David G. Bromley

Obodo Obodo Obodo

METROPOLITAN COMMUNITY CHURCHES TIMELINE

1940: Troy Deroy Perry mụrụ na Tallahassee, Florida.

1968: E guzobere Nzukọ Ndị Ọchịchị Universalwa nke Metropolitan Community Church (MCC).

1969: Nkume Nkume Nkume Nkume Nkume.

1970: E guzobere okpukpe MCC.

2003: Troy Perry lụrụ Phillip Ray De Blieck n'okpuru iwu ndị Canada na Metropolitan Community Church nke Toronto.

2005: Onye okenye Reverend Nancy Wilson nọchiri Troy Perry dị ka onye njikwa MCC.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Onye guzobere Metropolitan Community Church (MCC), Troy Perry, amụrụ na 1940 na Tallahassee, Florida. Ọ bụ ọkpara nke ụmụnne ise. Nna Perry nwụrụ na esemokwu ya na ndị uwe ojii mgbe ọ dị naanị afọ iri na otu. Nne ya mechara lụọ ọzọ, mana Perry na-akọ na nna nna ya na-emegbu ya wee hapụ ezinụlọ ya ruo mgbe nne ya gbara nna nna ya alụkwaghịm.

Perry na-akọwa onwe ya dị ka onye na-achọ ịkpọ oku na-eme nkwusa site na nwata, ọbụnadị na-ezo aka na onwe ya dịka "onye na-anụ ọkụ n'obi n'okpukpe" (Tobbin na Wicker 1972, 14). Ọ natara agbamume maka ọrụ okpukpe site n'aka nwanne nna ya, onye bụ onye ụkọchukwu Baptist, na ụmụ nwanne nna ya ji okpukpe kpọrọ ihe, bụ ndị duziri ọrụ n'okporo ámá okpukpe nke nyere Perry ohere iji kwuo okwuchukwu. Ka ọ na-erule afọ iri na ise, Perry kwụsịrị ịga ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị wee bụrụ onye nkwusa Baptist. Afọ anọ ka nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ lụrụ Pearl Pinion, ada nwanyị otu ụkọchukwu, di na nwunye ahụ mụtara ụmụ nwoke abụọ. Perry na nwunye ya kwagara Indiana ebe ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ Ndị Kraịst abụọ na-achọghị mgbanwe, Moody Bible Institute na Midwest Bible College.

Ọrụ ije ozi Perry malitere na ụka Penetcostal abụọ. O bu ụzọ bụrụ onye ụkọchukwu na obere Churchka nke Chukwu, mana a manyere ya n'ọkwa ahụ mgbe ndị isi ụka chọpụtara na ya na ụmụ nwoke ndị ọzọ nọ n'ọgbakọ nwere mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị (Bullough 2002, 394). Di na nwunye ahụ kwagara California ebe Perry ghọrọ onye pastọ nke Churchka nke Chineke nke Amụma. Ọ chere nsogbu nke onwe ya ihu mgbe nwunye ya chọpụtara na ya na-eme mmekọ nwoke na nwoke ma gbaa ya alụkwaghịm ma bishọp ya gwara ya ka ọ gbaa arụkwaghịm ya. Ebe Perry tụfuru ọnọdụ ya dị ka onye ọzụzụ atụrụ, ọ rụrụ ọrụ maka Sears ruo 1965 mgbe e debanyere aha ya na ndị agha wee jee ozi na Germany ruo 1967.

