Ann Coble

Obodo Koinonia

Oge KOINONIA Ugbo

1912: Onye nchoputa ihe bu Clarence Jordan amuru na Talbotton, Georgia.

1942: Clarence na Florence Jordan na Martin na Mabel England zụtara Koinonia Farm. N'oge na-adịghị anya Englands laghachiri Burma, na-ahapụ ndị Jọdan ka ha rụọ ọrụ ugbo.

1956: Ndị ọrụ ugbo mpaghara, ndị ahịa, na ụlọ ahịa malitere ịkụbanye Koinonia Farm.

1956: robọchị Dorothy gara Clarence Jordan na Koinonia Farm.

1956: A gwara Clarence Jordan ka ọ kwado ụmụ akwụkwọ ojii abụọ ka ha gaa Mahadum Georgia, nke rụpụtara nzaghachi megide Koinonia Farm.

1965: Millard na Linda Fuller gara na Koinonia Farm.

1969: Millard Fuller na Clarence Jordan mepụtara atụmatụ iji nye ụlọ maka ndị bi obere ego na nso Koinonia Farm. Nke a ghọrọ Koinonia Partnership Housing, na mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ Koinonia Farm dị ka Koinonia Partners.

1969: Clarence Jordan nwụrụ site na nkụchi obi na nchịkọta ederede ya na Koinonia Farm.

1976: Millard Fuller guzobere Habitat for Humanity dabere na atụmatụ ya na Clarence Jordan mepụtara na njedebe 1960s.

1993: Koinonia Farm ghọrọ Koinonia Partners, Inc., ma gosipụta onwe ya na ụlọ ọrụ na-enweghị uru. Ndị otu anaghịzị ekekọrịta otu obere akpa ego.

2005: E mere Koinonia Farm ka ọ bụrụ Georgia Georgia Historic Site.

2005: Koinonia Partners laghachiri na obodo nke ebumnuche obodo wee laghachi na aha Koinonia Farm.

2008: Koinonia Farm natara Community of Christ International Peace Award.

2012: Emere Clapo Jordan nke mbụ na America, GA, iji mee ememme ncheta otu narị afọ nke ọmụmụ Clarence Jordan na ụbọchị ncheta nke iri asaa nke ntọala nke Koinonia Farm. Jimmy Carter na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ sonyere.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Ọ bụ ndị di na nwunye Baptist abụọ, Clarence na Florence Jordan na Martin na Mabel England hiwere Koinonia Farm na 1942. Na nzube nke Koinonia Farm bu ibi ndu ndi Kristain dika ha huru ya na agba ohu. Clarence Jordan kpọrọ Koinonia Ugbo “atụmatụ ngagharị maka alaeze Chineke.” (Coble 1999) N’oge na-adịghị anya ka e guzobere Koinonia Farm, ndị Englands laghachiri n’ozi ala ọzọ ná mba ọzọ. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ mmadụ bịara ma laa, na ezinụlọ ole na ole biri na Koinonia Farm ruo ọtụtụ afọ, ndị Jordan bụ otu ezinụlọ na-agbanwe agbanwe site na 1942 ruo 1969, mgbe Clarence Jordan nwụrụ (K'Meyer 1997).

Clarence Jordan bụ onye ụkọchukwu Baptist nke ndịda ghọrọ onye na-eme udo mgbe ọ nọ na mahadum na Mahadum Georgia. Enye ama ekpep utom in̄wan̄ ye idotenyịn edin̄wam mme ubuene in̄wan̄ ke mme obio-in̄wan̄ Georgia. Jordan gara n'ihu seminarị na Southern Baptist Theological Seminary dị na Louisville, KY, maka Master of Divinity degree na doctorate. Ọ mụrụ Koine Greek maka Ph.D., ọ nwekwara mmasị ibi ndụ okwukwe nke Ndị Kraịst ya ka ọ hụrụ ka e gosipụtara ya n'Oziọma na Akwụkwọ Ọrụ Ndịozi na Agba Ọhụrụ. N'ịbụ onye tolitere n'ime ime obodo Georgia, ọ rụkwara ọrụ iji lụọ ọgụ dị egwu nke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ ọ
hụrụ na South (Lee 1971).

