Martha Bradley-Evans

Ndị isi edemede nke ụbọchị ikpe-azụ (1843-2002)

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1843 Joseph Smith kwupụtara mkpughe ya banyere alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ.

1862 Ndị omeiwu nke United States tinyere iwu Morrill Anti-Bigamy.

1882 Ndị omeiwu nke United States tinyere Iwu Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act.

1886 (Septemba 26-27) Ndị isi edemede kwuru na John Taylor natara mkpughe banyere ịga n'ihu alụmdi na nwunye di na nwunye mgbe ọ nọ n'okpuru ala.

1887 US Congress wepụtara Iwu Edmunds-Tucker.

1890 (October 6) Wilfred Woodruff kwupụtara ọkwa nke machibidoro ịlụ di na nwunye.

1904-07 A na-anụ ikpe na Senate US na oche nke Reed Smoot dị ka Senator si Utah.

1904 (Eprel 6) Joseph F. Smith nyere Iwu nke abụọ nke na-eyi egwu ịchụpụ ndị otu LDS ndị lụrụ di na nwunye.

Chọọchị LDS 1910 malitere amụma nke mkpochapụ maka ịlụ di na nwunye ọhụrụ.

1929-1933 Lorin C. Woolley mepụtara "Nzukọ Ọkwa Nchụ-aja."

1935 (Septemba 18) Lorin C. Woolley nwụrụ, Joseph Leslie Broadbent ghọrọ onye isi nke Council Council.

1935 Broadbent nwụrụ, na John Y. Barlow ghọrọ onye isi nke Council Council.

1935 eziokwu malitere ibipụta.

1941 Leroy S. Johnson na Marion Hammon bụ ndị John Y. Barlow họpụtara na Kansụl Ọkwa Nchụ-aja

E guzobere 1942 Atụmatụ Mgbasa Ozi Effort.

1944 (Machị 7-8) A na-eduzi ịwakpo ịlụ otu nwanyị.

1949 (Disemba 29) John Y. Barlow nwụrụ, na-ebute ọgbaghara nsogbu na Council Council.

1952 Nzukọ Ọkwa Nchụ-aja kewara mgbe Joseph W. Musser kwupụtara na Rulon Allred ga-abụ onye otu ọhụrụ. Nsonaazụ bụ òtù abụọ: FLDS (Leroy S. Johnson) na Apostolic United Brethren (Rulon Allred).

1953 (August 16) Na nke Na re Black Supremelọikpe Kasị Elu nke United States kwuru na nne na nna ịlụ karịa otu nwanyị enweghị ikike dị ka ndị nne na nna.

1953 (July 26) Mwakpo a na-eme na obodo polygamist na Short Creek.

1954 (Jenụwarị 12) Site na ọnwụ Joseph Musser, Rulon Allred ghọrọ onye isi nke Council Council.

Ejikọtara obodo Colorado City na 1985.

Nzukọ ndi isi ochichi nke Jisos Kraist nke Ndi-ikpeazu nke a haziri.

1986 (Septemba 26) J. Marion Hammon raara nye Centennial Park (obodo ebumnuche ọhụụ nke abụọ Warders guzobere).

1986 (November 25) Leroy S. Johnson nwụrụ, Rulon T. Jeffs ghọrọ onye ndu FLDS.

2002 (September 8) Rulon Jeffs nwụrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Mbido Mormon sitere na nkuzi nke Onye-amụma Latbọchị Ikpeazụ, Joseph Smith, onye webatara nkuzi ahụnke otutu ndi nwunye nye ndi choputara na 1840s. Ka ọ na-erule oge ọ nwụrụ na 1844, dị ka ọkà mmụta George D. Smith si nyochaa, ọ dịkarịa ala ụmụ nwoke 196 na ụmụ nwanyị 717 abanyela na omume ahụ na nzuzo (Smith 2008: 573-639). Ọhụụ ya maka "ọgbụgba ndụ ọhụrụ na mgbe ebighị ebi nke alụmdi na nwunye" ghọrọ akụkụ nke akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ LDS na July 12, 1843 na ngalaba 132 nke Ozizi na ọgbụgba ndụ. O debere nkọwa Mormon pụrụ iche nke mkpa alụmdi na nwunye, na mweghachi nke ihe nlereanya nke Abraham, Aịzik na Jekọb. Dịka mkpughe ahụ si kwuo, "alụmdi na nwunye nke eluigwe" bụ alụmdi na nwunye maka oge na mgbe ebighi ebi. Ndi nwoke nwere ikike nchu aja nwere ikike imechi ndi nwoke na ndi nwanyi rue mgbe ebighi ebi. Dị mkpa maka ọkwa nzọpụta kachasị elu n'ihe Smith kọwara dị ka alaeze "Celestial", Smith tụgharịrị alụmdi na nwunye di iche iche "dị ka usoro dị elu nke 'alụm di na nwunye' - '' usoro ọzọ 'nke usoro nna ochie nke alụm di na nwunye Ozizi nke Ọgbụgba-ndụ”(Bradley 1993: 2)

