Leah Hott David G. Bromley

James Randi Educational Foundation


JAMES RANDI EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION TIMELINE

1928: Randall James Hamilton Zwinge mụrụ na Toronto, Canada.

N'afọ ndị 1950: Randi dere otu kọlụm nke ịgụ kpakpando maka otu akwụkwọ akụkọ Montreal n'okpuru aha "Zo-ran."

1956: Randi mere anwansi Taa Gosi.

1960s: Randi rụrụ na klọb abalị na Japan na Philippines.

1970s: Randi nyere aka chọta Kọmitii maka Nchọpụta Sayensị nke Nkwupụta Paranormal (CSICOP).

1972: Randi kpughere Uri Geller na The Tonight Gosi.

1986: Randi kpughere onye mgbasa ozi televangelist Peter Popoff The Tonight Gosi.

1986: E nyere Randi onyinye John D. na Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.

1988: Randi lara ezumike nká.

1991: Uri Geller gbara akwụkwọ megide Randi na CSICOP.

1993: Eldon Byrd gbara akwụkwọ megide Randi.

1995: E nyere Randi nsọpụrụ dị omimi nke Dọkịta nke Akwụkwọ Ozi Humane na Mahadum Indianapolis.

1996: Randi tọrọ ntọala James Randi Foundation Foundation.

1996: E nyere Randi onyinye CSICOP na-asọpụrụ Skeptic Award.

2003: Nzukọ Amaz! Mbụ e mere na Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

2007: Randi natara Onyinye Achievement Life.

2010: Randi kwupụtara na ya bụ nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke.

2011: Randi duziri njem na Canada.

2012: Randi duziri njem nleta na Europe dum.

2013: Randi lụrụ di ma ọ bụ nwunye ya ọtụtụ afọ, Deyvi Pena.

2015: Randi lara ezumike nká site na ntọala ya na-ahapụ njikwa ọrụ na 2009.

2020 (October 21): James Randi nwụrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Na August 7, 1928, Randall James Hamilton Zwinge mụrụ na Toronto, Canada. Nke mbụ n'ime ụmụ atọ amụrụ Randall na Marie Alice Zwinge, ọ tụrụ naanị kilogram abụọ na ounce atọ mgbe amụrụ ya. Na-etolite na mpaghara Leaside na Toronto, Zwinge bụ onye ihere, mana nwatakịrị nwere ọgụgụ isi ma nwee ọgụgụ isi, na-atụle 168 na nyocha IQ ma na-echepụta ihe ọkụkụ mmapụta mgbe ọ dị afọ itoolu. Mgbe o debere ọkwa nke isii ruo nke asatọ na oge tupu "agụmakwụkwọ" agụmakwụkwọ, enyere ya ụlọ nyocha nke ụlọ akwụkwọ ọbá akwụkwọ. N'ebe ahụ, ọ kụziiri onwe ya ọtụtụ isiokwu, dị ka mgbakọ na mwepụ na ihe ndekọ ederede (Malmgren 1998: 5; Orwen 1986). Randall na-eleghara ụlọ akwụkwọ anya ugboro ugboro, n'otu n'ehihie ahụ, ọ gara ngosi site n'aka onye anwansi anwansi Harry Blackstone Sr. na Royal Alexandra aterlọ ihe nkiri dị na Toronto, nke ghọrọ ihe omume gbanwere ndụ nwata ahụ. N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na atọ, ụgbọ ala kụrụ Zwinge ka ọ na-agba ịnyịnya ígwè ya, na-agbaji ya azụ ma na-amanye ya ịnọ ọnwa iri na atọ na nkedo ahụ. N'oge ahụ, ọ mikpuru onwe ya na akwụkwọ anwansi ma mee usoro aghụghọ dị mfe na nchịkọta mkpọchi (Orwen 1986). Ọ tụgharịrị uche n'oge a nke ndụ ya, na-ekwu na "Ihe m ghọtara… bụ na ọ bụ ụmụaka ndị na-adabaghị na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na-aga anwansi" (Jaroff 2001: 2).

