Devin Lander

Njikọ Maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ

LEAGUE IHE MGBA N'OZI

1920 (October 22) a mụrụ Timothy Leary na Springfield, Massachusetts.

1960 (Oge okpomọkụ) Leary, n'oge ahụ onye nkuzi na akparamaagwa nke sayensị na Mahadum Harvard, tinyere ero ero psychedelic mgbe ọ nọ ezumike na Mexico.

1960-1963 Harvard Psilocybin Project mere usoro nyocha site n'inye ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo psilocybin.

1961 Leary gbara LSD-25 dị ike nke nwere ọgụgụ isi nke mbụ. Harvard Psilocybin Project malitere iji LSD dochie anya psilocybin na ụfọdụ n'ime nnwale ya.

1962-1963 Leary, onye ọrụ Harvard Richard Alpert, na ndị ọzọ so na Harvard Psilocybin Project guzobere International Federation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) dị ka nzukọ na-enweghị uru na-achọ ịga n'ihu nyocha nke otu na psychedelics na ihe omimi na nduzi okpukpe.

A chụrụ Leary na Alpert na 1963 na ngalaba Harvard.

1963 Leary gbasara IFIF ma degharịa ya na Castalia Foundation.

1963-1966 Leary, Alpert na ezigbo ndị otu Psilocybin Project gara biri na nnukwu ụlọ na Millbrook, New York.

1966 Leary guzobere Njikọ maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ (LSD), nke etinyere dị ka nzukọ okpukpe na New York State.

A chụpụrụ 1968 Leary na Njikọ maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ na ala Millbrook. Leary na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị otu ahụ kwagara California.

A mara 1970 Leary mkpọrọ afọ 10 maka ebubo ọgwụ ọjọọ. Ọ gbapụrụ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ n'otu afọ ahụ wee hapụ mba ahụ, na-ejedebe Njikọ maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ.

1996 (May 31) Leary nwụrụ site na ọrịa kansa prostate.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

A mụrụ Timothy Leary na October 22, 1920 na Springfield, Massachusetts, naanị otu nwa nke onye bụbu dọkịta ezé na nwunye nwunye ya. Mgbe ọ gụsịrị ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, Leary buru ụzọ nweta ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ na-enweghị nsogbu ka a napụrụ yaọtụtụ mahadum, gụnyere United States Military Academy na Mahadum Alabama. Agbanyeghị, Leary mechara gụchaa Master's Degree na Psychology na Mahadum Washington na 1946 yana Ph.D. na Clinical Psychology na Mahadum California dị na Berkeley na 1950. Leary nọrọ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ ise na ngalaba na-ahụ maka akparamàgwà mmadụ na Berkeley tupu ọ banye na Kaiser Family Foundation dị ka Director of Psychological Research. Na 1957, Leary bipụtara akwụkwọ na-akụda ala banyere isiokwu mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na uru ọ bara na psychotherapy, Ihe nchoputa nke mmadu, nke mechara kpọọ ya “Akwụkwọ nke Afọ” Nyochaa Akwukwo Uche nke Otu (Strack 1996: 212).

Leary gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọrụ ya na Kaiser Family Foundation na 1958, kwagara Europe maka obere oge, na mgbe ahụ na 1960, ọ malitere nkuzi okwu na Mahadum Harvard na Ngalaba Na-ahụ Maka Mmekọrịta (Greenfield 2006: 104). Ọ bụ n'oge afọ ya na Harvard ka ọ malitere ọrụ ime mmụọ nke dugara na nguzobe Njikọ maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ. N'ime oge ezumike gaa Mexico n'oge ọkọchị nke afọ 1960 Leary riri ụfọdụ ero psychedelic nke onye ọkà mmụta ihe banyere mmadụ na-agụ na mpaghara ahụ nyere ya. Ahụmịhe ahụ na-akụda na Leary (1990: 33) mechara dee na "Ebe ọ bụ na ọgwụ ndị na-agwọ ọrịa uche na-ekpughe anyị n'ọtụtụ nghọta na ahụmịhe nke iji ha eme ihe bụ ọrụ nkà ihe ọmụma, na-akpali anyị ịbịakwute ọdịdị nke eziokwu na ọdịdị nke adịghị ike anyị , usoro nkwenye nke onwe… .Anyị na-achọpụta na mberede na etinyere anyị na afọ ndị a niile, na ihe niile anyị na-anabata dị ka eziokwu bụ naanị akụkọ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. ”