Mgbe ọ laghachiri na US, Perry kọwara onwe ya dị ka onye nọ na oge ọgba aghara nke mmụọ, na ọ nwara ịkwụsị
ndụ ya na-eso mmekọrịta ịhụnanya dara ada. Mgbe ọ lanarịrị n'oge ahụ, ọ maliteghachiri ọrụ okpukpe ya. Ọ na-akọghachi otu oge mgbe ọ sịrị na Chineke gwara ya okwu wee sị, “Troy, ahụrụ m gị n'anya. Achọrọ m ịgwa gị ihe, ị bụ nwa m. Enweghi m stepons na stepdaughters ”(“ Kpọọ M Troy ”2007).
(Lee vidiyo nke njem nke Troy Perry). Ọ na-akọ na ọnwa atọ gafere tupu ya amata na "Ọfọn, ọ bụrụ na Chineke hụrụ m n'anya dị ka onye na-edina ụdị onwe, ọ ghaghị ịhụ ndị ọzọ na-edina ụdị onwe ha n'anya." Mgbe ahụ ọ na-eche ọkpụkpọ oku ka o guzobe ebe ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị ga-efe ofufe n'enweghị nsogbu. Na 1968 tinye mgbasa ozi na magazin nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na Los Angeles, Onye Nkwado, na-akpọsa ozi okpukpe maka ndị nwoke na nwanyị. Mmadụ iri na abụọ zara na nnọkọ okpukpe, nke a na-eme udo, na-eme n'ụlọ Perry. N'ime izu ole na ole ọgbakọ ya toro ruo na ọ malitere nzukọ na klọb ụmụ nwanyị, na mgbe ahụ n'ụlọ ezumezu na Hollywood's Encore Thelọ ihe nkiri, nwere ikike ịnọdụ ala nke 600. Chọọchị ahụ gara n'ihu na-eto n'ike n'ike, na ngalaba MCC bụ guzobere na 1970 na nzukọ ndị isi ụka si obodo ise (Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, San Diego, na San Francisco). Ka ọ na-erule n’afọ 1971, ndị MCC mere nhiwe e hiwere “Chọọchị nne” ya, ma ihe karịrị mmadụ 1,000 bịara. Na njedebe nke 1972 MCC gụnyere ọgbakọ iri atọ na ise na steeti iri na itoolu, na njedebe nke afọ iri mbụ nke ụka ahụ gụrụ ihe karịrị otu narị ọgbakọ, gụnyere ụka Canada, Great Britain, Nigeria, na Australia (Wilcox 2001: 86)

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

MCC nakweere ụkpụrụ okwukwe Ndị Kraịst, nke Ndịozi na nke Nicene. Na mgbakwunye na nkwekọrịta nkwekọrịta ndị a, ụlọ ụka MCC nwere nhọrọ onwe ha na nkuzi na omume. Ọ bụ ezie na MCC bụ Onye Kraịst na-akụzi ihe gbasara ozizi, àgwà ya dị iche iche dị ka ụka na-eduga na nkwenkwe ozizi pụrụ iche. E mesiri ịhụnanya na nnabata nke Chineke na uru onwe onye n'otu n'otu. Na nghọta MCC banyere ozizi Ndị Kraịst, "a nabatara mmadụ niile, kwenye, ma mee ememme n'ihi onye ha bụ (ụmụ Chineke na-enweghị atụ dị iche iche) ọ bụghị n'agbanyeghị akụkụ nke ndị ha bụ (dị ka njiri mmekọahụ ha)" ( Luckenbill 1998a: 386). E gosipụtara Jisos na ọrụ mgbanwe, dịka onye na-emegide nkwenkwe na omume mbibi. MCC na-ahụ onwe ya dị ka ịgbachitere akụkụ ahụ nke ọrụ Jizọs (Warner 1995). Yabụ, ọrụ onwe onye na nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya bụ nke e kwudosiri ike n'echiche ndị Kraịst banyere mmehie na nzọpụta. Ihe kachasị mkpa nke nkọwa MCC nke nkà mmụta okpukpe Ndị Kraịst bụ na ọ na-edozi esemokwu dị n'etiti njirimara mmekọahụ na njirimara okpukpe maka ndị òtù LGBT (Rodriguez na Ouelette 2000). Ọ bụ ezie na MCC nwere mgbọrọgwụ Pentikọstal na-agbanwe agbanwe nke sitere na ozi oge mbụ nke Perry, enwekwara nghazi ndị na-eme ihe ike n'ime chọọchị nke gosipụtara na nkwenye nke nkà mmụta okpukpe na nnwere onwe. N'ezie, Troy Perry kọwara onwe ya dị ka "onye nkwusa na-emesapụ aka" (Wilcox 2001: 89).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ewezuga ole na ole, ọgbakọ ọgbakọ MCC ọ bụla na-ekpebi usoro ofufe nke ya na nkọwapụta mmụta okpukpe. A choro uka ka okwenye na nkwenye nke ndi Kraist, ndi obodo kwesiri iji asusu ndi nwoke na nwanyi tinye uka, choro uka obula ka ha mebe Oriri Nsọ dika ugbo otu ugbo n’izu uka, ma nye ndi otu uka nile udo. N'iburu ọdịnala dịgasị iche iche nke MCC si na-esite n'aka ndị otu, ụdị ofufe dị iche iche site na ọdịnala ruo n'oge a, site na liturgical ruo charismatic. Churcheslọ ụka dị iche iche dịgasị iche iche ma onye ụkọchukwu ma ọ bụ onye nkịtị na-elekọta, ma nwee ike inye udo (McQueeney 2009; White 2008: 110).

