David G. Bromley Ariel Chambers

Ala Nsọ

UBỌHY ND USA ỌR USA USA

1895 (March 27): John Baptist Greco mụrụ na Waterbury, CT. Esisịt ini ke enye ama akamana, ezinụlọ Greco kwagara n'obodo ha nke hometali.

Gbasara 1908: Ezinụlọ Greco laghachiri Waterbury. Greco gachara obere oge seminarị mgbe ọ gachara ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị. Ọ gara n'ihu gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Yale School of Law wee mepee omume na Waterbury.

1934: Greco guzobere otu isi nke ndị Katọlik na-eme mkpọsa maka Kraịst wee bido ikwusa ozi ọma na ala ọwụwa anyanwụ ọwụwa anyanwụ.

N'ihe dị ka afọ 1950: Greco hụrụ ebe a na-anọ akpachapụ anya na-enye Chineke.

1957: Ala Nsọ USA meghere ọha na eze.

N'afọ ndị 1960: Ala Nsọ USA malitere ịnabata ndị ọbịa 40,000 kwa afọ.

1984: Ala Nsọ USA mechiri ka ọha na eze.

1986 (March 12): Greco nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu. Ndi nwe ala di nsọ, USA nyefere n'aka ndi nwanyị nke Fillipini nke okpukpe.

2008 (June 18): E guzobere obe obe ụkwụ iri ise n'ogige ahụ.

2010: Chloe Ottman dị afọ iri na isii achọtara n'ike ma gbuo ya n'ogige a na-ejighi ya.

2013: Onye isi mmiri Waterbury bụ Neil O'Leary na Fred “Fritz” Blasius zụrụ ala ahụ bụbu Ala Nsọ USA site n’aka Smụnna Nwanyị Fillipini wee malite atụmatụ iweghachi ogige ahụ.

NTOUR / / AK /KỌ

John Baptist Greco mụrụ na March 27, 1895 na Waterbury, Connecticut site na ndị mbịambịa Italiantali Raffaela na Vincenzo Greco (Gannaway 2008). Ikekwe n'ihi nsogbu akụ na ụba na njedebe nke 1890, ezinụlọ Greco laghachiri Torelli dei Lombardi, Avellino na Southern Italy ma nọrọ ebe ahụ ruo mgbe ha laghachiri na Waterbury mgbe John dị afọ iri na atọ. Mgbe ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị, Greco gara obere oge seminarị na Mahadum Katọlik dị na Washington, DC mana ọ hapụrụ tupu ọ nata diplọma n'ihi ahụike. O mechara gụ akwụkwọ na Yale School of Law. Greco mepere omume na Waterbury na 1926, ebe ọ gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ. Ọ na-enyekarị ndị ọrụ immigrantstali ibe ha na ndị otu na-enweghị nsogbu obodo ahụ ọrụ na-adịghị akwụ ụgwọ (Bremer 2008). Onye na-ekpesi Katọlik ike, Greco guzobere otu isi nke ndị Katọlik na-eme mkpọsa maka Kraịst na 1934. Site na otu a, ọ na-agakarị obodo na obodo elu na mgbada ọwụwa anyanwụ na-ekerịta okwukwe Ndị Kraịst ya na ndị njem. Na mgbakwunye, Greco na-ekwukarị ma na-agụ rosary na ọdụ redio mpaghara (Bremer 2008). Site na ndụ Greco, ya na ezinụlọ ya bụ ndị otu nke Lady anyị nke Lourdes, ụka Katọlik nke e guzobere ijere ezinụlọ ndị sitere n'Italiantali nọ na Waterbury ozi.