Ndị Jọdan zụrụ Ugbo Koinonia, nke dịdebere America, Georgia, iji bie okwukwe ha n'ime obodo. Clarence Jordan kpọrọ ugbo a ihe ngosipụta maka alaeze Chineke. Jordan amụọlaọrụ ugbo dị ka onye na-agụghị akwụkwọ, ma jiri ụfọdụ oge ya na-azụ ndị ọrụ ugbo bi ebe ahụ ka ha jiri usoro ọrụ ugbo ka mma. Obodo ndị ọcha nọ n'ógbè ahụ na-emegide ndị òtù Koinonia Farm n'ihi na a na-emeso ndị ọrụ ojii na ndị ọrụ ojii ugbo. Nke a gụnyere inye ndị ọrụ niile otu ụgwọ ahụ na inye ndị ọrụ niile nri ehihie n'efu. (Coble 2002)

Na njedebe nke 1950s, ka esemokwu agbụrụ na-abawanye na ndịda United States, ndị ọcha bi na America ghọrọ ndị na-eme ihe ike megide ndị Koinonia Farm na ndị ọrụ. A gbawara ebe ha kwụ n'ugbo, a na-agba egbe oge niile n'ime ụlọ ha, na-akụ ma na-akpagbu ụmụ ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ. Na nzaghachi maka ịhapụ ndị ahịa obodo, Koinonia Farm malitere ịkọ bekee na ahụekere wee ree ha site na akwụkwọ ozi (Lee 1971).

N'oge a, otu ihe na-erughị iri atọ nwere ụdị echiche a biri na Koinonia Farm. Na mgbakwunye, Koinonia Farm goro ndị ọrụ na-abụghị ndị ọrụ ka hazie mkpụrụ ahụ wee rụọ ọrụ n'ugbo ahụ na azụmaahịa ahịa akwụkwọ ozi. Ebe ọ bụ na a bịara mara ugbo ahụ nke ọma dị ka ebe nke okpukperechi Kraịst, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na pacifism, ọtụtụ mmadụ gara Koinonia Farm tinyere Dorothy Day, onye nchoputa nke Catholic Worker Movement (Coble 1999).

Na 1965, Millard na Faith Fuller gara Koinonia Farm, ma mesịa kwaga ebe ahụ n'oge 1960s. N'oge a,ọtụtụ ndị bụ akụkụ nke òtù hippie gara Ugbo Koinonia, mana mmadụ ole na ole kpebiri ibi ebe ahụ. Jordan na Millard Fuller mepụtara atụmatụ iji nyere ndị ogbenye nọ n’obodo ha aka ka ha nwee ụlọ obibi dị mfe, dịkwa nchebe. Na 1969, mgbe ọ na-arụ ọrụ na okwuchukwu ya na obere ide ederede ya, Jordan nwere nkụchi obi wee nwụọ. Mgbe Jordan nwụsịrị, Millard Fuller wuru na echiche ha wee bido Habitat for Humanity, nke ka nwere isi ụlọ ọrụ ya na America, GA, na nso Koinonia Farm (Fuller na Scott 1980).

E nwere ọtụtụ ndị isi nke Koinonia Farm na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ọkachasị David Castle. Onye nduzi kachasị nso, Bren Dubay, wetara mmụọ ime mmụọ Katọlik ya na Baptist South, ọ bụrụkwa na ọ dị mma maka Koinonia Farm.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ndị guzobere Ugbo Koinonia bụ ndị Baptist, ha niile bụ ndị ụka ụka na mpaghara na mpaghara nke mpaghara ahụ. Ndị Jọdan sonyere na Rehobeth Baptist Church, ndị Jọdan kwusara ozi ebe ahụ ụfọdụ mgbede Sọnde. Nkwenkwe okpukpe nke ndị Jọdan bụ nke ndị Baptist Baptist. Ha kwenyere na Atọ n'Ime Otu, isi ọnwụ Jizọs Kraịst maka nzọpụta, na mkpa ọ dị n'ime Bible n'ịchọpụta ozizi na akparamàgwà. Ha mere baptism nke onye kwere ekwe.