MCC emeela ememe alụmdi na nwunye nwoke na nwanyị kemgbe 1960s mechara. Na 1969 Troy Perry rụrụ ọrụ na alụmdi na nwunye nwoke na nwanyị mbụ na United States na California. A na-eme atụmatụ na ihe dị ka puku alụmdi na nwunye / njikọta alụmdi na nwunye a na-eme kwa afọ na United States. Ọ bụ iwu steeti na-achịkwa ọnọdụ nke emume ndị a.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Mgbe Troy Perry guzobere MCC, o chere na ọ ga-abụ ụka gụnyere yana naanị ọrụ pụrụ iche maka ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị. Ọ tụrụ anya na ụka ụka ndị isi nke Kraist ga-agbanwe nkuzi ha n'otu oge na mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị na alụmdi na nwunye ma ndị otu ahụ nwere ike ịlaghachi n'okpukpe mbụ ha. O mechara kpọọ ọhụụ ahụ (Wilcox 2001). Kemgbe e bidoro ọgbakọ ụka a, ọnụ ọgụgụ ụka dị na otu ahụ, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị otu ụka ahụ, yana ọnụọgụ obodo ndị nọchiri anya ya agafeela na-eto. Ugbu a enwere ihe karịrị ọgbakọ 300 nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ karịrị 40,000, na MCC na-anọchite anya ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mba iri atọ gburugburu ụwa.

A haziri MCC dị ka ụlọ ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ ya na isi ụlọ ọrụ ya na West Hollywood. Churchlọ ụka MCC ọ bụla jikọrọ aka na-achịkwa onwe ya na nke onwe ya. Chọọchị dị iche iche na-ahọpụta ndị pastọ ha, ndị na-eje ozi dị ka ndị isi ime mmụọ na nke nhazi ma bụrụ ndị a na-akpọ "ndị nhazi," site na ndepụta nke ndị ụkọchukwu ahụ kwenyesiri ike. Churcheska ụka dị iche iche na-ezigara "otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri" nke ego iji kwado ụka. MCC kewara ụwa n'ime mpaghara asaa, nke ọ bụla bụ Bishọp na-achịkwa ya nke nwere ikike ịnabata ma ọ bụ ịhapụ ndị ụka n'otu n'otu na ụka. Nzukọ Ezumezu nke ndị ụka dị iche iche n'ụwa nile na-eme kwa afọ atọ.

Troy Perry jere ozi dị ka onye njikwa oge nke MCC site na ntọala ya na 1968 ruo mgbe ọ lara ezumike nká na 2005. Mgbe ahụ, Reverend Elder Nancy Wilson nọchiri ya. MCC dị iche n'etiti ụka ndị guzosiri ike na inwe oke ụmụ nwanyị n'ọkwa ndị isi ya. Perry malitere ịhọpụta ụmụ nwanyị ka ha bụrụ ndị pastọ dịka 1972.

