nke ịtọrọ na ịkwụ ụgwọ ego mgbapụta (Romo sere n'elu elu, nke abụọ site n'aka nri). Ka ọnwa ole na ole gachara, a tụrụ ya mkpọrọ afọ iri na abụọ. Ma, amabeghị ya ikpe maka ịtọrọ na ịchụ ego. Kama nke ahụ, a mara ya ikpe kama maka iji akwụkwọ ntuli aka nke nwere foto ya, mana n'okpuru aha dị iche, nke a sịrị na ọ ga-emepe akaụntụ akụ nke ọ ga-eji nweta ego mgbapụta "(Wayward Monk nd).

References

"Obodo Mexico: Ọnwụ n'Ọgụ Nsọ." 2010. The Economist 7 January 2010. Nweta site na http://www.economist.com/node/15213777 na March 7, 2012.

Chesnut, R. Andrew. 2012. Santa Muerte: Akwụsịla Ọnwụ. New York: Oxford University Press.

Freese, Kevin. "Ọnwụ ọnwụ nke ndị na-ahụ maka ọgwụ ọjọọ: Onye na-eme ihe ọjọọ nke Mexico, ndị omempụ na Ihe Mgbochi." http://fmso.leavenworth.army.mil/documents/Santa-Muerte/santa-muerte.htm#rings na March 7, 2012.

Grabman, Richard. 2011. Asusu nile na eduga Romeo? Akwụkwọ Mexico. 7 January 2011. Nweta site na http://mexfiles.net/2011/01/07/all-rogues-lead-to-romo/ na March 25, 2012.

Laycock, Joseph. 2009. "Agha Mexico nke Ọnwụ Ọnwụ." Dispatches okpukpe. 6 Ka 2009. Nweta site na http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/politics/1428/ na March 7, 2012.

Lorentzen, Lois Ann. 2009. "N'ihu ụzọ: Ọnwụ Dị Nsọ na United States-Mexico." Sightings 28 Ka 2009. Nweta site na http://www.yorkblog.com/faith/2009/05/sightings-holy-death-on-the-us.html na March 7, 2012.

Neville, Lucy. 2011. "Njem m: Lucy Neville na Santa Muerte Cult, Mexico." The Guardian. 9 September 2011. Nweta site na http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2011/sep/09/saint-of-death-mexico-city na March 7, 2012.

Walker, S. Lynne. 2004. "Skeleton Force." Copley News Service. 1 July 2004. Nweta site na http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20040701/news_lz1c1death.html na March 7, 2012.

Ezigbo Mkpa, na "Egwu Purple (Nkebi nke 3): David Romo Guillen: Monsignor nke Ọnwụ Ọjọọ." Natara ya n'aka http://wayward-monk.com/2011/12/30/purple-fever-part-3-david-romo-guillen-apostle-of-the-holy-death/#more-137 na March 7, 2012.

Ụbọchị Post:
27 March 2012

Share