Benjamin Zeller

ISKỌN

Oge ISKCON

1896: International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) onye guzobere Swami AC Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada mụrụ dị ka Abhay Charan De, na Calcutta, India.

1932: Prabhupada weputara site na guru ya Bhaktisiddhanta, na-aghọ onye na-eso ụzọ nke Krishna.

1936: Bhaktisiddhanta boro Prabhupada na ịgbasa nghọta Krishna na West.

1944: Prabhupada malitere ibipụta Azụ to Godhead, akwụkwọ Bekee.

1959: Prabhupada weghaara iwu sanyasa, buru onye mọnk ma rara onwe ya nye oge zuru oke iji gbasaa Krishna Consciousness.

1965: Prabhupada gara America.

1966: ISKCON hiwere na New York City; Prabhupada malitere ndị na-eso ụzọ mbụ ya; ISKCON ghọrọ akụkụ nke counterculture hippie.

1966-1968: ISKCON gbasaa na obodo ndị ọzọ dị na North America (San Francisco, Boston, Toronto, na Los Angeles) na ụwa niile (India, England, Germany, na France).

1968: Ndi otu ISKCON guzobere New Vrindaban, otu ime obodo na West Virginia nke mechara bụrụ isi iyi nke esemokwu.

1968-1969: Prabhupada zutere ndị otu Beatles; George Harrison ghọrọ onye na-eso ụzọ; ihe mmegharị nke Hare Krishna ghọrọ akụkụ nke egwu na ihe osise mara mma.

1970: E guzobere ISKCON Board Board Board (GBC) na Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (BBT).

1977: Prabhupada nwụrụ.

1977-1987: Usoro esemokwu nke esemokwu kpatara esemokwu na nnukwu mbibi nke ndị otu.

1984-1987: Mgbanwe mgbanwe malitere na ISKCON.

1985-1987: Obodo New Vrindaban kewara site na ISKCON; e boro ndị isi ebubo mpụ ya.

1987: GBC kwadoro ọnọdụ nke usoro mmezigharị

1991 E hibere ntọala ISKCON iji wulite àkwà mmiri na ndị Hindu kwabatara America.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Akụkọ banyere International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), nke a maara dị ka njem Hare Krishna, jikọtara ọnụ na akụkọ nke onye guzobere ya, onye nkuzi okpukpe (swami AC Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada. (Image na nri) A mụrụ Abhay Charan De, na Calcutta, India, onye bidoro n’ọdịnihu ISKCON ji anya ya hụ ọgbara ọhụrụ nke India na nsonazụ nke ọchịchị ndị Briten na-achị ya.tughari uche ya na akụkọ ihe mere eme gosiri na ọ masịrị ya nnukwu mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze, omenaala, na teknụzụ gbara ya gburugburu. dika enwere mmasị na ọdịnala ọdịnala nke ezinụlọ ya, okwukwe, na ọdịbendị ya (Zeller 2012: 73-81) .Dị ka akụkọ ndụ ya, Abhay toro n'ofe okporo ámá site n'ụlọ nsọ Vaishnava, òtù okpukpe Hindu raara nye ofufe Krishna. Ngalaba okpukpe Hindu Chaitanya (Gaudya) Vaishnava nke a na-eme n'ụlọ nsọ, nke ga-emesịa bụrụ ụdị Abhay Charan De nakweere na nke ọ ghọrọ onye nkwado kachasị ukwuu , bụ ụdị okpukpe Hindu na-efe nanị otu Chineke. Ọ na-ele Krishna anya dị ka ụdị Chineke kachasị elu nke na-eke ma na-akwado cosmos, na onye bụ Chineke na ụwa (Goswami 1980).

Dika nwatakiri nke nne na nna di elu, Abhay gara ulo akwukwo nke ndi Britain na kọleji, nweta nzere bachelọ, wee bụrụ onye na-eme ọgwụ na-arụ ọrụ maka ụlọ ọrụ ọgwụ. Ọ lụrụ nwanyị ma mụọ ụmụ, oge niile ọ na-aga n'ihu n'okpukpe onwe ya. Na 1922, ọ zutere swami na agbụrụ Chaitanya Vaishnava aha ya bụ Bhaktisiddhanta, na afọ iri ka nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ malitere nnabata site na Bhaktisiddhanta wee bụrụ onye na-eso ụzọ. Emere Abhay nsọpụrụ Bhaktivedanta n'ihi nkwenkwe okpukpe ya na nraranye ya. Bhaktisiddhanta boro onye na-eso ụzọ ya gụrụ akwụkwọ na-agbasa nghọta nke Krishna n'etiti ndị na-asụ Bekee (Knott 1986: 26-31).

Bhaktivedanta mere nke a, n'oge mbụ dị ka onye nwe ụlọ site na okwu ihu ọha na akwụkwọ akụkọ Bekee ọhụụ pụtara na 1944, Laghachi na isi. Mgbe ọ bịarutere America ihe karịrị afọ iri abụọ ka e mesịrị, Bhaktivedanta ga-amaliteghachi na Chineke, nke mechara bụrụ onye isi ọrụ nke ISKCON, isi akwụkwọ ya, na usoro edemede nke mmegharị ahụ si gbasaa onwe ya. Bhaktivedanta malitekwara ịsụgharị akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ Vaishnava dị nsọ n'asụsụ Bekee, ọkachasị Bhagavadgita na Bhagavata Purana.