Zwinge malitere inwe mmasị dị ukwuu na anwansi na inwe obi abụọ n'oge ọ dị obere. Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise, mgbe ọ nụchara na a na-agwọ ọrịa n'ụzọ ọrụ ebube na chọọchị dị n'obodo, o kpebiri ịga ọrụ. N'oge njem ahụ, ọ ghọtara aghụghọ aghụghọ nke onye nkwusa jiri mee ihe, onye, ​​site n'enyemaka nke ndị na-enyere ya aka, nweta ozi gbasara ọrịa ndị bịara ya tupu “ọgwụgwọ” ahụ. Naanị ihe ha mere bụ ịgụrụ ndị na-ege ntị n’amaghị ama ihe na-arịa ha site ná mpempe akwụkwọ. N'ịbụ onye iwe na echiche nke iji anwansi duhie ndị mmadụ ikwere na a gwọọla ha n'ike mmụọ nsọ, Zwinge rịgoro n'elu ebe ahụ wee gakwuru onye nkwusa ahụ. E jidere ya ozugbo na ebubo nke ịkpaghasị nzukọ okpukpe ma kpụrụ ya gaa ọdụ ndị uwe ojii ebe "ọ vowedụrụ iyi na ọ ga-abụ ụbọchị ọ bụla ọ ga-alụ ọgụ megide ndị merụrụ nka ya" (Jaroff 2001: 2). N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe ihe a gasịrị, Zwinge na ezinụlọ ya kwagara Montreal ebe ọ nwetara ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ nyocha ule; otu o sila dị, ezi-na-ụlọ ahụ laghachiri Toronto n’afọ na-eso ya. Ọ gara ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị na Oakwood Collegiate Institute, mana ọ kwụsịrị mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asaa, a kọrọ na ọ jụrụ ịmecha nyocha ikpeazụ n'ihi na ọ "enweghị mmasị otu n'ime ajụjụ" (Orwen 1986). Mgbe ọ hapụsịrị ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, Zwinge sonyeere obere carnival nke o ji mee njem nlegharị anya na Ontario na Quebec maka oge ezumike abụọ dị ka Prince Ibis, onye na-agụ uche. Zwinge si ebe ahụ rụọ ụlọ ịgba egwu dị iche iche gafee Canada n'okpuru aha a na-akpọ "The Great Randall." Ọ bụ n'oge a ka Randall natara "ezumike" ya. Mgbe ha mechara ihe nkiri na Quebec City, ndị uwe ojii abụọ bịakwutere ya, jiri ọchị kwuo kpara ya aka ma gbaa ya aka ka o wepu onwe ya. N'ịbụ onye na-egwu egwu, Randall banyere n'otu akụkụ nke ndị uweojii wee si n'akụkụ nke ọzọ pụta site na njide a na-ekpuchi. Ndị ọrụ nche ahụ weghaara ante ahụ site n'ịkpọga ya n'ọdụ ndị uweojii ma gbaa ya aka ka ọ gbapụ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ ụlọ mkpọrọ, nke o mere. Otu akwụkwọ akụkọ dị na mpaghara na-agbaso akụkọ n'echi ya bụ "Ebe ndị dị egwu na Randi Escakes si n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Quebec," si otú ahụ na-enwetakwa akara ngosi nke aha ọma yana aha ọ ga-ebu ya na iri afọ ndị na-esonụ: "The Random Randi." Zwinge ga-agbanwe aha ya na James Randi n'oge na-adịghị anya (Orwen 1986; Jaroff 2001: 2).

Randi guzobere nnukwu ama ama dị ka onye na-ese ihe mgbapụ n'ime afọ iri na-esochi ya n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Quebec. N'etiti afọ ndị 1950 ọ pụtara na mmemme telivishọn CBS "Ọ bụ Ime Anwansi," n'oge nke ọ gbapụrụ n'aka onye na-agbatị agbatị ka ọ kwụsịtụrụ ụkwụ 110 ụkwụ karịa Broadway (Jaroff 2001). Mgbasa akụkọ ndị gbara ya gburugburu na arụmọrụ CBS mere ka ọ nwee ọkwa dị elu nke ọhụụ na-enweghị atụ na ọrụ ya. Ọ rụrụ na Taa Gosi na Febụwarị 7, 1956, ka nọ na-egwu mmiri na ọdọ mmiri a kpuchitere igbe maka nkeji 104, wee mebie ndekọ nke 94 nkeji nke Harry Houdini setịpụrụ ("James Randi" nd). Randi gara n'ihu ịme ọtụtụ ihe ngosi telivishọn yiri nke a n'ime afọ iri, na mgbakwunye na ide kọlụm ịgụ kpakpando na tabloid Montreal n'okpuru nom de plume "Zo-ran." Dabere na Randi, horoscopes a na-enwe kwa izu bụ mkpirisi sitere na ogidi ndị yiri ya bipụtara ọtụtụ afọ tupu ya agbakọta. Ọ tụrụ ya n'anya na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ ozi na-edegara akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ maka azịza ya, na-ekwu na ha ziri ezi. Ọ bụ mmeghachi omume ndị a dugara Randi ka, dị ka o kwuru, "'kwụba mkpa [ma] dobe ite ahụ," ebe ọ kpebiri na ndị kwere ekwe ga-anabata amụma ọ bụla nke onye na-azọrọ na ya nwere ikike karịrị nke mmadụ ( Dawkins 1998: 123).