Ọchịchị MCC dị n'aka ndị Board (ndị isi na ndị isi mpaghara bụ ndị na-ahụ maka ọnọdụ ime mmụọ, ozi na ịgba akaebe) yana Board of Administration (ndị otu Kọmitii nke ndị okenye họpụtara maka ọrụ gbasara iwu na ego).

Troy Perry abụrụla onye isi okpukpe nke mba nabatara. Ọ natara onyinye onyinye ebere sitere n'aka ndị American Civil Liberties Union Lesbian and Gay Rights Chapter na 1978. E nyegogo ya nkwanye ugwu site na Episcopal Divinity School, Samaritan College, na Mahadum La Sierra. Onye isi oche Jimmy Carter kpọrọ Perry na White House ka ọ kwurịta ikike nwoke na nwanyị na nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị na 1977; o sonyere na 1995 White House Conference on HIV / AIDS nke Onye isi ala Bill Clinton kpọrọ; a kpọkwara ya na White House Conference on Hate Crimes na 1997. N’afọ ahụ, a kpọkwara ya na nri ụtụtụ White House nke a na-asọpụrụ ndị ụkọchukwu 90 maka ọrụ ha.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ihe ịma aka na-eche ndị nwoke na nwanyị ibe ha na-achọ ịmalite ma kwado ụka nke aka ha pụtara ìhè na mmegide ha chere ihu n'agbanyeghị usoro mmụta okpukpe Ndị Kraịst ha. N'ime oge mbụ MCC akụkọ ihe mere eme ndị uwe ojii na-aga chọọchị, a gbanwere nkwekọrịta mgbazinye ụlọ, yana opekata mpe ọgbakọ iri na asaa, gụnyere ụka ụka, bụ ebumnuche nke imebisị ihe na nnabata ọkụ (Warner 1995, 89). N’afọ 1973, a gbara ụlọ ụka mama dị na Los Angeles ọkụ. Nzukọ MCC dị na New Orleans, bụ ndị zukọtara na mmanya nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke, Ulo elu ụlọ, tara ahụhụ ọkụ nke gburu mmadụ iri atọ na abụọ na pastọ ahụ. Mgbe ọdachi ahụ gasịrị, ọtụtụ chọọchị obodo ahụ jụrụ ịrịọ arịrịọ nke iji ụlọ ha maka ememe ncheta. Churchka ahụ ahụkwala mmegide sitere na obodo ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwoke. N'iburu ojuju nke obodo dị ka "ndị na-eme ihe gbasara mmekọahụ" na mmegide ọ na-enweta, ọtụtụ ndị otu LGBT na-ajụ okpukpe Ndị Kraịst n'ụdị ọ bụla (Wilcox 2001, 101)

MCC achọwo nnabata site na ụka dị iche iche, mana ọganihu adịla nwayọ. A rịọrọ arịrịọ MCC maka ịbanye na National Council of Churches na nnukwu ọnụ ọgụgụ n'ihi na ụka ndị na-achọghị mgbanwe, ọkachasị ndị otu Ọtọdọks, yiri egwu ịhapụ ndị otu (Warner 1995, 93). Enyerela ndị otu MCC na ndị otu World Council of Churches, yana MCC na-esonye na kansụl steeti asaa nke ụka dị na US Na 2002, enyere MCC ikike ịnye ndị ụkọchukwu maka ụlọ ọgwụ nchịkwa nke United States Veterans na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ.