N'ikwekọ n'ụkpụrụ okpukpe Hindu na ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta ndị India, na 1959 Bhaktivedanta were usoro okpukpe nke sanyasa, bụrụ onye mọnk ma hapụ ọrụ ezinụlọ ya. Mgbe ahụ, ọ raara onwe ya nye na mgbasa ozi oge niile nke Krishna na-atọ ntọala maka njem ya na Bekee na-asụ West. O mere nke a na 1965, na-abata na Boston wee hiwe ozi okpukpe na mpaghara bohemian nke Manhattan. N'ịchọta mmasị dị nta n'etiti ndị nọ n'etiti, Bhaktivedanta chọpụtara na ozi okpukpe ya bụ isi rịọrọ ndị otu counterculture bụ ndị jụrụ ndị na-eto eto America, ọdịbendị, na usoro okpukpe nke America (Rochford 1985). Bhaktivedanta raara onwe ya nye ka o zisa ozi na mpaghara a. Ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kpọrọ ya Prabhupada, nsọpụrụ nke Bhaktisiddhanta jikwa.

Prabhupada hiwere ISKCON na New York City na 1966. N’ime ọnwa ole na ole ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na ndị tụgharịrị malitere ịgbasa Krishna Consciousness na American hippie counterculture, buru ụzọ gaa San Francisco wee banye n’obodo ndị ọzọ dị na North America. N'ime afọ abụọ nke ntọala ISKCON, Prabhupada na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kụrụ ụlọ arụsị na North America na Europe, na-abanye na United Kingdom, Germany, France, na Canada, yana ịmepe ụzọ na India n'onwe ya. Ndi otu ISKCON guzobere otutu obodo ime obodo, nke amara nke oma bu New Vrindaban, na West Virginia. Imirikiti ndị otu ahụ bụ ndị na-eso ụzọ oge niile, na-arara onwe ha nye mgbasa Krishna Consciousness na ibi n'ụlọ nsọ na obodo. Fọdụ malitere ịlụ, Prabhupada gọzikwara alụmdi na nwunye ha. Nkewa n'etiti ndi nwe ulo na ndi otu ndi mọnk oge nile gha eme ka esemokwu di na nmegha ahu. N'oge a ISKCON batara n'etiti klas okike, yana George Harrison na John Lennon nke Beatles nwere mmasị na Hare Krishnas na nkà ihe ọmụma ha. [Foto dị n'aka nri] ISKCON aghọwo akụkụ a ma ama nke ịzụ ahịa ndị ntorobịa transatlantic nke njedebe 1960s na mmalite 1970s (Knott 1986).

Na 1970s, Prabhupada tọrọ ntọala maka nhazi nke ndu ya na-adọrọ adọrọ. Ọ tọrọ ntọala Commissionlọ Ọrụ Na-achị Isi (GBC) na Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (BBT), ụlọ ọrụ iwu abụọ a na-ebo ebubo maka ijikwa njem na edemede akwụkwọ nke onye guzobere. N'ime afọ asaa fọdụrụ tupu ọnwụ ya, Prabhupada nyere ikike ka ukwuu na GBC na BBT, ọ bụ ezie na onye guzobere na onye isi na-enweghị isi nke ISKCON ọ na-emekarị ihe n'adabereghị na ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na ọbụlagodi na-eduzi ha n'oge ụfọdụ. Ọ bụ ezie na Prabhupada gbalịrị ịkwado ndị otu GBC na BBT iji jikwaa mmegharị ahụ, ole na ole n'ime ndị òtù ya nwere ahụmịhe nlekọta ọ bụla na ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụ hippies countercultural naanị afọ ndị gara aga. Usoro ntuziaka na-emegiderịta onwe ha gbasara okpukperechi, n'adịghị ka ndị isi ọrụ, ikike kụrụ mkpụrụ nke esemokwu mgbe Prabhpada nwụsịrị (lee anya n'okpuru, Okwu / Nsogbu).

Afọ iri nke Swami AC Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada nwụsịrị na 1977 bụ nke esemokwu esemokwu. Ndị agha na-asọmpi n'ime ISKCON hụrụ ụzọ ọzọ maka njem ahụ, ọtụtụ n'ime ndị isi enweghị ike iche na uwe ahụ Prabhupada hapụrụ. Ọtụtụ ndị otu ISKCON'S GBC chọrọ ịtụgharị uche na ụdọ ndị mọnk dị n'etiti ọdịnala ahụ, na-elelị ma na-eleghara ndị nwe ụlọ na-arịwanye elu na-arịwanye elu. Nsogbu ego mere ka ụfọdụ ndị otu a kwenye atụmatụ aghụghọ na usoro iwu akwadoghị, ọtụtụ n'ime ndị okpukpe na-etinyekwa aka na mkparị metụtara mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ ọgwụ ọjọọ. Ọ bụ oge gbara ọchịchịrị maka ọtụtụ ndị otu ISKCON, na ngagharị ahụ wụsịrị ihe karịrị ọkara nke ndị na-eso ya n'ime afọ iri abụọ sochiri (Rochford 1985: 221-55; Rochford 2007: 1-16).

Mbibi dị na New Vrindaban (nyochara n'okpuru, n'okpuru Okwu / Ihe ịma aka), ọtụtụ esemokwu banyere ndị isi okpukpe, ọchịchị na-adịghị mma nke GBC, ebubo nke mmetọ ụmụaka na ụlọ akwụkwọ ISKCON, na ọtụtụ ndị akpọsara nke ọma sitere na amara site n'aka Prabhupada aka ndị na-anọchi anya ya rụpụtara afọ iri nke ọnụọgụ ọnụọgụ na ịchọ mkpụrụ obi site n'aka ndị otu egwuregwu Hare Krishna. Mgbanwe mgbanwe malitere ịpụta n'ime ISKCON n'oge etiti 1980 na-akpọ maka nlekọta ka mma, ụkpụrụ omume doro anya maka ndị isi, yana itinyekwu aka nke ndị nwe ụlọ na ụmụ nwanyị na ndu nke ISKCON. Na 1987, GBC kwadoro ọtụtụ atụmatụ nke mgbanwe mgbanwe ISKCON, n'etiti ha na-akagbu "zonal acharya system" nke mepụtara mpaghara mmekọrịta nke onye ọ bụla na-arụ ọrụ dịka ndị isi okpukpe na-enweghị nlekọta (Deadwyler 2004).