N'ịlaghachi na Harvard na ọdịda ahụ, Leary malitere ozugbo ịmepụta ụlọ ọrụ nyocha na-eji psilocybin, ihe mmepụta sịntetik nke mkpụrụ ndụ psychedelic na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ero ndị ọ gestụrụ na Mexico. N'ị nweta ọkọnọ psilocybin ọgwụ kpọmkwem site na Sandoz Laboratory, Leary natara ikike ịmalite nyocha ahụike na ihe ahụ na mmetụta ya na ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-enyocha n'okpuru aha Harvard Psilocybin Project. Leary rụkọtara ọrụ na Richard Alpert (onye mechara bụrụ Ram
Dass) na Ph.D. nwata akwukwo, Ralph Metzner. Ebumnuche nke Psilocybin Project bụ ịmụ mmetụta nke psilocybin nke psychedelic, nke bụ ihe eji emepụta sịntetik, na ọtụtụ isiokwu ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo gụnyere ụmụ akwụkwọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ, ndị edemede, ndị nka, na ndị mkpọrọ. Emechara dochie LSD-25 ka ike karịa na nnwale ndị a. N'agbanyeghị ọkwa ọkwa nke ọrụ ngo ahụ, Leary na Alpert malitekwara ịnwale na mpụga ọnọdụ ahụike na n'ụlọ ha na ụlọ ndị enyi. N'ihi oke mmetụta psilocybin na LSD na-enwekarị, Leary na Alpert malitere ịchọ ụzọ ọzọ nke nkọwa karịrị akparamaagwa na sayensị iji gosipụta mmetụta dị na nsụhọ mmadụ n'oge ahụmịhe psychedelic. N'ihi ya, Psilocybin Project malitere iji ihe atụ okpukpe mee ihe dị ka usoro nke ịkọwapụta ihe na-eme n'okpuru nduzi nke psychedelics (Leary 1982: 85).

N'ihi Psilocybin Project enweghị ike ịgbaso usoro sayensị guzobere na nyocha nke uche ya, ndị ọrụ ibe ya na Ngalaba mmekọrịta mmekọrịta na Harvard welitere ajụjụ siri ike gbasara izi ezi nke ọrụ Leary na Alpert. N'ịgbalị ịkwado ihe ndị nkuzi na nchịkwa Harvard chọrọ, Leary na Alpert mepụtara International Federation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) na-enweghị uru iji kewaa nchọpụta sayensị nke Psilocybin Project site na nchọpụta omimi-okpukpe a na-eme. n'èzí nke ọnọdụ ahụike. Boardlọ nke IFIF gụnyere ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe Huston Smith na Walter Houston Clark, na ezigbo onye otu a bụ onye ọkà ihe ọmụma Zen bụ Alan Watts (Smith 2000). Agbanyeghị, na njedebe, ọchịchọ Leary na Alpert gafere sayensị na akparamaagwa wee banye na mpaghara nke ihe omimi na mmebi nke usoro nyocha nke Harvard mere ka ha kwụsị ọrụ ngalaba ahụ na 1963.

Atụmatụ mbụ nke IFIF bụ iguzobe ebe ezumike psychedelic na Zihuatanejo, Mexico ebe ndị na-akwụ ụgwọ ndị ọbịa nwere ike ịga nweta ahụmịhe uche na ọnọdụ dị jụụ, nke ebe okpomọkụ (Downing 1964: 146). Otú ọ dị, n'ihi na a kọrọ na Leary jụrụ ịkwụ ụgwọ ndị isi obodo, gọọmentị Mexico chụpụrụ ìgwè ahụ mgbe ihe na-erughị izu isii (Fisher 2005: 108). Mgbalị yiri nke ahụ iguzobe ogige ndị nwere ọgụgụ isi na Caribbean dara n'ihe na-erughị otu ọnwa.

Kedu ihe fọdụrụ n'ime IFIF wee laghachi Massachusetts na-enweghị atụmatụ ọ bụla maka ọdịnihu. Ọ bụ n'oge ahụ ka a enyi Leary na Alpert's, Peggy Hitchcock, bịara nyere ha aka. Ọ tụrụ aro na Leary na Alpert gakwuuru ụmụnne ya ejima, Billy na Tommy Hitchcock III, bụ ndị zụtara nnukwu ala na nso nso a nwere ọtụtụ ụlọ na obere obodo Dutchess County nke Millbrook, New York. Ndi Hitchcock bu ndi nketa nke Mellon, Peggy aburula ihe nlere nke oru Psilocybin. Leary na Alpert zutere, ma nye Billy na Tommy Hitchcock uche, ma na Nọvemba, 1963 ndị okenye asaa na ụmụaka isii mejupụtara ndị otu ọgbakọ IFIF kwagara na mpaghara 2,500 acre wee banye n'ụlọ ezinaụlọ 64 (Onye edemede Unknown 1963 64).