Randi malitere njem na Philippines na Japan na njedebe 1950 na mmalite 1960s, na-eme na nkwari abalị dị iche iche ọzọ.
na-edozi na United States. Ọ kwadoro ọtụtụ mmemme redio na telivishọn n'ime afọ iri ndị ọzọ, gụnyere "The Amazing Randi Show" na ụlọ ọrụ redio New York na mmemme telivishọn ụmụaka "Wonderama" ("James Randi" nd). Na mbido afọ ndị 1970s, ọrụ Randi gbanwere n'ụzọ dị ukwuu mgbe ọ malitere nyocha ihe nkwupụta paranormal nke Uri Geller onye maara ama ama n'Izrel a ma ama n'ụwa. Geller mere ka otutu mmadu buru ndi mmadu site na ihichapu spoons na ime ihe di iche iche na-ekwu, na-ekwu na ihe di elu kariri ihe ndi Randi lere anya dika anwansi anwansi. Randi, tinyere ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị a ma ama na ndị nwere obi abụọ, tọrọ ntọala Kọmitii maka Nchọpụta Sayensị nke Nkwupụta Paranormal (CSICOP) na nzaghachi nke nkwenye zuru oke nke nkwupụta Uri Geller (CSICOP bụ aha Kọmitii maka Enyocha Ajụjụ na 2006). Randi malitere igosi na ihe ngosi telivishọn, na-egosi otu esi emetụta psychokinetic mmetụta nke Geller ji bụrụ onye ama ama na-eji aghụghọ ọhụụ dị mfe. Ọdịdị ihu ọha a dịgasị iche mere ka a nwekwuo ike izi ezi na izi ezi. Nnukwu ihe ọhụụ bịara na 1972 mgbe Randi jikọrọ aka na onye ngosi ihe nkiri Johnny Carson iji kpughee Uri Geller n'ihu ọha. E mere ndokwa ka Geller pụta ma gosipụta ikike uche ya na Tonight Show site na ịhọrọ nke ọma site na ọtụtụ ngwongwo ígwèjupụtara na mmiri. Randi kwupụtara na Geller ga-eji akọ jiri ụkwụ ya kụọ okpokoro ahụ oge ole na ole, na-eme mkpọmkpọ ebe niile mana nke dị arọ na mmiri na-aga. Ya mere, ọ gara nleta ahụ tupu ọbịbịa Geller ma tee ihe dị na ala nke mkpọ ahụ nke ga-eme ka ọ ghara ịmetụta obere mmegharị nke tebụl. N'ịpụta dịka ọ bụ na mberede, Geller kụrụ tebụl ahụ oge ole na ole na nkeji iri abụọ na abụọ n'ime arụmọrụ ya, kwupụtara na ọ na-arịa ọrịa na enweghị ike ịga n'ihu na ngosipụta ya (Malmgren 1998). Ọrụ Geller dara na mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, Randi bidoro ide akwụkwọ nke akpọrọ Eziokwu Banyere Uri Geller. Ihe omuma nke 1982 na akwado ihe Geller kwuru banyere ikike nke onwe ya. Geller gbara akwụkwọ nde iri na ise na Randi na CSICOP na 1991; agbanyeghị, a kagburu ebubo ndị ahụ megide nzukọ ahụ mgbe achọtara ihe Geller kwuru na-enweghị isi, e nyekwara ya iwu ịkwụ ezigbo ego ("James Randi" nd).

N'ime afọ iri na-esochi nkwupụta Uri Geller, Randi gara n'ihu na-ekwujọ arịrịọ paranormal na ndị nọ n'azụ ha, ma na-aga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ dị ka "The Amazing Randi," na-enwe ọ celebụ ọkwa ama dị ka onye anwansi na onye nwere obi abụọ. E buliri aha ya elu ọbụna na 1986 mgbe o kpughere nkwupụta televangelist Peter Popoff nke inye ike Chineke iji gwọọna-arịa ọrịa. Randi, na-amata otu ụzọ aghụghọ nke onye nkwusa ahụ gbaghaara mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise, mana n'ọtụtụ buru ibu, setịpụrụ atụmatụ akọwapụtara nke ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo mere dịka ndị otu na-ege ntị na-arịa ọrịa. N'oge na-adịghị anya, Randi chọpụtara na nwunye Popoff, Elizabeth, na-ebu ngwaọrụ mgbasa ozi na akpa ya, ga-agakwuru ndị na-ege ntị tupu ọrụ ahụ amalite ma kparịta ụka dị ka mkparịta ụka nkịtị. Ka ọ na-agwa ndị bịara okwu ahụ, inweta aha ha, adreesị ụlọ ha, na ọtụtụ ihe kpatara ịga ọrụ ahụ, Peter nọdụrụ na azụ ma depụta ozi ahụ. N'ime ngosi a niile, Elizabet ga-eduzi Peter, onye yiara onye na-anabata ya na ntị ya, gakwuru ndị otu ya na ha kwurula okwu. Ndị otu Randi, nke ejiri onyunyo na igwe elekere redio, nwere ike ịdekọ mkparịta ụka ndị a n'etiti Elizabet na di ya n'oge ngosi ahụ. Randi mere ka ọha na eze pụta na Eprel 22, 1986 na Tonight Show na Johnny Carson, n'oge ọ na-egwu otu akụkụ nke ọrụ Popoff n'akụkụ akụkụ nke ndekọ ederede, na-ekpughe etu okwu Pita na mmegharị ya si kwekọọ na ntuziaka Elizabeth. Mgbe ekpughere ya, Popoff rụrụ ụka n'ihe Randi chọpụtara, na-ekwu na a ga-echepụta ya kpamkpam. Agbanyeghị, onyinye enyere na ozi ya dara nnukwu ala, ọ mechara kwupụta enweghị ego (Dart 1986; Malmgren 1998; Jaroff 2001).