Ná ngwụsị nke afọ ndị 1940 ruo ná mbido afọ ndị 1950, John Greco na enyi ya Anthony Coviello malitere ngagharị na mpaghara Waterbury iji “tinyeghachi Kraịst na Krismas” N'oge a, ya na Coviello na-arụ ụlọ nye obodo na mpaghara ndị agbata obi ya. Echiche ime mmụọ a abụghị ihe ọhụrụ. Dị ka Gannaway (2008: 30) si kwuo: “N’obodo Italytali, obodo ọ bụla nwere ndị senti nke ya na-eme. Na mba a ndị -tali-America kwanyeere ndị nsọ ùgwù site n’ichepụta ihe a kpụrụ akpụ, grotto, ihe ngosi ọmụmụ, na egwuri egwu dị iche iche ha gosipụtara n’ọha, n’ememe, nakwa n’ụlọ ha. ” Site na ahụmịhe ndị a, echiche maka Ala Nsọ Dị Nsọ n'ọdịnihu USA rutere Greco. O nwere ike ịbụ na mmụọ nsọ kpaliri ya ike ala dị nsọ site na sacri monti ortali ma ọ bụ "ugwu dị nsọ" ndị na-ewu ewu na beginningtali malite na narị afọ nke iri na isii, bụ ndị jere ozi dị ka ebe nsọ dị nsọ maka ndị njem ala nsọ enweghị ike ịme njem gaa Ala Nsọ n'onwe ya (Zielbauer 2001).

N’oge na-adịghị anya ka ọ tụchara echiche Ala Nsọ (nke akpọburu “Obodo Bethlehem”), Greco zụtara otu craggy nke dị ala iri na asaa a na-akpọ Pine Hill. Site n'enyemaka nke ndị enyi, ndị agbata obi, na ndị Katọlik Katọlik maka Christ lay group, iwu nnukwu obe pụtara iguzo n'elu ugwu malitere. Ejiri 32 ụkwụ "Peace Cross" ma rara ya na 1956. N'ime 1,000 ndị obodo bịara nraranye nke obe, onye ọkụ ya na-acha ọbara ọbara na-acha ọbara ọbara guzoro maka olile anya na ịdị n'otu na nzaghachi maka iyi egwu nke ndị Kọmunist. Ma ndị Katọlik Italiantali na ndị Irish sonyere na nzukọ obe, nke a na-adịghị ahụkebe na 1950s na Waterbury. Peace Cross gosipụtara obodo na-ezukọta iji sonyere ụkpụrụ America na nke Ndị Kraịst iji kwalite udo, ịha nhata na ikpe ziri ezi (Gannaway 2008).

Mgbe a raara Peace Cross nye, ọrụ malitere na ihe ga-abụ ihe na-adọrọ mmasị na Connecticut n'oge na-adịghị anya. N'iji ihe ndị e nyere n'onyinye ndị dị ka batht, akụrụngwa, na iberibe ọla, tinyere simenti, ụrọ, na brik, Greco na ọtụtụ narị ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo rụrụ ọrụ ná mgbede na ná ngwụsị izu iji chịkọta ihe osise nkà nke akụkọ Bible. Ọtụtụ mgbe, anyị na-echetakwa ụlọ arụsị ndị ahụ ndị America America wuru, ya bụ, dioramas ndị a na-ese onyinyo ebe dị ka ọmụmụ Kraịst, ịkpọgide n’obe, na ndụ na Jerusalem. N'ime atụmatụ ebe a, Greco na ndị otu ya jiri maapụ, Akwụkwọ Nsọ, na foto were mepụta nnọchi anya ziri ezi nke ihe mere eme na nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ. N'otu oge, Greco gara leta Ala Nsọ n'onwe ya wee weghachite ala na nkume iji gbakwunye ogige ahụ (Gannaway 2008).

Na December 11, 1958, Holy Land USA ka emepere ọha na eze n’aha “Obodo Betlehem” (Gannaway 2008). N’oge na-adịghị anya ọ ghọrọ ebe ndị ụka na ezinụlọ dị iche iche na-ewu ewu. Iji mee ka ndị na-ege ntị buru ibu ma rịọ ndị njem arịrịọ, e mepere ụlọ ahịa onyinye na ebe izu ike. Greco wụnyekwara nnukwu ihe ịrịba ama nke na-echetara nke nọ n'akụkụ ugwu Hollywood na-agụ “Ala Nsọ.” Mgbe ọ dị elu n’afọ ndị 1960, Ala Nsọ gosipụtara obere ụlọ 200 na saịtị iri asaa na asaa ya wee dọta elu nke Ndị ọbịa 40,000 kwa afọ (Waterbury Hall of Fame nd). Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Greco gara n'ihu na-eme iwu ma na-agagharị ndị ọbịa ọbịa na ogige ahụ. A bachelor na ndụ ya niile, o jiri oge ya niile tinye n'ọrụ maka nlekọta nke okike ya.