Mmegide sitere n'aka Ndị Kraịst Evangelical na-abụ nke siri ike mgbe ụfọdụ. Ọkà mmụta Evangelical Ronald Enroth zoro aka na ihe dị na mbipụta MCC dị ka "mgbapụta ihere" nke ezubere iji rịọ maka nnwapụta Chineke maka omume rụrụ arụ (Luckenbill 1998b, 440). Mgbe ọ na-ede akwụkwọ na Gerald Jamison, Enroth zoro aka na nguzobe nke ụlọ ụka ndị na-edina ụdị onwe dị ka “ihe omume okpukpe a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya.” Ha abụọ kwubiri na "naanị ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụwa nke nwoke idina nwoke na nwanyị na-edina ụdị onwe ya na nke ụwa bụ na nke mbụ gụnyere okpukpe ma ọ bụ nke mmụọ nke gosipụtara… na-agbanye aka na mbọ iji nweta nnabata omume ọma maka agwa idina ụdị onwe" (Ọcha 2008, 113).

Enweela esemokwu dị iche iche na nkewa dị iche iche n'ime MCC ebe ọ dị iche. Wilcox (2001, 92) kọwara ụka ahụ dị ka “nzukọ ngwakọ.” Ọ na-ekwu na "ọ na-egosipụta ihe mgbanwe na nkwenye ya nke onyinye na-adọrọ adọrọ, akụkụ ụfọdụ nke nkà mmụta okpukpe ya, nkwusi ike ya na mgbasa ozi ọma, na mgbọrọgwụ Pentikọst. Ma, n'otu oge ahụ, ịdị adị UFMCC dị ka ụka Kraist nke na-akwado ma na-eme ndị LGBT oke bụ ihe dị egwu. ” Fọdụ ndị otu a ekweghị ka ụka tinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị n'ụdị ọ bụla. Karịsịa na mbido ụka, ụfọdụ ndị otu MCC tụrụ ụjọ na ịkpọta onwe ha ga-eme ka ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ha ka njọ. Ndị ọzọ, gụnyere Troy Perry, kwadoro ka ndị ngagharị maka ikike nwoke na nwanyị dịrị. N'agbanyeghị mmegide n'ime ọgbakọ nke ya, Perry malitere isonye na ngosipụta na-achọ ikike mmekọ nwoke na nwoke (White 2008, 109). N'ime ọnwa ole na ole mgbe e guzobere MCC, ndị otu malitere itinye aka na ngosipụta na San Francisco. Ihe ntinye aka nke MCC gbasoro ihe ndi ozo na nzuko 1972 Democratic Party (Wilcox 2001, 90). MCC sonyere na 1987 National March na Washington maka Nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na nwanyị. MCC bụ ụlọ ụka izizi dị na US iguzobe ozi AIDS. Ọ na-akwado ọrụ ụlọ mkpọrọ

Uzo ozo nke nkewa na MCC n'oge mbu ya mere n'etiti ndi mmadu na ndi ozo nke okwu dika nzuko nke ofufe na nghota nke Baibul. Ọtụtụ obere, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ dị obere, ndị na-agba agba agbajiri agbaji na-achịkwa okwu ndị a (Luckenbill 1998b, 450). Nkewa nke atọ na MCC mere n'oge 1970s na nzaghachi nye nnwere onwe ụmụ nwanyị ka ụmụ nwanyị na-achọ nhazi ozizi na nzukọ n'ime MCC. Membershipmụ nwanyị nọ na MCC jụrụ n'ụzọ doro anya n'oge a, na mmalite 1970s naanị ihe dị ka pasent iri nke ndị otu MCC bụ nwanyị (Wilcox 2001, 102). Na 1972, a họpụtara nwanyị mbụ pastọ, Freda Smith n'ime MCC, na-ebute mmeghari maka oke nha anya nwoke na MCC. Warner (1995, 102) na-akọ na esemokwu ndị a agbadatala ka ụka ahụ nabatara asụsụ nwoke na nwanyị na-esonye n'ofufe ofufe ya na ụmụ nwanyị ewerekwala oke ọrụ n'ọchịchị ndị ụka.