N'oge na-adịghị anya ka ọ bịarutere Millbrook, Leary gbasara IFIF ma degharịa ndị otu ya Castalia Foundation, mgbe otu ndị ọkachamara ama ama na akwụkwọ akụkọ Hermann Hesse, Egwuregwu Bead Glass. Ha malitere oru na akwukwo akwukwo, ndi Nyochaa Ọrịa, ma na-aga n'ihu na-eme nchọpụta ma na-ede banyere ihe ndị metụtara psychedelic mgbe ha na-ebi ndụ. E wezụga na-eme nnyocha banyere okpukperechi na ihe omimi nke psychedelics, ndị Castalia Foundation bidoro ịlaghachi na ngwụsị izu na ala ebe ndị na-akwụ ụgwọ ahịa bịara ịmịcha ahụ mmụọ, ọ bụ ezie na-enweghị ọgwụ. Ndị otu Castalia Foundation ga - edugharị ndị a na - atụgharị uche site na ntụgharị uche na yoga, jigide usoro ọgwụgwọ otu, ma nwaa anwa ịmeghachi mmetụta nke agbasi. (Ram Dass et al. 2009: 121-25). The Castalia Foundation tinyekwara ihe omume ihe nkiri na New York City, nke ha kpọrọ "chedlọ ihe nkiri Psychedelic."

Mgbalị nkeLLary iji nnwere onwe okpukpe dị ka ihe nchebe maka nsogbu iwu ya gara n'ihu na akụkọ omimi na nke okpukpe na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi ya na-eto eto. N'ịgbaso ụzọ nke Chọọchị American Native, yana Chọọchị Neo-American, Leary chọrọ ịmepụta okpukpe nke aka ya dị ka ụzọ nchebe megide ndị mmanye iwu na iji gbalịa ịkọwa n'ụzọ zuru ezu iji psychedelic mee ihe dị ka ahụmahụ okpukpe n'ezie (Lander 2011) : 69-71). Na Septemba, 1966, Leary kwuputara n'usoro mgbasa ozi na e mepụtara Njikọ maka Nchọpụta Ime Mmụọ na obere oge mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ bipụtara mpempe akwụkwọ "Start Your Own Religion," nke mere dị ka "otu-esi" ntuziaka maka ịmepụta ụka nke aka ya (Lander 2011) (72). LSD dị mkpụmkpụ, agbanyeghị. N'ihi mgbasa ozi na-adịghị mma na nlebara anya na ndị mmanye iwu, a chụpụrụ Leary na ndị otu ya na Millbrook ala na 1968. Leary kwagara California na nwunye ya nke anọ na ụmụ ya abụọ, yana ọtụtụ ndị otu LSD. Na California, Leary gara n'ihu ịbụ onye isi mgbasa ozi wee gaa n'ihu ma pụọ ​​n'ime ụlọ ikpe, mechara tụọ ya mkpọrọ na 1969 maka inwe wii wii.

ỤLỌ / EKWERE

Ihe nkwenkwe okpukpe nke League for Spiritual Discovery dabeere na mantra Timothy Leary: “tụfuo, gbanye, gbanye ya.” Agbanyeghi na ihe kacha ewu ewu bụ "gbanye, gbanye, tufuo" ghọrọ ihe Leary pụtara, nkọwa ya n'ezie mgbe ọ na-akpụ LSD bụ:

Wepu - wepu onwe gi na ihe nkiri ndi ozo nke di na mmiri ma di ka TV.

Gbanwuo - chọta sacrament nke ga-eme ka ị laghachi n'ụlọ nsọ Chineke, ahụ gị. Si n’obi gị pụọ. Bilie.

Tune In - biaghachi. Daghachi na ya iji kwupụta ya. Bido usoro omume ọhụrụ nke gosipụtara ọhụụ gị (Leary 1970: 183).

Nye Leary na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya, sacrament ahụ pụtara mmụọ ọgụgụ isi, na ịhapụ kpamkpam pụtara na mmadụ kwesịrị isonyere ndị nwere ụdị echiche ahụ ịmalite otu "ezinụlọ," na "okpukpe". Leary (1970: 186) dere na "ị ga-abụrịrị nke kacha ochie na nke dị nsọ nke usoro mmadụ - ezinụlọ," na "ezinụlọ ahụ ga-etinyere n'ihe mgbaru ọsọ nke okpukpe… okpukpe bụ ntụgharị, usoro, ịhapụ usoro."