Dị ka ọrụ nke psychics, ndị na-agụ kpakpando, ndị na-agwọ ọrịa okwukwe, na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ na-enwe mmetụta dị iche iche nke onwe ha bụ nke Randi kwụsịrị, ọrụ ya na ama ama ya. N'afọ ndị ahụ dị ka mgbasa ozi Peter Popoff, e nyere Randi a mkpakọrịta site na John D. na Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation maka ihe ndị ọ na-eme na nkwupụta nkwupụta nke paranormal. Ọ natara onyinye nke $ 272,000 iji nyere aka na ọrụ ọzọ. Otú ọ dị, ọ hụwo n'ọtụtụ oge na ọnụ ọgụgụ ka ukwuu nke ego enyemaka ya nọrọ na-agbachitere onwe ya n'ọtụtụ ikpe, gụnyere nke Uri Geller gbara ("About James Randi" nd; Jaroff 2001). Ka o sina dị, Randi nwetara ọtụtụ onyinye na nsọpụrụ ndị ọzọ na ọkara nke ikpeazụ nke 1980s na 1990s, gụnyere mkpakọrịta nke Academy nke Magical Arts & Sciences dị na Los Angeles mepụtara n'aha ya maka ichebe anwansi dị ka ụdị ntụrụndụ kama aghụghọ. Na njedebe nke 1980s, ọ lara ezumike nká. N’afọ 1995, enwetara ya akara ugo mmụta dị elu na Dọkịta nke Humane Letters na Mahadum Indianapolis. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịla anya ọpụrụiche na otu ahụ o nyeere aka chọta, na 1996 Kọmitii maka Nyocha Sayensị nke Nkwupụta nke Paranormal nyere Randi Onyinye Skeptic Na-ahụ Anya. N'afọ ahụ, ọ tọrọ ntọala nzukọ ọhụrụ nke ọ ga - esi nwee ike ịga n'ihu n'ọrụ ya, nke ọ kpọrọ James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) nke ọ gafere na - arụ ọrụ ("About James Randi" nd; "James Randi" nd).

N'ime afọ ndị 1990 na n'ime narị afọ iri ọhụrụ, Randi dere ọtụtụ akwụkwọ, gaa ọtụtụ ebe, na-apụta n'ihe ngosi na-ekwu okwu ma na-ekwu okwu na nzukọ, wee nata ọtụtụ onyinye a na-akwanyere ùgwù, gụnyere Onyinye Arụ Ọrụ Ndụ na 2007. Ọ bụ ezie na obere ndụ nke aka ya gafere nke ahụ. Banyere ọrụ ya ka edere, ajụjụ ndị metụtara ọnọdụ alụmdi na nwunye nke Randi ebulitewo ugboro ugboro n'oge ọrụ ya. Ọ mara ọkwa mmekorita nwoke na nwanyị na 2010, mgbe ọ dị afọ 81, na mgbasa ozi isiokwu ya bụ "How To Say It?" na ya blog, Swift, na-ekwu na “ọbịbịa” ya igbu oge n'ihi na o toro n'ebe ọdịbendị na-emegide idina ụdị onwe. Ọzọkwa, ọ kwadoro mkpebi ya ime ka mmekọahụ ya pụta n'ihu ọha na nso nso a ka ọ hụrụ ihe nkiri akụkọ ndụ na ndụ nke Harvey Milk (Randi 2010). Randi lụrụ onye ya na ya biri ogologo oge, omenka Devyi Pena (aha ọmụmụ: Deyvi Orangel Peña Arteaga), nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke nwoke kwuru na ya gbapụrụ na Venezuela na ihu ọnwụ ọnwụ na 2013 ("Randi nwetara di" 2013; Fox 2020).

James Randi lara ezumike nká na ntọala ya na 2015 mgbe ọ kwụsịrị ịchịkwa njikwa ya na 2009. Ọ nwụrụ na October 21, 2020 (Fox 2020; "Canadian magician" 2020; "" James Randi na Memoriam 2020 ")

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ozi James Randi nke nkwuputa na-ekwu banyere ihe ndi ozo na-adabere na nkwenye ya na ekwesiri iji anwansi mee ihe dika udiri obi uto, karia uzo iji rite uru ma obu nduhie. Randi akọwapụta anwansi dị ka ụdị nka nke nghọta siri ike dị n'etiti ndị dibịa anwansi na ndị na-ege ntị na nsonaazụ nke onye dibịa afa bụ aghụghọ, ma ọ bụ echiche efu, na ọ nweghị ihe ọ bụla na-eme na mbara igwe (Malmgren 1997). O tinyela nnukwu akụkụ nke ndụ ya iji mezuo nkwa o kwere mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise iji gbaghaa ndị mebiri nka ya site na iji ya weghachite ihe ọ kwenyere bụ nkwupụta ụgha na-enweghị isi. Dika o kwusiri ike na akwukwo banyere ndu ya na oru ya, Onye Ugha Bu Eziokwu (Fox 2020):

Ndị mmadụ na-ezuru ego n'aka ọha mmadụ, na-aghọ aghụghọ ma na-agwa ha ihe ọmụma - nke ahụ bụ ụdị ihe m na-alụ ọgụ n'oge ndụ m niile, "ka o kwuru na akwụkwọ akụkọ 2014 bụ" Ezigbo Onye argha, "nke Tyler Measom na Justin Weinstein duziri. . “Ndị dibịa afa bụ ndị kacha akwụwa aka ọtọ n’ụwa: Ha na-agwa gị na ha ga-arafu gị, ha emee ya.