N'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ISKCON kwụsiri ike n'okpuru nduzi nke GBC ọkachamara na nke sara mbara karị, yana ụlọ nsọ nke ọ bụla nyere ndị mmadụ ike, ndị nwe ụlọ, na ezinụlọ kama ịtụkwasị obi na ndị mọnk. Fọdụ nsogbu ndị dị ugbu a na-eche ihu na njem Hare Krishna na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu bụ njikọ nke ISKCON na Hindu na-agbasawanye na ndị obodo Indian na-enwetakwa ọzụzụ na agụmakwụkwọ nke ndị otu na ọgbọ nke atọ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

The Hare Krishna ije ga-ghọtara dị ka a ụdị nke Itlọ akwụkwọ Chaitanya (Gaudya) nke Vaishnavism, ngalaba okpukpe nke okpukpe Hindu nke sitere na ngbanwe nke narị afọ nke iri na isii nke onye isi okpukpe Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1533). Dịka ọdịnala Vaishnava, IKSCON dara n'ime nnukwu ụlọ akwụkwọ atọ nke Hindu, na-elekwasị anya na nsọpụrụ nke Vishnu dị ka Chineke kachasị elu. [Foto dị n'aka nri] (schoolslọ akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ bụ Shaivism, na-efe Shiva, na Shaktism, na-asọpụrụ Shakti, nne nke Chukwu.) Okpukpe Hindu bụ ọdịnala dịgasị iche iche, na n'ihi na echiche Hindu dị ka okpukpe dị n'otu bụ ihe ọhụrụ na n'ọtụtụ ụzọ ndị mba ọzọ na nghọta nke onwe nke Hindu (okwu ahụ bụ ndị ndị Alakụba na ndị Kraịst na-etinye iwu ahụ na mbụ) onye nwere ike ịkọwapụta akụkọ ole na ole gbasara ọdịnala ahụ dum. Ndị Hindu na-anakwere nkwenkwe nke karma na ịlọ ụwa, echiche nke iwu na-achịkwa mmụọ (dharma), nkwenkwe n'ọtụtụ usoro okike na mbibi, ma kwenye na e nwere ọtụtụ ihe mgbaru ọsọ n'ime ndụ nke na-ejedebe n'ọchịchọ nke nghọta onwe onye na nnwere onwe ime mmụọ. (moksha) N'ụzọ dị oke mkpa, ndị Hindu kwenyere na chi ndị ahụ bụ mmadụ dị ka avatar iji rụzuo ọrụ dị nsọ n'ụwa. Nke kachasi elu bu avatars nke Vishnu, okachasi Krishna na Rama dika akowara na akuko ndi Hindu nke Mahabharata, nke Bhagavadgita bu akụkụ ya, Ramayana, na akwukwo ntinye nke Bhagavata Purana. Ndị Hindu jikwa isi ike nke guru, onye isi mmụọ nke na-ewe ndị na-eso ụzọ wee kuziere ha otu esi achọ mmezu na nzọpụta nke mmụọ. Nkwenkwe ndị Hindu bụ isi a na-agafe na Vaishnavism, ụlọ akwụkwọ Chaitanya, na ISKCON kpọmkwem (Frazier 2011).

Schoollọ akwụkwọ Chaitanya bụ akụkụ nke bhakti ma ọ bụ ụzọ ofufe nke okpukpe Hindu, ụzọ nke gafere ụlọ akwụkwọ dị iche iche nke omume Hindu ma bụrụkwa otu n'ime ụdị ndị Hindu kachasị ewu ewu. Ndị na-eme Bhakti hiwere isi n'okpukpe ha n'ịkwado nke Chineke ha họọrọ, na-efe Chineke site na ofufe, ekpere, abụ, ọrụ mmekọrịta na ọmụmụ ihe. Ndị otu bhakti dị iche iche bụ ndị a malitere dị ka ndị na-efe ofufe na-ekwekarị nkwa ịme ụzọ ofufe, gụnyere ọnụọgụ ekpere ma ọ bụ ụdị ofufe. N'ihe banyere ISKCON, ndị na-efe ofufe bidoro were aha Vaishnava ọhụrụ na-ekwu maka ọrụ Chukwu ha.

Ulo ndi Hare Krishna na ngalaba ndi ozo nke Chaitanya ọdịnala si n'ụdị Hindu ndị ọzọ dị iche iche wee ghọta nghọta nke Krishna dị ka ezigbo ọdịdị nke Chukwu, ma ọ bụ ụdị ịdị elu nke isi nke Chukwu (iji asụsụ a na-anụkarị n'ime mmegharị ahụ n'onwe ya). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Nke a na-agbanwe nkwenye ndị nkịtị nke ọtụtụ ndị Hindu kwenyere na Krishna bụ otu n'ime ọtụtụ avatar ma ọ bụ ọdịdị nke Vishnu. Dị ka onye Indologist na ọkachamara na ọdịnala Vaishnava Graham Schweig si kọwaa, “ndị Chaitanya na-ewere Krishna dị ka Onye kachasịnụ ukwuu karịa Chineke n'etiti isi chi nke onye Vishnu dị ebube ma dị ike si n'aka. A maara Krishna dị ka purnavatara, 'ọdịdị zuru oke nke chi' '(Schweig 2004: 17). N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, ndị otu Hare Krishna na-elegara Krishna anya dịka ọdịdị nke Chukwu na nke zuru oke yana ọdịdị dị iche nke Chineke bụ onye were ọdịdị na India oge ochie dị ka avatar. Ndị na-eso ụlọ akwụkwọ Chaitanya gosikwara na ha dị iche na ndị Hindu ndị ọzọ site na ịkọwa onye ahụ n'onwe ya, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, dị ka nnabata nke Krishna.