Otú ọ dị, Jọdan jidere, tinye ya, ma kụzie nkwenkwe atọ ndị esemokwu n'etiti Southern Baptist. Nke mbụ, Jọdan bụ aonye udo. O kwuru na ya enweghị ike ime ka oku ahụ Jizọs kpọrọ ịhụ ndị iro anyị na ime ihe ike na agha bụrụ ihe dị mkpa. Nke a gụnyere ime ihe ike onwe onye yana ọgụ ndị agha, na nke ahụ abụghị ihe ọhụụ nye Baptist n'oge Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ. Nke abuo, Jọdan kwenyere na agbụrụ agbụrụ, nke dịkwa iche n'oge a n'etiti Southern Baptist. N'ikpeazụ ndị Chọọchị Rehobeth Baptist chụpụrụ ndị Jọdan na 1950s n'ihi na ndị Jọdan na-arụ ọrụ na idozi agbụrụ. Nke ato, Jọdan gụrụ Akwụkwọ Ọrụ Ndịozi wee kwenye na Ndị Kraịst kwesịrị ibi n'obodo ndị na-ekerịta ngwongwo ha na ego ha. Omume nke ibi ndụ ya na ndị agbata obi ya jikọtara ya mgbe ụfọdụ na nke a, nke a mekwara ka ndị ọrụ ugbo gburugburu (Coble 2002) nwekwuo nrụgide.

Bible bụ akụkụ Jọdan dị ka ihe ndabere maka nkwenkwe ya. Karịsịa, ọ nwere mmasị na Oziọma na Akwụkwọ Ọrụ Ndịozi na Agba Ọhụrụ. Okwu a bu "koinonia" bu okwu Grik nke achoputara na agba ohu nke putara obodo, nnweko na njiko (Lee 1971).

A gwara Jordan ka o kwuo okwu n’ọtụtụ ụka na otu ụmụ akwụkwọ ụmụ akwụkwọ, ma site na okwu ndị ahụ ka ụdị Cotton Patch sụgharịrịnke Agba Ọhụrụ (Jordan 1969, 1970). Echere na ọ bụ ntụgharị okwu dị nro, ụdị Cotton Patch ndị a tinyere Jizọs na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na ime obodo Georgia. A mụrụ Jizọs na Meri na Joe Davidson, Jọn Onye Na-eme Baptizim mere ya baptizim bụ onye yi uwe akwa na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na jaket akpụkpọ anụ, a kpọgidere ya n’obe n’Atlanta. Jọdan tinyere nkuzi nke Jizọs na esemokwu agbụrụ na South. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Ezi Sameria ahụ abụghị onye Sameria, mana Ọ bụ Onye Ojii. (Jordan 1969, 1970) Mgbe Jordan nwụsịrị, a na-eji nsụgharị Cotton Patch ya mee ihe maka egwu egwu akpọrọ Okwute Patch Gospel , na egwu site n'aka Harry Chapin. Onye na-eme ihe nkiri Tom Key rụrụ ọrụ bụ isi. Egwú a dị na esemokwu n'ihi na a na-egbu Jizọs kama akpọgide ya n'obe. ( Okwute Patch Gospel 1988).

Na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu, ihe ka ọtụtụ ná ndị òtù Koinonia Farm kwuru na ha bụ Ndị Kraịst, ha si n’ọgbakọ dịgasị iche iche nke Ndị Kraịst. Nkwenkwe ha dịgasị iche iche karịa ndị guzobere ya, mana ha ka na-adabere na udo, ịkpa udo agbụrụ, na ibi n'obodo. Ha nwere mmasị n'okwu ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha na eze na nkwado gburugburu ebe obibi.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ndị Baptist guzobere Koinonia Farm mere ụdịrị Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst nke ledaara ememe okpukpe anya. Baptism na Nri Anyasị nke Onyenwe anyị ka a na-ahụta ka emume, ọ bụghị sacrament, na nkuzi Baptist.