Otú ọ dị, ọ na-egosi ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụdị mmadụ abụọ na-azọrọ na ha nwere ikike paranormal: ndị ma ụma mee ya wee maa ikpe aghụghọ aghụghọ, na ndị kwenyere n'ezie na ha nwere onyinye, ma ọ bụ "ndị aka ha dị ọcha." Randi egosila na ya achọghị ịkatọ ọkwa nke ikpeazụ a, na-ekwupụta “nye m onye faker, nye m onye pụtara n’ihu ma na-agha ụgha, onye na-anwa iduhie m, iduhie m, ma ọ bụ iduhie onye ọ bụla ọzọ… Biko enyena mụ onwe m bụ onye aka ya dị ọcha nke kwenyere n'ezie na ha nwere ike. Ha bụ ndị siri ike ijikwa; ezi onye kwere ekwe bu onye iro di egwu, ma ndi isi m nwere ike ijikwa ”(Randi 2005).

Ọ bụghị nanị na Randi agbasawo n'echiche na omume ya banyere ndị ọ na-achọ ikpughe, kamakwa nkwenkwe ya banyere ndị tụkwasịrị obi na ndị mmụọ, ndị na-agụ kpakpando, ndị na-efere ngaji, na ndị na-agwọ okwukwe ọ na-enyocha. Ọ na-azọrọ na ụfọdụ ndị nwere mmasị na-enweghị atụ na ịchọ azịza nke sayensị na-enweghị ike ịnye iji nye echiche nke nchekwa na iwu maka enweghị ntụkwasị obi nke ndụ. Ọzọkwa, ọ na-ekwu na ndị na-eji anwansi aghọgbu ndị mmadụ na-egbo mkpa ndị a na ụjọ na-atụ ndị mmadụ, ụfọdụ na-adịkarị mfe karịa ndị ọzọ. Randi na-ekwu na ọbụlagodi mgbe amụma nke uche na-ezighi ezi oge ka ukwuu ma enwere ọtụtụ ihe akaebe megide izi ezi ya, onye nwere ike ịchefu mmejọ ma bulie okwu ole na ole ziri ezi ma ọ bụ amụma. O kwuru na ụfọdụ ihe na-esiri ndị mmadụ ike taa ikwere na nkwupụta nke paranormal bụ mgbasawanye nke teknụzụ na "'nnweta ihe nzuzu,'" na-atụ aro na site na ọtụtụ ụdị nke ọdịdị a dị mfe, ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịkwa emo ihe ha chọta ihe na-adịghị mma na ezi uche (Cohen 2001). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, Randi jikọtara nkọwa ọ bụla na mkpa ọ dị ka ọtụtụ mmadụ kwenyere na ihe karịrị ike mmadụ, otu ụdị nke ọ gụnyere okpukpe, na-ekwu na "nnabata ya bụ otu ụdị nnabata nke ịgụ kpakpando, ESP, amụma, dowsing, na ọtụtụ nkwenkwe ndị ọzọ dị iche anyị na-ejikwa ebe a kwa ụbọchị ”(Randi 2003).

NKWUKWU / AHỤMỤTA NA NKWUO

N'etiti 1970s, James Randi nyere aka n'ịtọ ntọala nke Kọmitii maka Nyocha Ọmụmụ Sayensị nke Nkwupụta nke Paranormal
(CSICOP), otu nzukọ mere ka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị nyochaa azịza nke mmepe ahụ ma mee ka mmata na nkwenkwe nke azịza ndị dị otú a mụbaa. CSICOP, nke mechara ghọọ Kọmitii maka Nkà Mmụta Sayensị, gụnyere ndị òtù dị iche iche nke ọkachamara, gụnyere onye na-enyocha mbara igwe bụ Carl Sagan, bụ onye a ma ama bụ onye nkụzi Bill Nye, onye ọkà n'akparamàgwà mmadụ BF Skinner, na onye na-enweghị obi abụọ na nke ụwa bụ Paul Kurtz ("Banyere CSI" nd). Okposụkedi emi ẹkedọhọde enye, Randi ama ọwọrọ ke esop ke ama ekenyeneke ukem ye usụn̄. Mgbe o gosipụtara Uri Geller na ihe kpatara ikpe megide Randi, a dụrụ ya ọdụ ka ọ ghara ikwu banyere Geller dị ka ndị isi nke nzukọ ahụ na-achọ izere uwe abụrụ abụọ megide CSICOP, yana Randi n'onwe ya. Randi jụrụ ma kwụsị ọrụ ya; Otú ọ dị, ọ ka nọgidere na-enwe mmekọrịta chiri anya na nzukọ ("James Randi" nd).

Randi rụrụ ọrụ nke onwe ya rue 1996 mgbe o guzobere James Randi Educational Foundation mgbe ọ natara onyinye nke nde dollar abụọ site n'aka onye isi kọmpụta kọmpụta onye Randi jụrụ ịkọwa. A na-ekwu na ntọala ahụ nwere ihe karịrị narị atọ na ndị ọrụ mmadụ ise bụ ndị na-achọ "iji nyere ndị mmadụ aka ịgbachitere onwe ha site na nkwupụta paranormal na pseudoscientific" (Malmgren 1998; "About the Foundation" nd). JREF na-emezu ebumnuche ya n'ọtụtụ ụzọ dị iche iche, ọkachasị site na nkwupụta ịma aka n'otu n'otu, na-enye onyinye nke otu nde dollar nye onye ọ bụla nwere ike igosipụta ikike paranormal n'okpuru ọnọdụ ndị otu abụọ kwetara. Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ JREF na-enye ndepụta zuru ezu nke iwu asatọ maka itinye akwụkwọ ("Iwu Iwu" nd):