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ndi LSD enweghi ezi emume karie ingestion nke ndi uche. Nkọwa Leary (1970: 187) banyere okpukpe gụnyere ememe, mana ọ kwusiri ike na ezinụlọ okpukpe ọ bụla kwesịrị imepụta emume nke ya. O kwusikwara ike na site n'iji ọgwụ psychedelics na wii wii eme ihe karịa "ịgba" otu onye "ga - enyere gị aka site n'inwe ọdịdị okpukpe nke ọrụ psychedelic gị." O nyeghị ntụziaka a kapịrị ọnụ banyere otu esi eme ya.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

N'ime akụkọ ntolite ya dị mkpirikpi, Leary nwere atụmatụ LSD inwe ndị otu 411 ma nwee kọmitii nke "ndị nduzi" 15 niile bi naụlọ obibi Millbrook na ndị, dị ka Leary si kwuo, "ha gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọrụ ha ma na-arara ndụ ha nye okpukpe" (Dallos 1966: 33). Nyere usoro nhazi nke LSD, ọnụọgụgụ nke ndị na-eso ụzọ siri ike ịkọ na izi ezi ọ bụla. N'otu oge Leary kwuru na njedebe ndị otu nke LSD bụ 360 na ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu kwesịrị ịmalite otu òtù okpukpe nke onwe ha. Ihe ọ sọrọ ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị LSD bụ n'ezie, mmetụta ọdịbendị nke Leary na LSD karịrị ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị otu ya. Njikọ ahụ maka nchọpụta ime mmụọ ghọrọ ihe efu maka ebumnuche niile bara uru na-esote njide metụtara ọgwụ ike Leary na 1969. Na 2006, otu ndị na-ekwu na ha na-anọchite anya ọdịnala LSD kwupụtara ọkwa ya; ìgwè ahụ nwere ọnụnọ naanị na ịntanetị (Greg Vanderlaan webụsaịtị nd)

Leary mechara banye n'ọrụ dịka onye edemede, onye nkuzi, na onye ama ama. N'ime oge 1980s ọ masịrị ya ịchị ọchịchị ohere yana kọmputa, ịntanetị, na eziokwu dị adị. Ihe bụ isi ime mmụọ ya bụ Neo-Paganism. Leary chọpụtara na ọ nwere ọrịa prostate na 1995. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, ntụ ya gbanyere ntụ na mbara igwe yana ndị nke Star Trek onye okike Gene Roddenberry, ebe ha na-agagharị ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ isii tupu ọkụ na mbara igwe.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ndụ Leary na LSD jupụtara n'ọgba aghara. Nnwale ya na Psilocybin na LSD dugara na nkwụsị ọrụ ya na Mahadum Harvard. A chụpụrụ ya na ụmụazụ ya na Millbrook Estate. Ka ọ na-erule 1966, e mere ka isi “sacrament” nke okpukpe ọ chọrọ ịmalite guzobe iwu, na inwe na iji nke ọ bụla n'ime ha bụ mpụ. Dika nsogbu ndi mmanye iwu bara ụba tinyere iji ogwu uche eji eme ihe n'ozuzu ndi mmadu, Leary, onye elere anya dika ihe ndi ozo nke ndi mmadu na-ekwuputa na ndi na-eme mgbanwe dika onye isi na-eme ka ndi mmadu na-acho ogwu. E jidere Leary n'onwe ya ọtụtụ oge n'etiti 1965-1970, ọ bụ ezie na ọ gaghị ewere LSD ma ọ bụ ihe ọ bụla ọzọ.