ISKCON ndị na-efe ofufe bụ otu ofufe, na-ekwenye na chi ndị ọzọ nke Hindu bụ naanị ndị nọ n'ọchịchị na-ejere Krishna ozi, ha na-efe Krishna n'ụdị dị iche iche ọ na-ewere. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, nkà mmụta okpukpe ISKCON ghotara na Krishna dị na njikọta ọnụọgụ abụọ nke Radha-Krishna, ebe Radha bụ nwanyị nwanyị na onye hụrụ nwoke Krishna n'anya, nwa ehi (gopi) nke na-egosipụta onye na-efe ya onwe ya ma ọ bụ onwe ya n'ịchọ mmekọrịta chiri anya na Chineke. Ndị na-efe ofufe na-asọpụrụ ndị avatars, ndị enyi, na ndị nsọ nsọ nke Krishna, dị ka Rama, Balaram, Chaitanya, na osisi basil dị nsọ (tulasi) nke ndị na-akwado ya kwenyere bụ ọdịdị nke ụwa nke otu n'ime ndị mmekọ Krishna na mpaghara ime mmụọ.

Otu n'ime akụkụ kachasị mkpa nke nkwenkwe ISKCON bụ isi ihe dị na echiche nke Vedas, ihe ọmụma Vedic, na Vedism. Prabhupada na ndị ọzọ zoro aka na ọdịnala ahụ dịka "sayensị Vedic" na chere Society ka ọ na-agbasa ụkpụrụ Vedic n'oge a. Vedas [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ ihe odide dị nsọ nke oge ochie nke India, mmalite, mkpakọrịta nwoke na nwanyị, yana mpaghara nke ndị ọkachamara, ndị ọkachamara, na ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-ese okwu. Dị ka ndị Hindu ndị ọzọ, ndị na-efe ofufe kwenyere na Vedas bụ ihe kacha mkpa nke dharma: eziokwu eziokwu na-adịghị agwụ agwụ nke ndị amamihe oge ochie dere ma na-egosi eziokwu bụ isi na iwu dị n'okpuru ụwa, nhazi ọha mmadụ, ebumnuche nke ibi ndụ, na ọdịdị nke Chineke ( Frazier 2011). ISKCON na-ele anya na corpus Vedic dị ka Puranas, Bhagavadgita, na isi mmalite ndị ọzọ, ebe ha ghọtara akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ndị a dịka akụkụ nke otu ọdịnala okpukpe na nke ederede dịka isi mmalite Vedic.

Prabhupada na ndị mbụ soro ụzọ ya mere ISKCON dị ka Vedic ma na-emegide ihe ha hụrụ dị ka ọdịbendị na ịchụ akụnụba ọdịda anyanwụ (na-abụghị Vedic), na-ejide mmụọ nke counterculture ma jikọta ya na echiche Prabhupada nke na-emegide ọchịchị ndị India. Fọdụ ihe nke ISKCON dị ugbu a na-ejigide ụzọ abụọ a dị iche iche nke na-ele ọha mmadụ anya dịka Vedic (ezigbo) vs. ndị na-abụghị Vedic (ọjọọ), mana ndị ọzọ so na ISKCON arụpụtala ezigbo ndụ ibi ndụ kwekọrọ na Vedas n'ime ndụ na West dị ugbu a.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ihe ndi ozo nke ISKCON bu ka itughari aha Chineke na udi mahamantra (nnukwu mantra): Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Rama Rama, Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mahamantra a ọ bụghị nanị na-enye njem ahụ aha ya na-edeghị aha ma ọ bụ aha a na-ahụkarị kamakwa ọ na-ejikọ ISKCON na mmepe mmụta okpukpe nke Chaitanya, bụ onye buru amụma na ọ ga-eme mgbanwe mgbanwe nke narị afọ nke iri na isii ya na abụ, yana Bhaktisiddhanta, bụ onye mesiri ịbụ abụ ike. . Chaitanya, Bhaktisiddhanta na Prabhupada niile kwusiri ike na ịbụ abụ abụghị naanị ihe na-atọ Chineke ụtọ ma na-arụ ọrụ nke mmụọ mana ọ dịkwa mfe ịme, enwere ebe niile, ma dabara maka oge a. Ndi otu ndi ISKCON bidoro kwere nkwa igba egwu iri na isii nke Hare Krishna mahamantra kwa ubochi, ebe uzo obula gunyere ugboro 108 nke mantra. Fọdụ ndị na-efe ofufe na-eme nke a n'ụlọ arụsị, ndị ọzọ n'ụlọ arụsị, ndị ọzọkwa n'ubi, ogige ntụrụndụ, ebe ọrụ, ma ọ bụ mgbe ha na-eme njem kwa ụbọchị. Ntkpọ egwu, yana ịgbaso ụkpụrụ nduzi (enweghị mmekọahụ rụrụ arụ, ihe ọ intoụxicụ na-egbu egbu, iri anụ, ma ọ bụ ịgba chaa chaa) bụ obi nke omume okpukpe na Krishna Consciousness (Bhaktivedanta 1977).

Prabhupada kwusiri ike nkesa akwụkwọ, na inye onyinye ma ọ bụ ire ere akwụkwọ bụ otu n'ime ụdị usoro okpukpe a na-ahụkarị na ISKCON n'èzí nke ịbụ abụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'oge mmalite nke mmegharị ISKCON ndị na-efe ofufe mere onwe ha aha na-ere akwụkwọ, magazin, na akwụkwọ nta n'okporo ámá, ogige ntụrụndụ, na, nke kachasị ama, ọdụ ụgbọ elu. Ebugharị njem ahụ maka omume ndị a na mmemme ọdịnala ama ama America dịka ụgbọ elu! na Ihe nkiri Muppet. Usoro ikpe nke ụlọ ikpe na 1980 amachiri ike ịme nkesa akwụkwọ na ebe ọha na eze. Site na nká nke mmegharị ahụ, ọrụ ọha na eze dịka nkesa akwụkwọ, ịgụ egwu, na ime nkwusa (nke a na-akpọ sankirtana) aghọwo ihe a na-ahụkarị.