  1. Nke a bụ isi na nke kachasị mkpa n'ime iwu ndị a: Onye na-arịọ arịrịọ ga-ekwupụta n'ụzọ doro anya, n'ọdịnihu, na Onye na-arịọ ya na JREF aghaghị ikweta, ihe ike ma ọ bụ ikike ga-egosipụta, ókè nke ngosipụta ahụ a chọrọ ka oge, ọnọdụ na ndị ọzọ na-echegbu onwe ha, na ihe ga-abụ ma a nti na-adịghị mma nsonaazụ.
  2. Naanị mmezu nke arụmụka a na-ekwu na ya, n'ime nkwekọrịta a kwadoro, ga-anabata. Ejighị anabata akụkọ ma ọ bụ ihe ndekọ nke ihe omume gara aga.
  3. Onye na-arịọ arịrịọ kwenyere na ihe niile na ihe ndị dị n'akụkụ (foto, ederede, ederede, wdg) gbakọtara n'ihi usoro ule ahụ, usoro nkwekọrịta, na nyocha ahụ, nwere ike iji kpamkpam n'aka JREF.
  4. N'ọnọdụ niile, a ga-achọ Onye Na-achọ ka i mee Nlereanya Mbụ na ebe ebe onye nnọchiteanya ziri ezi nke JREF nwere ike ịga. Echere ule mbụ a iji chọpụta ma ọ bụrụ na Onye ahụ chọrọ ka ọ rụọ dịka e kwere ná nkwa n'oge ule Formal, site na iji usoro a kwadoro. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, onye ọ bụla na-ede akwụkwọ agafebeghị ule mbụ ahụ, ya mere, ọ dịghị akwụkwọ a na-enyocha. N'oge ọ bụla tupu ule Ụdị ahụ, JREF nwere ikikere ịkwado nkwekọrịta ahụ ọ bụrụ na achọtara nsogbu dị iche iche nke ga-egbochi nyocha nke ziri ezi na nke a na-achọghị iche. Mgbe nkwekọrịta ahụ ruru na usoro ahụ, ọ dịghị akụkụ nke usoro nyocha ahụ nwere ike gbanwee n'ụzọ ọ bụla na-enweghị nkwekọrịta a gbanwere, nke ndị niile na-echebara aka.
  5. Ego niile nke onye na-arịọ arịrịọ dịka njem, ebe obibi, akụrụngwa, ndị na-enyere aka, yana ụgwọ ndị ọzọ niile maka mmadụ ọ bụla ma ọ bụ usoro niile emere n'ịchụso Ihe ịma aka ahụ, bụ naanị ọrụ nke onye anamachọ ya. Ma JREF ma ọ bụ onye nnọchianya nke JREF agaghị eburu ụgwọ ọ bụla.
  6. Ngwa niile na akwụkwọ ozi ndị ọzọ ga-ehichapụ ma ọ bụ bipụta ya na kọmputa na Bekee. Ọ bụla nsụgharị Bekee ga-esonyere na asambodo nke iru eru nke onye nsụgharị.
  7. Na-esote ule na-agaraghị nke ọma ma ọ bụ ịjụ akwụkwọ ha, onye ahụ chọrọ ka echere ọnwa 12 tupu itinyeghachi ya ọzọ. Onye na-arịọ arịrịọ nwere ike ọ gaghị etinye ihe karịrị okpukpu abụọ.
  8. Site na ịnakwere Chama Aka a, onye na-arịọ arịrịọ na-agbaghara ebubo ọ bụla megide James Randi, JREF, ndị ọrụ JREF, ndị isi ọrụ, ndị isi, yana onye ọ bụla ọzọ. Nke a waiver gụnyere, mana ọnweghị oke, mmerụ ahụ, ihe ọghọm, na mmebi nke ụdị ọ bụla, gụnyere mmebi na / ma ọ bụ mfu nke anụ ahụ, nke mmetụta uche, ego, na / ma ọ bụ ọkachamara. N'agbanyeghị ihe ọ bụla ọzọ na paragraf a, ọ bụrụ na Onye Nkwupụta ahụ gafere Ule Nlereanya, Onye Nkwupụta ahụ anaghị agbagha ebubo ọ bụla megide JREF nke nwere ike ịdị mkpa iji kwado ịkwụ ụgwọ nke Nrite ahụ.

Na mgbakwunye na Ngwongwo Nde Nde Nri, nzukọ ahụ na-aga n'ihu na-ama aka na-akpata nsogbu dị nnọọ ka Randi nwere n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ya dịka onye nyocha nke sayensị, na-elekwasị anya na ndị mmadụ ma kwuo na ụlọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi kwadoro ya. Randi na ndị òtù JREF na-ekerịta ihe nchoputa na nyocha na n'ozuzu ha na-eme ka a mara banyere nkwenkwe sayensị site n'ikwu okwu na nzukọ gburugburu ụwa. Na 2011, Randi malitere njem nleta obodo na Canada ma soro njem nleta na Europe na afọ sochirinụ.