Otú ọ dị, ndị òtù Koinonia Farm mepụtara ememe ole na ole na-adabere na ndụ ugbo. Ha malitere site n’inye ndị bi n’ebe ahụ na ndị ọrụ batara n’ụbọchị ahụ nri ehihie. Nri ehihie a ghọrọ oge dị mkpa n'obodo, ọ bịara bụrụ nke guzosiri ike karị mgbe e wuru ụlọ iri ihe dị mfe. A ka na-enye ndị ọrụ na ndị ọbịa nri a.

Emume a na-eme kwa afọ a na-akọ n’akụkọ ugbo bụ nke ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-abanyekarị n’oge owuwe ihe ubi. Ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo na-abịa kwa afọ iji nyere Koinonia Farm aka iziga akwụkwọ ndekọ aha niile n'ọnwa tupu Christmas.

N'ime narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu, onye nduzi Bren Dubay ewetawo echiche Katọlik nke ụda ụbọchị ahụ na omume na Ugboro Koinonia. Nke a gụnyere ịkpụ mgbịrịgba iji gosi oge nke ekpere na ịnwe ọrụ na ụlọ ekpere.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ọ bụ ezie na ndị Jọdan na Englands guzobere Koinonia Farm, Clarence Jordan ghọrọ onye ndu mgbe Englandslaghachiri Burma. Ọtụtụ ndị otu utopian na-amalite site na nkwupụta nke ntinye na echiche siri ike, mana Koinonia Farm amalitebeghị n'ụzọ ahụ. Mgbe Koinonia Farm mepụtara usoro ọzọ na 1950s, ndị okenye (ma ụmụ nwanyị ma ụmụ nwoke) gbanwere ịbụ ndị isi gọọmentị, ọ bụ ezie na Clarence Jordan nọgidere bụrụ onye ndu na-enweghị isi.

N'oge a, ndị nwere mmasị ịghọ ndị otu Koinonia Farm bịanyere aka na nkwupụta nke ntinye aka ma jikọtara ego ha. Ha biri n'ụlọ dị iche iche mana ha na-erikọ nri ọnụ ma na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ n'ugbo ahụ. Usoro ahụ gụnyere mmadụ iburu “novice” (Lee 1971) ruo ihe dị ka ọnwa atọ wee bụrụkwa “onye otu oge” (Lee 1971) ruo ọnwa atọ ọzọ na iteghete ruo mgbe onye ahụ ghọrọ onye otu zuru ezu. Nkwekorita nke ịbụ onye otu gụnyere ịgụnye ọnụ ọgụgụ ụlọ akụ na ikwe nkwa ilekọta ibe ha, mana ọ chọghị ntinye ndụ oge niile, ọtụtụ mmadụ bịara ma laa.

Mgbe Jordan nwụsịrị na 1969, ọtụtụ mmadụ gbanwere dị ka onye ntụzi aka nke Koinonia Farm. Ruo ihe dị ka afọ iri na ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri abụọ, Koinonia Farm ghọrọ Koinonia Partners ma nwee nzukọ na-enweghị uru. Agbanyeghi na ha rie nri dika ehihie, odighi ego obula ha nabu ma ha di ka ha na agbapu site na nnweko ndi mmadu. Site na ndu nke David Castle na onye isi oche Bren Dubay, Koinonia Farm laghachiri na mmasị ya ịbụ obodo nwere ebumnuche na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu. Ha na-enye nhọrọ nke obere oge na nke ọkara. Ha na-enye gị ohere ị bụrụ onye otu ogologo oge nke obodo. Ndị nwere mmasị ịghọ ndị otu na-aga usoro nke nwere myirịta dị iche na usoro ọhụụ na iwu okpukpe.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Enweela nsogbu ndị dị n'ime Koinonia Farm, mana ka ọ dị ugbu a, ihe ịma aka kasịnụ bụ ime ihe ike, ịgba nkịtị, na esemokwu ndị ọzọ n'oge Oge Ọha. Ugbo ala nke ugbo ala Koinonia gbara ogbunigwe, ndi obodo a agaghi azuta akwa Koinonia Ugbo ma obu ihe ndi ozo, ndi mmadu si n’ime obodo ga na-anya ugbo ala site na igba egbe na ugbo. N'ụzọ dị ịtụnanya, ọ dịghị onye ọ bụla e gburu n'oge ọgba aghara a. A kpọbatara ndị òtù Koinonia Farm n'ụlọ ikpe na ebubo ụgha, gụnyere ebubo nke ịbụ ndị Kọmunist, a na-amaja ụmụ ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ n'ihi njikọ ha na Koinonia Farm (K'Meyer 1997).