Na-arịwanye elu, ndị òtù ISKCON na-ele anya na itinye aka n'okpukpe ha dị ka ndị na-adabere na ịga ụlọ nsọ kwa izu na-efe chi ofufe n'ebe ahụ. Ọ bụ ezie na ofufe ụlọ nsọ gbatịrị ụbọchị mbụ nke ngagharị ahụ, ọbịbịa nke ndị ọgbakọ na mgbanwe mgbanwe ọha mmadụ nke mere ka ọgbakọ wee bụrụ ụkpụrụ emeela ka izu ụka nke ụka na-etiti. Na United States, ebe ụkpụrụ Protestant mere gburugburu ebe obibi, ụlọ nsọ ISKCON na-efe ofufe kwa izu na Sọnde. N'oge ofufe chi na ụlọ arụsị, ndị na-efe Hare Krishna na-etinye aka n'ụdị ofufe (bhakti), gụnyere ijere Krishna (puja), na ilele Krishna (darshan). ISKCON na-agbaso ụkpụrụ Vaishnava na ụkpụrụ ofufe Hindu sara mbara yana obere obere mgbakwunye, dị ka ekele nye onye nchoputa ISKCON Swami AC Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada site na abụ na ekpere ndị a na-ekwu.

Ofufe temple na-ejedebe na nri a na-erikọ ọnụ, na nri ndị a, "oriri", dịka mgbasa ozi ISKCON kpọrọ ha kemgbe 1965, na-adọta ọtụtụ ndị bịara. O doro anya na ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị na-eri oriri na oriri ISKCON bụ ndị na-efe ofufe bụ ndị sonyere na ọrụ ụlọ nsọ, mana ndị otu Hare Krishna na-eji oriri ya eme ihe dị ka mgbalị mgbatị, na n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ndị na-achọ mmụọ, ụmụ akwụkwọ kọleji agụụ na-agụ, na ndị chọrọ ịmata ihe na-agakwa . Nri a na-enye nri bụ nri ime mmụọ (prasadam) nke enyerela Krishna, ndị na-akwado ya kwenyere na ịkwadebe, kesaa ma rie ya bụ omume mmụọ. Na mpụga ụlọ arụsị, ndị na-efe Krishna na-enye prasadam na saịtị sitere na ogige ọha na eze na ogige kọleji na n'okporo ámá obodo. Ndị na-eso ụzọ na-ele nkesa nke nri ime mmụọ dị ka ọ bụghị naanị omume okpukpe kamakwa otu ụdị nke ozioma yana ọdịmma ọha na eze na inye ndị agụụ na-agụ nri (Zeller 2012).

Kalenda okpukpe ISKCON jupụtara na ezumike ndị sitere na ebu ọnụ kwa izu ruo n'ememe ọnwa kwa ọnwa na ememme ndị ọzọ dị mkpa kwa afọ. Ememe ndị dị otú a na-echeta ọrụ nke Krishna, ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kacha nso, na ndị isi ndị isi nke usoro ISKCON, dị ka ọmụmụ na ọnwụ nke Chaitanya na Prabhupada. Ndị ISKCON na-eme ememme niile bụ isi na Hindu dị ka Holi, Navaratri na Divali, mana ha na-eme ya n'ụzọ na-egosi Krishna karịa chi ndị ọzọ Hindu. Ememe nke ezumike nke na-adabere na chi ndị ọzọ, dị ka Shivaratri, bụ okwu esemokwu n'etiti obodo ISKCON. Ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe sitere na Western enweghị mmasị na nsọpụrụ maka ihe ha na-ewere dị ka ndị chi, ọtụtụ ndị India mụrụ ofufe na-achọ isonye na akụkụ dị oke mkpa nke ọdịnala ọdịnala-ọdịnala ha.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Taa nzukọ ISKCON bụ nke etiti na mgbasa. Ejikọtara ya na ikike nke GBC, ụlọ ọrụ naanị nyere ikike na ikike n'okwu okpukpe nke International Society for Consishness Krishna. GBC na-ekpebi etu esi anakọta ma jiri ya mee ihe, nke ndị gurus ga-aga ebe mpaghara ụwa, ebe a ga-elekwasị anya na ịgbasa ozi ọma, yana otu esi azaghachi nsogbu na nsogbu ka ha na-eme. GBC nwere ikike ime mgbanwe liturgical, dịka ọmụmaatụ na-egbochi nsọpụrụ nke gurus na Prahbuphada naanị. Tinyere Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, nke na-ebiputa akwukwo, nkuzi, na ihe omuma nke mmeghari ahu, GBC bu ihe omuma nke ndi isi nke ISKCON na onye nchoputa Prabhupada.

Ma n'ụwa nile ụlọ nsọ ISKCON dị na mpaghara nwere nnukwu ohere banyere etu ha si eme ihe nke aka ha. Ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na obere ìgwè nke ndị na-efe ofufe akwadowo ụlọ nke ụlọ nsọ ọhụrụ, mmezigharị nke ndị agadi, na ịgha mkpụrụ nke obodo ọhụụ na-ezukọ n'ụlọ mmadụ ọ bụla ma ọ bụ ebe akwụ ụgwọ. Ndị ndu mpaghara na-ahụ maka ofufe, mmemme, na ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ na ụlọ arụsị, ma ha na-eme ya na mkpa obodo nke obodo ha. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-ekekọrịta ọrụ chi, ederede, na nkuzi n'ofe obodo ISKCON niile, ọdịiche dị ukwuu dị na ọnọdụ nke ọnọdụ na mmekọrịta nke ụlọ arụsị. Somefọdụ ụlọ nsọ na-ahụkarị maka ezinụlọ na ndị ọgbakọ, ndị ọzọ na-arịọ ndị na-achọ mmụọ ma ọ bụ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-eto eto. Somefọdụ ụlọ nsọ na-agbasa ozi ọma ma na-ezisa ozi ọma, ndị ọzọ bụ ebe a na-eme ihe omume na ọdịnala, ndị ọzọ na-arụkwa ọrụ dịka ụlọ nzukọ ofufe nke a na-eji eme ihe n'oge ofufe kwa izu.