Ka John Baptist Greco malitere ịka nka, ndị dayọsis họpụtara ndị nọn abụọ ka ha nyere ya aka lekọta ogige ahụ. Ndị nọn ahụ, ndị bi n'ebe obibi ndị nọn nke ndị Nwanyị Nwanyị Fillipini dị na mpụga Ala Nsọ, mechara gaa nye ọrụ nlekọta Greco ka ahụike ya jụrụ.

Ka ọnọdụ anụ ahụ Greco dara, ogige ahụ wee banye na mmebi ma mechie ụzọ ya n'ihu ọha na 1984. Greco nwụrụ afọ abụọ ka nke a gasịrị wee chọọ Pine Hill na Holy Land nye ndị nwanyị. Emechiri ya kemgbe ahụ ma na-emebi kwa afọ.

N'ime iri afọ gara aga, enweela atụmatụ ole na ole iji weghachite ogige ahụ na ebube ya site n'okpukpe otu dị iche iche na ụmụ amaala chọrọ ịchekwa uru ọrụ nka ndị Ala Nsọ bara, mana ruo ugbu a, ọnweghị nke gbasoro ha. E dochiela obe nke nọ ọdụ n'elu Pine Hill ugboro abụọ, nke kachasị na-adịbeghị anya ka ewuru na Disemba 2013 (Wenzel na Konopka 2013). Nakwa na 2013, ala nke ụlọ mkpọmkpọ ebe nke ogige ahụ zụtara n'aka ndị Sista site n'aka onye isi obodo Waterbury na onye ọchụnta ego ya, ndị kwere nkwa weghachite ogige ahụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Achịkọtara ebumnobi e ji kee ogige a n’otu nkọwa dị n’ọnụ ụzọ ogige ahụ: “Otu ụmụ nwoke ndị raara onwe ha nye na-ewetara akụkọ banyere ndụ Kraist ndụ site na mgbe ọ bụ nwata rue obe - ọ bụ ekpere anyị ka oru ngo a ga - enye gi obi uto ka iwalite ima ihe omuma banyere akwukwo nke Chineke ma mee ka gi biaruo ya nso ”(Waterbury Hall of Fame nd). Ya mere, dị ka Greco si kwuo, "Anyị anaghị anwa ịgbanwe ndị mmadụ. Anyị na-anwa ime ka ha bịarukwuo Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst nso. Anyị na-anwa ịkpali ezi uche na nghọta ka mma. ”

Nkwenkwe Roman Katọlik John Baptist Greco ji echiche dị ukwuu mee ihe ngosi dị n'ime ihe ngosi n'ime Ala Nsọ. Ebumnuche mbụ nke ogige ahụ bụ ịkọwa Bible ka ndị na-ekweghị ekwe na Ndị Kraịst wee nwee nghọta ka mma banyere okwukwe ha. Ihe akara ndi Kraist, ufodu ndi nwere mmasi nye ndi Katoliki, buru ihe nlere na ogige ahu. Ndị a gụnyere Ogige Ubi nke Iden, Catacombs na-egosi Ndị Kraịst nwụrụ n’ihi okwukwe ha n’akụkọ ihe mere eme nile, Stations of the Cross, obí eze Herọd, Daniel n’ime olulu ọdụm, na Obodo Jerusalem.

Greco hụkwara ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha mmadụ dị ka akụkụ dị mkpa nke okwukwe Ndị Kraịst. Tupu imepe ogige ahụ, Greco na enyi ya Anthony Coviello so ndị ọrụ mgbasa ozi Katọlik nke Katọlik mee njem ngagharị Waterbury na ọkọlọtọ nke gụrụ "Segregation is Unamerican, Unchristian, and Ungodly," ngosipụta nke mmetụta ha na enweghị oke mmekọrịta nke 1950. Greco na ndị enyi iji mesie ịha nhatanha nke mmadụ niile ike site na ihe edere na mbadamba nkume. Otu n’ime okwute ahụ kwuru na “Anyị niile bụ Isi nke Kraịst. Ọ bụrụ na otu onye otu na-ata ahụhụ, anyị niile na-ata ahụhụ ”(Gannaway 2008).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