Twobọchị abụọ tupu ekeresimesi na 1965, a kwụsịrị Timothy Leary, nwa ya nwoke na nwa ya nwanyị, na enyi ya nwanyị na ókèala ya na Laredo, Texas ma gbochie ha ịbanye Mexico. Mgbe ha laghachiri n'akụkụ oke nke United States, a na-enyocha oriri ahụ wee hụ obere wii wii n'ime uwe nwa nwanyị Leary. Leary na ndị ọka iwu ya nwara ime ka nnwere onwe okpukpe bụrụ ihe nchebe maka ebubo ndị e boro ya. Ọ rụrụ ụka na ị mariụ wii wii kwa ụbọchị bụ akụkụ nke ememe okpukpe ya dị ka onye Hindu. Mgbachitere a enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma na mbụ, a mara Leary ikpe ịga mkpọrọ afọ iri atọ na mma $ 30,000. Ọ rịọrọ ikpe maka ikpe ya niile gaa hislọikpe Kasị Elu. Courtlọ ikpe dị elu kagburu ikpe ụlọ ikpe Texas na 1969 wee kpebie na Iwu Taxtụ Isi nke Marijuana n'okpuru nke a gbara ya akwụkwọ bụ iwu na-akwadoghị (Lander 2011: 71). A mara Leary ikpe ọzọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ na 1970, oge a maka afọ iri. Agbanyeghị, ndị Weathermen na Black Panther Party nyere aka, Leary gbapụrụ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ wee gbaga mba ahụ, buru ụzọ banye Algeria, ma mesịa gaa Switzerland na Afghanistan. E mechara jide ya na Afghanistan ma kpọghachi ya n'ụlọ mkpọrọ na United States (Greenfield 2006: 399-455). Leary tọhapụrụ Leary n'ụlọ mkpọrọ na 1976 site na California Gọvanọ Jerry Brown.

Njikọ ahụ maka nchọpụta ime mmụọ mekwara ka ndị ọzọ na-ese okwu. Na California, otu mgbapụ nke LSD, thetù Brothermụnna nke Ebighị Ebi ịhụnanya, malitere dị ka otu ìgwè nke ndị na-egwu mmiri na ndị omekome nwere ma na-arụ ọrụ ụlọ ahịa sọfụ na Laguna Beach. Ka ọ na-erule etiti afọ ndị 1970s, thetù hoodmụnna ghọrọ otu n'ime netwọkụ kachasị ebu ọgwụ ọjọọ na-ebubata na United States (Greenfield 2006: 327-332). Ọ bụ ezie na Leary nwere mmekọrịta chiri anya na hoodtù asmụnna dị ka guru na onye ndu ime mmụọ, o nweghị ihe jikọrọ ya na netwọk narcotics karịa ịmebata ndị òtù dị iche iche na ndị ọkachamara LSD na ndị nkesa (Tendler na May 1984: 22).

References

Onye edemede Amaghi. 1963. "Uche-ọgwụ Ule bi na-agbahapụ." New York Times, Disemba 15, p. 64.

Dallos, Robert E. 1966: “Dr. Leary jiri 'sacrament' nke LSD bido 'Okpukpe' ohuru. ” New York Times, Septemba 20, p. 33.

Downing, Joseph J. 1964. "Zihuatanejo: Nnwale na Ndụ Mgbanwe." Pp 142-77 na Ndị puru iche: Ojiji na ndị ọrụ nke LSD-25, nke Richard Blum dere. New York: Atherton Press.

Fisher, Gary. 2005. "Na-emeso ndị na-enweghị ọgwụgwọ." Pp. 103-17 n'ime Amamihe Dị Elu: Ndị okenye a ma ama na-enyocha mmetụta na-aga n'ihu nke Psychedelics, nke Roger Walsh na Charles S. Grob dere. Albany: Mahadum State nke New York Press.

Greenfield, Robert. 2006. Timothy Leary: akụkọ ndụ. New York: Harcourt, Inc.

Weebụsaịtị Greg Vanderlaan. nd Nweta site na http://gregvanderlaan.com/league.aspx na 1 January 2012.

Lander, Devin R. 2011. "Bido Okpukpe nke Gị: Chọọchị Acid nke New York State." Nova Religio 14: 64-80.

Leary, Timothy. N'afọ 1970. Ọchịchị nke Ecstasy. London: Akwụkwọ Granada.

Leary, Timothy. N'afọ 1982. Na-agbanwe Uche M, N'etiti Ndị Ọzọ: Ndụ Oge Ndụ. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: ntlọ Nzukọ Prentice.

Leary, Timothy. N'afọ 1990. Flashbacks: Autobiography. New York: Tarcher / Putnam.

Ram Dass, Ralph Metzner na Gary Bravo. 2009. Ọmụmụ nke Omenala Psychedelic: Mkparịta ụka banyere Leary, Harvard Experiment, Millbrook na sixties. Santa Fe: Synergetic Press.

Smith, Huston. 2000. Nhicha ụzọ nke nghọta: Ihe dị mkpa nke okpukperechi nke osisi na kemịkal. New York: Tarcher / Putnam.

Strack, Stephen. 1996. “Okwu Mmalite nke Usoro Pụrụ Iche — Okwu Gbasara Onwe Onye na Onye Ibe Ya: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Timothy Leary.” Mpempe akwụkwọ nke Mmepụta Ihe, 66: 212-16.

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Ụbọchị Post:
30 January 2012

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