Gurus ISKCON bụ ndị ndu etiti n'etiti GBC na ụlọ arụsị. Ọ bụ ezie na naanị Prabhupada rụrụ ọrụ dị ka guru, n'oge na-adịghị anya ọ nwụsịrị, ọdọ mmiri nke gurus gbasaa n'ụzọ na-enweghị oke na enweghị esemokwu, dị ka ekwuru n'okpuru ("Okwu / Ihe ịma Aka"). Gurus na-eje ozi dị ka ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ n'ime ISKCON, na-ebute ndị ọhụrụ, na-agọzi ma na-eme agbamakwụkwọ, ma na-enye nkuzi. Ihe niile GBC kwadoro ya ma mee ihe dika ochicho ya. Enweghi nkwekorita banyere onu ogugu ndi mmadu, na Rochford na-akuko "karia 80" site na 2005 (2007: 14), Squarcini na Fizzori huru iri asatọ na 1993 na iri asaa na 2001 (2004: 26, 80, dee 99), na William H. Deadwyler na-akọ iri ise na 2004 (Deadwyler 2004: 168). Ka o sina dị, ndị guru zuru oke na-emere ISKCON na ikike okpukpe dị n'etiti otu a mana ewepụtara ya na mpụga onye ọ bụla ma ọ bụ obere otu. Ruo n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, a na-etinye ndị gurus niile, ndị mọnk na-alụbeghị di ma ọ bụ nwunye bụ ndị raara ndụ ha nye naanị Krishna na ịgbasa Krishna Consciousness. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị bụ́ ndị nwe ụlọ abatawokwa n'usoro nke ndị isi ike.

Na ntọala nke ije ọtụtụ ndị ISKCON na-efe ofufe bụ ndị otu ọgbakọ, nke pụtara na ndị anaghị ebi n'ụlọ nsọ. Fọdụ na-esite na International Society for Krishna Consciousness ka ha tinyela aka na ofufe nke Krishna site na otu n'ime gurus. Ndị ọzọ bụ ndị na-amaghị ihe, ndị na-aga ofufe ma na-eme ụdị ofufe na ọrụ ụfọdụ mana amalitebeghị. Taa, ọtụtụ ndị nọ n’ọgbakọ lụrụ di na nwunye. Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ọgbakọ a (na ọtụtụ ndị otu nọ na ụfọdụ ụlọ nsọ North America na Britain) bụ ndị Hindu mụrụ India na-efe ofufe n'ụlọ arụsị ISKCON mana ha abụghị ndị otu ISKCON tupu ha akwaga West. Mgbanwe a ka ndị nwe ụlọ na-ekere òkè dị ka ndị ọgbakọ bụ otu n'ime mgbanwe dị ịrịba ama na ISKCON kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ. Ọkammụta Sociologist E. Burke Rochford, Jr. gosiri na n'afọ 1980, pacenti iri ise na atọ n'ime ndị na-efe ya nyochara anaghị alụọ di na nwunye ma pacenti iri asaa na atọ enweghị ụmụ. Site na 1991/1992, ọ bụ naanị pasent iri na ise na-alụbeghị di na pasent iri atọ enweghị ụmụ (1985: 62). Fedrico Squarcini na Eugenio Fizzotti na-atụle atụmatụ 7: 3 nke ndị nwe ụlọ ka ha ghara ịlụ nwanyị n'etiti obodo ndị ISKCON nke America (2004: 29).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Dị ka ọtụtụ okpukpe okpukpe ndị ọzọ, ISKCON echewo nsogbu nke ya ihu. Ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ndị a na-ebute nsogbu na-esite na ọnwụ nke onye na-adọrọ adọrọ, na ndị ọzọ na-adabere na mgbanwe igwe mmadụ na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya.

Ọnwụ nke Prabhupada gosipụtara nsogbu kachasị sie ike maka ISKCON na akụkọ mkpirikpi ya dị ka mmegharị. Onye ndu na-adọrọ adọrọ nke nwere arịrịọ nke nwere ike ịbịaru ọtụtụ ndị na-ege ntị, onye nchoputa hapụrụ nnukwu akpụkpọ ụkwụ na-agaghị ekwe omume mejupụta, ihe atụ dabara adaba ebe ọ bụ na ihe oyiyi nke akara ụkwụ Prabhupda bụ ihe ntinye ofufe na ụlọ nsọ ISKCON. Esemokwu dị n'ọchịchị onye na-esote ọwụwa anyanwụ bụ ihe dị mkpa ịghọta mmepe nke mmegharị Hare Krishna n'ime afọ iri atọ gara aga.

A ghaghi edeputa nyocha zuru oke nke ochichi nke ndi isi na ISKCON, obu ezie na otutu nyocha di nkenke (Rochford 2009; Deadwyler 2004). N'oge ndụ ya, Prabhupada jere ozi dị ka ọ bụghị naanị onye nchoputa na onye ndu nhazi, mana naanị guru na onye isi mmalite nke usoro ahụ. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị nke ndụ ya ọ họpụtara ndị ụkọchukwu nke na-anọchitere ya ozi (ritviks) ịmalite ndị na-eso ụzọ. Mgbe ọnwụ ya gasịrị, ndị a kwupụtara onwe ha gurus, “zonal acharyas,” nke ọ bụla na-eduga mpaghara mpaghara ụwa dịka naanị guru. Prabhupada enyekwara GBC ike (nke ndị gurus na-arụ ọrụ, ma ọ bụghị n'ọtụtụ ọrụ) BBT, na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ iji duzie ma duzie usoro ahụ. Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị gurus gosipụtara na ha enweghị ike iduzi, ma ọ bụ nke rụrụ arụ, nke na-adịghị mma, ma ọ bụ ha abụọ. Ndị Gurus na GBC batara na esemokwu na-arịwanye elu, rue mgbe GBC mechara kagbuo sistemu acharya zonal ma gbalịsie ike dị ka ikike kachasị elu nke usoro ahụ. GBC gbasaa ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ndị gurus iji belata ikike ha nwere n'otu n'otu ma lekwasị anya na Krishna Consciousness n'onwe ya karịa onye ozi ahụ.