John Greco jere ozi dị ka onye nlekọta bụ isi nke ogige ahụ site na ntụgharị ya ruo na mmechi ndị ọrụ. Smụnna nwanyị Fillipini nwere
ogige na-akawanye njọ site na 1986 ruo 2013, ọ bụ ezie na ha emeghị ọtụtụ ihe na mweghachi n'oge a, ewezuga iwepụ ọtụtụ ihe onwunwe na ichekwa ha n'ime okpuru ala dị nso. Pine Hill na ihe fọdụrụ nke Holy Land ugbu a bụ nke onye isi mmiri Waterbury bụ Neil O'Leary na onye mmekọ Fred "Fritz" Blasius, ndị kwuputara atụmatụ iji weghachite ogige ahụ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ala Nsọ natara akwụkwọ akụkọ na-adịghị mma na 2008 mgbe achọtara ozu Chloe Ottman dị afọ iri na isii n'ogige ahụ. Ottman dinara n'ike ma gbuo ya na ala nke Peace Cross site na otu nwa okorobịa nọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị ya, bụ onye mechara kpee ikpe ma maa ya ikpe afọ iri ise na ise n'ụlọ mkpọrọ (Dempsey 2011).

Agbanyeghi na enwere mmasi na iweghachite ogige a kamgbe 'emechiri ya, enwebeghị otu ndi gbasoro ebumnuche ha n'ihu ọha. Ebe ọ bụ na enwetaghị ogige ahụ n'aka ndị omekome ugbu a, ndị ohi so na mbibi nke ogige ahụ, mebie ma mebie ọtụtụ ihe ngosi ahụ. Nature ewegharawokwa otutu ebe ka o buru ihe dika ihe mbu. Ọ bụ ezie na ogige ahụ na-anabata ndị ọbịa, ha ga-agagharịrịrị ihe ịrịba ama "enweghị ndahie" ma banye n'ihe egwu nke onwe ha. Ruo mgbe mweghachi ga-ewere ọnọdụ, Ala Nsọ ga-abụ ebe nlegharị anya na-adọrọ mmasị mmadụ ole na ole, na-atụ ụfọdụ n'anya, na ncheta na-atọ ụtọ banyere oge ndị ọzọ gara.

References

Bremer, Jennifer. 2008. "Ala Nsọ USA." Americanzọ American , Mgbụsị akwụkwọ, Pp. 46–48. Nweta site na http://www.flickr.com/photos/roadtripmemories/6030069312/in/set-72157603616821181/ na 17 March 2014.

Dempsey, Christine. 2011. "Waterbury Nwoke ikpe na 55 afọ na Holy Land Murder." Nkwado, June 17. Nweta site na http://articles.courant.com/2011-06-17/community/hc-waterbury-holy-land-sentenced-061820110617_1_chloe-ottman-francisco-cruz-friend na 17 March 2014.

Gannaway, Wayne. 2008. "njem uka na Waterbury." Akwụkwọ akụkọ Hog River, Summer. Nweta site na http://www.wku.edu/folkstudies/a_pilgrimage_to_waterbury.pdf na 17 March 2014.

Blọ Nzukọ nke Waterbury. nd “John Greco.” Blọ Nzukọ nke Waterbury. Nweta site na http://www.bronsonlibrary.org/filestorage/33/Greco2000.jpg na 17 March 2014.

Wenzel, Joseph na Konopka, Jill. 2013. "New Cross Wụnye na Ala Nsọ na Waterbury." WFSB, December 19. Nweta site na http://www.wfsb.com/story/24264956/new-cross-installed-at-holy-land-in-waterbury na 17 March 2014.

Zielbauer, Paul. 2001. “Ahụhụ nke Na-akpali Ambivalence; Mkpọmkpọ ebe nke Ogige Okpukpe Na-echere Ndị Mweghachi ma ọ bụ Bulldozer. ” The New York Times , November 12. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2002/11/12/nyregion/sight-that-inspires-ambivalence-ruins-religious-park-await-restorers-bulldozer.html na 17 March 2014.

Ụbọchị Post:
3 March 2014

 

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