JREF kwadoro "obodo ndị nwere obi mgbagwoju anya" site n'ịhazi nzukọ nke ya, ihe ka mkpa bụ The Amaz! Ng Meeting, a ụbọchị atọ "ememe nke sayensị, enweghị obi abụọ na iche echiche siri ike" ("About the Foundation" nd) Nke izizi emere na 2003 na Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, ogbako ahụ dọtara igwe mmadụ buru ibu karịa ka a tụrụ anya ya ma kemgbe a na-eme ya kwa afọ ma ọ bụ kwa afọ na ọnọdụ dịgasị iche site na Los Vegas, na London, na Sydney, Australia. Na 2006, na nzaghachi maka ewu ewu nke nzukọ Amaz anọ gara aga, JREF mere Amaz! Adventure mbụ ya, nzukọ izu nke ndị nwere obi abụọ nke mere na njem ụgbọ mmiri site na Bermuda Triangle. JREF haziri njem anọ nke Amaz! Ngagharị na Alaska, Galapagos Islands, Mexico, na Caribbean ("Nzukọ Amaz! Ng").

N'ikpeazụ, James Randi Educational Foundation na-akwado ndị nkuzi, ụmụ akwụkwọ, na ndị nwere obi abụọ na-abịanụ site n'inye onyinye, agụmakwụkwọ, na usoro nkuzi maka iji kwalite echiche na-enweghị isi na ndị nwere obi abụọ n'etiti ndị nwere mmasị. A na-agba ndị òtù na ndị na-abụghị ndị òtù ume ka ha sonye na nnọkọ ntọala ahụ, onye ọbịa maka mkparịta ụka n'ịntanetị banyere isiokwu dịgasị iche iche site n'okpukpe, nkà ihe ọmụma, na paranormal na nka, akwụkwọ, na ihe ndị dị ugbu a.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

James Randi ezutewo mmegide site n'aka ndị ọ kpughere na ndị nkatọ. Ọ nwere n'ọtụtụ oge enwere ikpe megide ya n'oge ọrụ ya niile. Naanị Uri Geller amaara Randi aka na ikpe isii, na-ebo ya ebubo na ọ na-ekwusi okwu ike. Naanị otu n'ime ikpe ka a na-ama Randi ikpe n'ezie; otu o sila dị, a kpere ikpe ahụ na Japan ma maa ya ikpe maka obere ebubo "mkparị," nke anaghị amata n'ụlọ ikpe ndị na-abụghị Japan na China. N'ihi ya, ụlọ ikpe nyere Randi iwu ka ọ kwụọ naanị otu ụzọ n'ime ego nke Geller gbara, ha abụọ mechara biri na mpụga ụlọ ikpe (Randi 2007). Na 1991, Geller nwara ịgba akwụkwọ Randi na CSICOP mgbe Randi kwuchara na ike Geller nwere ikike dị iche iche nke anwansi na igbe ọka. CSICOP kwusiri ike na ebe Randi tinyere aka na nzukọ ahụ dịka onye guzobere ya, ọ bụghị ya kpatara okwu ya. N'ikpe ikpe ahụ, ụlọ ikpe ahụ kwenyere na CSICOP wee nye Geller iwu ka ọ kwụọ ụgwọ maka nzukọ ahụ. Randi na Geller doziri esemokwu ha na mpụga ụlọ ikpe, na-enwe nkwekọrịta nke ọ nweghị onye ọ bụla gosipụtara ("Uri Geller Libel Suit Dismissed" 1994).

Randi na JREF na-anata ozi ịkpọasị mgbe niile, ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ha sitere na ụmụazụ nke ndị ha lekwasịrị anya. Mgbe o kpughere Peter Popoff, Popoff kwenyere ebubo ahụ nke ọma, na-ebo Randi ebubo na ọ wakporo ọrụ Chineke. Otú ọ dị, o mesịrị kweta na ya na nwunye ya kwurịtara okwu na ngosi ahụ ma jiri kaadị ekpere na ụzọ ndị ọzọ iji kpokọta ozi gbasara ndị na-ege ntị tupu oge eruo, mana o kwudosiri ike ya izi ozi Chineke ma nyefee ikike ịgwọ ọrịa nke Chineke (Dart 1986).

Ọzọkwa, a katọrọ Randi n'ihi enweghị nkuzi sayensị ya, ya mere, nkwenye nke nkwupụta ya. Ya na ndị ọzọ
agbachitere ebubo ndị a site n'ịkọwapụta na n'agbanyeghị na ọ anataghị ọzụzụ ọ bụla gbasara sayensị, na ọ naghị eme dị ka onye sayensị. Kama nke ahụ, ọ maara nghọta dị ukwuu banyere anwansi na otu esi eme anwansi, nke bụ ihe ndabere maka imirikiti nyocha ya. Dị ka Leon Jaroff, enyi nke Randi na onye bụbu onye otu CSICOP, kwuru, Randi “a zụrụ ya na nka nke aghụghọ… Ọ maara ihe ọ ga - achọ mgbe ọ na - enyocha aghụghọ” (Malmgren 1998). Randi kwetakwara na ya enweghị ike iji nlezianya nyochaa nkwupụta niile na-abụghị nke ọchịchị ya, na-ekwupụta na nyocha niile nke paranormal, "JREF nwere ike ịjụ ndị ọkachamara, gụnyere ndị ọnụ ọgụgụ, ndị anwansi, na ndị ọzọ nwere ihe ọmụma pụrụ iche dị mkpa maka nkwupụta ahụ ”(“ Ọnọdụ nke Ihe Chama Aka Otu Nde Dollar ”nd).