N'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya ụfọdụ ọgbakọ MCC amalitela ịmalite inwe njikọta ọtụtụ okpukpe. The New Spirit Community Church dị na Berkeley, California malitere dị ka ịbịaru ụka San Francisco. New Spirit mechara soro na United Church of Christ ma bụrụkwa “Na-elekọta” ya na nzukọ ndị Kraịst. Mgbanwe kachasị dị ịrịba ama n'ụdị a metụtara Katidral nke Olileanya na Dallas, ọgbakọ kachasị nke MCC. Ọgbakọ ahụ tozuru oke ịhapụ MCC ma jikọọ ya na United Church of Christ na 2006.

References

Ntughari, Vern, ed. 2002. Tupu Stonewall: Ndị na-arụ ọrụ maka Nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị na akụkọ ihe mere eme. New York: Harrington Park Press.

“Kpọọ m Troy.” Foto Tragoidia, Los Angeles, 2007

Enroth, Ronald. 1974. "Homka Nwoke na-edina osemụaka: Otu Eecclesiastical Eextension of a Subculture." Compass Social 21: 355-60.

Enroth, Ronald na Gerald E. Jamison. 1974. Gay Church . Ukwu Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Lukenbill, W. Bernard. 1998a. "Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na Chọọchị Obodo: A Akụkọ Ubi Ọgbakọ na Ọgbakọ Ndị Nwaanyị na Ndị Nwanyị." Ndi American Archivist. 61: 384-99.

Lukenbill, W. Bernard. 1998b. "Kwuru na Corporate Culture nke Otu Nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị nwere mmasị nwanyị." Akwụkwọ akụkọ maka Ọmụmụ Sayensị nke Okpukpe. 37: 440-52.

McQueeney, Krista. 2009. "'Anyị niile bụ ụmụ Chineke, YAll:' Ọsọ, Mmekọahụ, na Mmekọahụ na Ọgbakọ Ndị Nwanyị na Ndị Nwoke Na-akwado." Nsogbu Ọha 56: 151-73.

Rodriguez, Eric na Suzanne Ouelette. 2000. "Ndị Kraịst nwere mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị nwere mmekọ nwanyị ibe ha: Mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị inwekọ okpukpe doro anya na ndị otu na ndị so na Chọọchị Positive Gay." Akwụkwọ akụkọ maka Ọmụmụ Sayensị nke Okpukpe 39: 333-47.

Tobin, Kay na Randy Wicker. 1972. Ndị Mmekọahụ Ndị Nwoke. New York: Akwụkwọ Ọbá Akwụkwọ.

Warner, R. Stephen. 1995. "Chọọchị Obodo Obodo Metropolitan na Gay Agenda: Ike nke Pentikọstal na Mkpa." Na Mmekọahụ, Lgha, na Nsọ: Okpukpe na Ntughari na Contemporary North America, nke Mary Jo Neitz na Marion Goldman dere, 81-108. Greenwich, CT: JAI Pịa.

White, Heather. 2008. "Ikwupụta Nnwere Onwe: Isi Ihe Mere Eme nke GBhazi Okpukpe LGBT, 1946-1976." Nova Religio: Journal of Alternative and Religious Emergencies, 11: 102-19.

Wilcox, Melissa. 2001. “Of Markets and Missions: the Early History of the Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches.” Okpukpe na Omenala America: A Journal of Interpretation. 11: 83-108.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Carter, David. 2010. Nkume Nkume: ọgba aghara nke kpalitere mgbanwe nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke. New York: Akwụkwọ Nsọ Martin,

Perry, Troy na Charles Lucas. 1972. Onye-nwe-ayi bu onye ọzụzụ atụrụ m na Ọ ma na m bụ Nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke: Autobiography nke Rev. Troy D. Perry Los Angeles: Nash.

Perry, Troy na Thomas Swicegood. N'afọ 1992. Atụla ụjọ: Akụkọ banyere Reverend Troy Perry & Chọọchị Ọchịchị Obodo Obodo. New York: St Martins.

Ụbọchị Post:
August, 2011

 

 

 

 

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