N'ime afọ 1950, enwere esemokwu dị n'etiti ndị otu Koinonia nke gbadoro gburugburu Clarence na Florence Jordan. Clarence Jordan na-agakarị na-ekwu okwu, ndị otu ndị ọzọ lere Florence anya dị ka onye nwere oke mmụọ na onye na-enweghị uche obodo. Site na nzukọ na mkparịta ụka, ndị otu ahụ doziri nsogbu a (Coble 2002).

N’afọ ndị 1990, enwere mkpirisi dị mkpirikpi nke nchụpụ ego nke mere ka onye ọrụ ọhụrụ, David Castle, gogo.

References

Barnette, Henlee H. 1992. Clarence Jordan: Dreamgbanwe Nrọ ka ọ bụrụ Omume. Macon, GA: Akwụkwọ Smyth & Helwys.

Coble, Ann Louise. 2002. Ihe mgbochi owu maka alaeze: Ihe ngosi nke Clarence Jordan na Koinonia Farm . Scottdale, PA: Herald Pịa.

Coble, Ann Louise. 1999. "Atụmatụ Ngosipụta maka Alaeze Chineke": Ugbo Koinonia dị ka Clarence Jordan's Incarnated Interpretation of the New Testament. Ph.D. Ntughari. Mahadum Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Okwute Patch Gospel. 1988. Nkiri.

Fuller, Millard, na Diane Scott. 1980. Lovehụnanya na nkwonkwo ngwa agha: Akụkọ banyere ebe obibi maka mmadụ. Chicago: Association Pịa.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1972. Umi nke Okwukwe na Okpukpe Ozi Okpu ndi ozo nke Clarence Jordan dere, nke Dallas Lee dezigharịrị. New York: Association Pịa.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1970. Akwụkwọ nke Cotton Patch nke ndị Hibru na akwụkwọ ozi ndị ọzọ. Clinton, NJ: Akwụkwọ Mmeri Ọhụrụ, Inc.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1970. Ckpụrụ nke Cotton Patch nke Matthew na John. Clinton, NJ: Akwụkwọ Mmeri Ọhụrụ, Inc.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1970. Okpukpo Odi nke akwukwo ozi nke Paul. Clinton, NJ: Akwụkwọ Mmeri Ọhụrụ, Inc.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1969. Lukekpụrụ nke Cotton Patch nke Luk na Ọrụ: Omume Jizọs na Ihe Ndị Mere. Clinton, NJ: Akwụkwọ Mmeri Ọhụrụ, Inc.

Jọdan, Clarence. 1952. Ukwọrọikọ ke Obot. Ndagwurugwu Forge, PA: Judson Press.

Jordan, Clarence, na Bill Lane Doulos. 1976. Owu Patch Ilu nke Nnwere Onwe. Scottdale, PA: Herald Pịa.

K'Meyer, Tracy Elaine. 1997. Esemokwu agbụrụ na Ndị Kraịst nọ na Postwar South: Akụkọ nke Ugbo Koinonia. Charlottesville, VA: Mahadum Press nke Virginia.

Lee, Dallas. 1971. Ihe Nleba Owu Owu: Akụkọ banyere Clarence Jordan na Koinonia Farm Experim (1942-1970). New York: Ndị mbipụta Harper na Row.

Snider, P. Joel. 1985. Ozi "Ozi Owu": Nkwupụta nke Clarence Jordan. Boston: Mahadum Press nke America, Inc ..

Trousdale, Ann M. 2015. Owu Patch Rebel: Akụkọ nke Clarence Jordan, gosipụtara Tracy Newton. Eugene, OR: Akwụkwọ edemede.

Weiner, Kay, ed. N'afọ 1992. Koinonia Chetara: Afọ Iri Afọ Iri. Amerịka, GA: Koinonia Partners.

Ụbọchị Post:
18 January 2016


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