O doro anya na ihe kachasị njọ n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ISKCON gụnyere otu ihe dara guru, na ebe a na-ekwu okwu mkparịta ụka agrarian, obodo New Vrindavan na mpụga Moundsville, West Virginia. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Na mbụ ebumnuche ije ozi dị ka obodo dị mma iji gosipụta nkwenkwe okpukpe, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ọdịnala nke ISKCON, onye ndu New Vrindavan ji nwayọ nwayọ pụọ n'echiche na ntuziaka nke usoro ndị ọzọ, na-ejedebe n'ịchụpụ nke obodo si ISKCON na 1988. Onye ndu ya, onye na-eso ụzọ oge mbụ nke Prabhupada nwere aha okpukpe nke Bhaktipada, chọrọ ịmebata ndị ụka okpukpe dị iche iche na nke doro anya na omume Ndị Kraịst, yana bulie onye isi obodo ya dịka Prabhupada na karịa ikike nke ndị GBC. Ka oge na-aga, e boro ọtụtụ ndị a ma ama n’obodo ahụ itinye aka na mpụ na mmebi iwu dị iche iche, gụnyere mmetọ ụmụaka, ị drugụ ọgwụ ọjọọ, ịzụ ahịa ngwa agha, na imesị gbuo A mara Bhaktipada ikpe nke ịchụpụ gọọmentị etiti ma maa ya ikpe n'ụlọ mkpọrọ. Ebufere ya na ISKCON, ọ nwụrụ na 2011. Mgbe ewepụsịrị ya na ike, ejiri nwayọọ nwayọọ weghachite obodo na ogige ISKCON (Rochford na Bailey 2006).

N'agbanyeghị nsogbu ndị a na esemokwu na-emeghe ka metụtara okwu ndu. Ihe ka n'ọnụ ọgụgụ n'ime ndị òtù ISKCON hapụrụ njem ahụ n'oge mgbanwe ndị isi, mana ụfọdụ n'ime ndị a amalitela obodo Vaishnava ndị ọzọ raara onwe ha nye nghọta Krishna mana ọ bụghị akụkụ dị mma nke ISKCON. Hare Krishna milieu a sara mbara karị na-agụnye mmegharị schismatic nke ndị isi na-ahapụ ma ọ bụ ndị a chụpụrụ na ISKCON, yana ndị sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke ndị Prabhupada (ndị na-eso ụzọ ibe Prabhupada nke guru Bhaktisiddhanta). Otu ọzọ alọghachila n'echiche nke ritviks, na-agbasa ọdịnala Hindu site n'ịjụ ịnabata ịga n'ihu nke usoro ndụ nke ndị gurus. Usoro a na-ele anya na ritviks ka ọ na-aga n'ihu na-eme dị ka ndị ozi Prabhupada, ma jide Prabhupada dị ka guru na-anabata ndị na-eso ụzọ ọhụụ ọbụna mgbe ọ nwụsịrị.

Ejikọtara na echiche nke ịgbanwe ndu, itinye aka na nsonye nke ụmụ nwoke na-abụghị celibate abụwo nnukwu nsogbu ISKCON. Prabhupada weere echiche dị oke mkpa banyere okike na ezinụlọ, na-egbochi ọkwá ndị isi nye ụmụ nwoke ma na-adụ ụmụ nwanyị ọdụ ka ha leba anya na mmezu okpukpe site na ido onwe ha n'okpuru ndị isi nwoke ma ọ bụ dịka ndị nne. Womenmụ nwanyị ndị sonyeere hụrụ ụzọ a dị mma na ọbụnadị (Palmer 1994), ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ oge ndị inyom na-efe ofufe na-agbagha mwepu ha site n'ọchịchị, nkuzi, na nlekọta anya (Lorenz 2004). Ndị nwoke nwe ụlọ na-abụghị ndị na-alụghị di na nwunye n'otu n'otu chọpụtakwara onwe ha dị ka ndị dara ọnụ n'ime ISKCON, nke na-elekarị ịlụ nwoke na nwanyị anya dị ka ezigbo okpukpe (Rochford 2007).

Isi ihe dị n'etiti ụmụ nwoke na-anọghị na-edu ndú na echiche na-ezighi ezi banyere ụmụ nwanyị, ụmụaka, ndị nwe ụlọ (ya bụ, ezinụlọ) rụpụtara usoro gurukula, ụdị ụlọ akwụkwọ okpukpe maka ụmụaka amụrụ na Krishna Consciousness. Ndị isi na-alụbeghị di na nwunye ahụ chọrọ ka usoro a nyere aka igbochi mgbakwunye ụmụaka na nne na nna ha ma nye ha ohere ilekwasị anya na Krishna bhakti, ndị gurukulas hapụkwara ndị nne na nna ka ha lekwasị anya na ọrụ ha na Society karịa ịzụlite ụmụaka. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ndị gurukula n'ozuzu ha dara ụmụ akwụkwọ ha, bụ ndị kọọrọ akụkọ ọjọọ. Ọtụtụ ikpe a ma ama nke mmeso ọjọọ, nleghara anya mpụ, na ọbụna mmetọ ụmụaka dugara n'usoro ikpe nke ụlọ ikpe na mmechi mmechi nke ọtụtụ gurukula s na mgbanwe nke ole na ole fọdụrụ (Deadwyler 2004).