Agbanyeghị, ọ bụghị ebubo niile metụtara ọrụ Randi ozugbo. N'ezie, ọtụtụ ebubo a na-ebo Randi nwere "ọgụ onwe onye na agwa [ya]" (Malmgren 1998). Na 1993, Eldon Byrd, onye ọkammụta na enyi Uri Geller, kwuturu okwu nkwutọ, nkwutọ, na mwakpo nke ebubo nzuzo megide Randi maka ịkpọ ya "onye na-emetọ ụmụaka" n'isiokwu akwụkwọ akụkọ. Byrd, onye kwuputara na ya enwela nsogbu mmụọ site na nkọwa a, anwụchiri afọ iri tupu mgbe ahụ maka inwe ihe nkiri ụmụaka, mana enweghị ebubo ma ọ bụ maa ya ikpe na-emetọ ụmụaka. Ndị juri kwadoro na Byrd; otu o sila dị, enyeghị Randi iwu ịkwụ ụgwọ mmebi ọ bụla.

A na-enyocha omume, okwu, na nkwenkwe nke Randi ma n'ime ụlọ ikpe na karịa. Onye ekwuputara na ekweghi na Chineke, Randi ekwuola otutu oge na egosiputa ekwenyeghi na nkwenye okpukpe di iche iche, karia ihe Akwukwo nso kwuru, bu nke akatọchara ya dika ihe ojoo. N'ihe edemede ya nke 2003 "Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I'm a Dedicated and Vociferous Bright," dị ka ihe atụ, ọ kwuru na ya na-eche na ọ bụ mmụọ na-eme ọpụpụ nke "onye na-amaghị nwoke nke East-East." otu ụdị ”nke mere ka a mụọ“ nwa nwoke nke pụrụ ịga ije n’elu mmiri, kpọlite ​​ndị nwụrụ anwụ, mee ka mmiri ghọọ mmanya, ma mee ka ogbe achịcha na azụ̀ baa ụba ”ka a ghara inwe ike ikwere na ya. Ọ gara n'ihu kwuo na edemede ahụ na okwukwe onwe ya dabere na "ịdị mma bụ isi" nke mmadụ karịa okpukpe na, yana, na nkwenkwe okpukpe nke aka ya kwesịrị iche na ọrụ ya, na-agọnahụ na James Randi Educational Foundation bụ atheistic / agnostic organization (Randi 2003).

N'ikpeazụ, Randi diri ntaramahụhụ ọbụlagodi site na obodo ndị nwere obi abụọ. Ebumnuche ya ịhapụ ụfọdụ ndị na-arụ ụka ụka bụ ndị na-achọ ka ndị na-ekwu na ha nwere ikike ime mmụọ ma ọ bụ nke mmụọ ekwubeghị ikpe ha. Maka otu a Randi bụ "onye na-enweghị obi abụọ," onye ịkwụ ụgwọ dị mkpa karịa nyocha enweghị nghọta (Truzzi 1987). Dị ka otu onye nkatọ si kwuo okwu ahụ: “Randi bịara dị ka onye na-emegbu mmadụ, na-achọ ịwakpo na ịkwa emo, dị njikere ị gbagọọ na ọbụnadị ịkọwapụta ihe akaebe - na nkenke, ụdị onye ga-eme ihe ọ bụla iji merie n'arụmụka, ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ ziri ezi pụtara ma ọ bụ ihe rụrụ arụ ”(Goodspeed 2004).

James Randi na ntọala ya nwere ihe mgbagwoju anya, nke e wuru onwe ya nke na-emetụta esemokwu esemokwu. Ọ bụ ọkachamara anwansi na, ọkachasị n'oge mmalite nke ọrụ ya, ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na - eme anwansi. Kemgbe ndụ ya, ọ na-emegide ojiji nke anwansi arụmọrụ dị ka ihe ndabere maka nkwupụta anwansi (paranormal, ike karịrị nke mmadụ). Ya onwe ya, ọ bụ onye ekweghị na Chineke ekweghị na ọ nwere obere uru maka okpukpe ahaziri. Randi na-egosikwa onwe ya dị ka onye nwere obi abụọ, ọkachasị n'okwu okpukpe ndị dabere na anwansi arụmọrụ. Ọ na-agbaso ụkpụrụ ahụ, nke ndị nwere obi abụọ na-ekwukarị, "Nkwupụta pụrụ iche chọrọ nnwale pụrụ iche" (Truzzi 1978: 11). Otú ọ dị, ọ gafere nkwenye na arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-akwụ ụgwọ iji nweta ikike / ike karịrị nke mmadụ. Ọ bụ nchịkọta ọnọdụ a mere ka ndị na-agwọ okpukpe na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya katọọ ya maka imejọ ndị isi ime mmụọ ha, site na ndị nwere obi abụọ maka ịbụ echiche nke na-eme ka onye nwere obi abụọ, yana ndị sayensị maka usoro aghụghọ-sayensị. N'agbanyeghị ọtụtụ nkatọ na esemokwu ndị a dịgasị iche iche, Randi chịrị na (Horowitz 2020). Dị ka o kwuru na N'ajụjụ ọnụ TIME magazin, "Ọ dịghị ihe nkedo, enweghị egwu, nwere ike ime ka m laghachi azụ n'ọrụ m họọrọ" (Jaroff 2001).

References

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Ụbọchị Post:
4 January 2014
update:
27 October 2020

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