Nwayọọ nwayọọ, ISKCON ewepụtala ohere maka itinyekwu aka nke ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ nwoke nwe ụlọ. Rochford gosipụtara mmepe a na ụkọ ọrụ n'ime ISKCON na mkpa ọ dị iji onyinye afọ ofufo ụmụ nwanyị (2007: 132-33). N’afọ 1998, a họpụtara otu nwanyị ije ozi na GBC, na ọtụtụ ụmụnwanyị abụrụla ndi isi oche temple (Rochford 2007: 136). N'otu oge, ndị isi ISKCON agaala na mpaghara South Asia ma nabata ndị nwe ụlọ ọgbakọ na-abụghị ndị bidoro dịka ndị otu na-eme njem ahụ. Ntinye aka dị otú a enyewo nkwụsi ike ego na nkwado ziri ezi na mmegharị ahụ, nke na-emewanye ka a mata ya na Hindu dị ka ụzọ isi wezuga echiche nke ISKCON dị ka usoro okpukpe ọhụrụ ma ọ bụ òtù nzuzo. Nkwupụta a nke ISKCON na-anọchite anya ọdịnihu nke mmegharị ahụ ka ndị Asia diasporic na-aghọ ọnụọgụ ọgụgụ nke ndị na-eme njem na ISKCON na-arịwanye elu na ndị India na-agbasakwa ma na-agbatịkwu okpukpe Hindu. A ghaghi ihu uzo ihe ndi mbu nke ISKCON, nke akara aka ndi American, ga-adigide n'ime usoro okpukpe a.

Foto
Image # 1: Foto nke Swami AC Bhaktivedanta Prabhupada.
Image # 2: George Harrison nọ ọdụ na otu ndị otu ISKCON.
Foto # 3: Onyonyo nke Vishnu.
Image # 4: Onyonyo nke Krishna.
Foto # 5: Foto nke Vedas.
Foto # 6: Otu ìgwè nke ndị na-efe ofufe na-agbanwe Hare Krishna.
Foto # 7: Onye ISKCON na-ekesa akwụkwọ.
Foto # 8: Obí nke Gold na New Vrindaban, West Virginia

References

Bhaktivedanta, Swami AC Prabhupada. 1977. Sayensị nke Nghọta Onwe Gị. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Akwụkwọ Ntụkwasị Obi.

Bryant, Edwin, na Maria Ekstrand, ndị ọzọ. 2004. Egwuregwu Hare Krishna: Ọnọdụ Postcharismatic nke Mgbanwe Okpukpe. New York: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press.

Deadwyler, William H. 2004. "Nhicha Houselọ na Nhicha Obi: Ndozigharị na Mmeghari ohuru na ISKCON." Pp. 149-69 mu Egwuregwu Hare Krishna: Ọnọdụ Postcharismatic nke Mgbanwe Okpukpe, nke Edwin Bryant na Maria Ekstrand dere. New York: Mahadum University nke Columbia.

Frazier, Jessica. 2011. Onye na-aga n'ihu na ọmụmụ Hindu. London: Bloomsbury

Goswami, Satsvarupa Dasa. 1980. Ndụ na Nkwadebe: India 1896-1965: A Biography nke Grace Chineke ya AC Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Akwụkwọ Ntụkwasị Obi.

Juda, J. Stillson. 1974. Hare Krishna na Counterculture. New York: Wiley.

Knott, Kim. N'afọ 1986. Onyenwe m di uto: Hare Krishna Movement. Wellingborough, UK: Aquarian.

Lorenz, Ekkehard. 2004. "Guru, Mayavadins, na Womenmụ nwanyị: cingchọpụta mmalite nke Nkwupụta Polemical Nkwupụta na Ọrụ nke AC Bhaktivedanta Swami." Pp. 112-28 n'ime Egwuregwu Hare Krishna: Ọnọdụ Postcharismatic nke Mgbanwe Okpukpe, nke Edwin Bryant na Maria Ekstrand dere. New York: Mahadum University nke Columbia.

Palmer, Susan J. 1994. Nwanyị Nwanyị, Ndị Nne Krishna, Ndị hụrụ Rajneesh: Ọrụ Women'smụ nwanyị na Okpukpe Ọhụrụ. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. 2009. "Nnọchi, Mgbanwe Okpukpe, na Schism na Hare Krishna Movement." Pp. 265-86 n'ime Okpukpe dị nsọ: Otu okpukpe si kee, nke James R. Lewis na Sarah M Lewis dere. Cambridge: Mahadum Cambridge University.

Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. 2007. Mgbanwe Hare Krishna. New York: New York University Press.

Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. 1985. Hare Krishna na America. New Brunswick: Mahadum Rutgers University.

Schweig, Graham M. 2004. "Krishna, chi chi chi." Pp. 13-30 n'ime Egwuregwu Hare Krishna: Ọnọdụ Postcharismatic nke Mgbanwe Okpukpe, nke Edwin Bryant na Maria Ekstrand dere. New York: Mahadum University nke Columbia.

Squarcini, Federico, na Eugenio Fizzotti. 2004. Hare Krishna. Salt Lake City: Akwụkwọ Mbinye aka.

Zeller, Benjamin E. 2012. "Usoro nri, Omenala, na mmekọrịta mmekọrịta mmadụ na Hare Krishna Movement." Pp. 681-702 na Akwụkwọ ntụziaka nke New Religions and Cultural Production, nke Carole M. Cusack na Alex Norman dere. Leiden: Ọhụụ.

Zeller, Benjamin E. 2010. Ndị amụma na Proton: Mmegharị Okpukpe Ọhụrụ na Sayensị na njedebe nke iri abụọ America. New York: New York University Press.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
27 August 2013

 

 

 

 

Share