Ndị isi oche atọ ndị ọzọ nke ụka LDS bụkwa ndị na-eme ọtụtụ nwanyị. Brigham Young, John Taylor na Wilford Woodruff duuru ụka nke hiwere isi n’ozizi alụm di na nwunye. Dịka onye amụma na onye isi ala nke Churchka nke Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Brigham Young gbasaa omume nke ọtụtụ mmadụ, lụrụ opekata mpe ụmụ nwanyị iri ise na ise n'onwe ya, wee nwee ụmụ iri ise na asaa (Johnson 1987). Dị ka Young, President John Taylor na Wilford Woodruff gara n'ihu na-ekekọta echiche Mormon nke nzọpụta na ndụ mgbe a nwụsịrị na nkwenkwe nke ọtụtụ di na nwunye. Site na 1890 Manifesto, ụka malitere usoro nke ọtụtụ afọ iji kwụsị ọrụ omume nke alụmdi na nwunye di na nwunye n'etiti ndị nsọ nke ụbọchị ikpeazụ.

N'agbanyeghị na LDS na-azọrọ ikike nke ndị nchụàjà ma ọ bụ mmalite mmalite nke ozizi ahụ, gọọmentị etiti lụrụ ụka na omume nke alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ site na ọkara nke abụọ nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. Mgbe onye Orson Pratt kwuputara omume a site na ikpo okwu n’ihu ndị Utah na-ege ntị nke ọtụtụ puku Ndị Nsọ nke terbọchị Ikpeazụ, ndị nnọchiteanya ahụ gafere ọtụtụ ụgwọ ndị e mere iji mee ka omume ahụ kwụsị, na-ata ndị nọgidere na-emebi iwu ahụhụ. ma mechaa mebie ụlọ ọrụ ụka n’onwe ya. Ndị a gụnyere Iwu Morrill Anti-Bigamy nke 1862, Iwu Poland nke 1874, Edmunds Act nke 1882, na, n’ikpeazụ, Iwu Edmunds-Tucker nke 1887. N’oge 1880s na ịchụso gọọmentị etiti obodo ịlụ karịa otu nwanyị, ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị gara n’ihu. "ala" iji zere njide, zoo na Arizona, Nevada, Idaho na Utah niile. Onye isi ụka Church John Taylor gara zoo na Jenụwarị, 1885 wee nwụọ afọ abụọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị n'okpuru ala (Bradley 1993: 5).

N'ụzọ ndị dị mkpa, akụkọ nke FLDS malitere na 1890 Manifesto. Onye isi ala Wilford Woodruff webatara Manifesto na ọgbakọ ọgbakọ ụka nke October. Emechara tinye ya na Ozizi na Ọgbụgba ndụ, ọ bụ na mbụ bụ nke a pịa ntọhapụ. Ọ gọrọ agọ na ụka LDS kwadoro na ọ ga-aga n'ihu na ịlụ di na nwunye, na-ekwu na "Anyị anaghị akụzi otu nwanyị ma ọ bụ ịlụ di ma ọ bụ nwunye ọtụtụ, ma ọ bụ kwe ka mmadụ ọ bụla banye n'omume ya." Ọ gara n'ihu kwuo:

Ebe ọ bụ na ndị ọgbakọ omebe iwu machibidoro ịlụ di na nwunye ọtụtụ iwu, nke iwu nke ụlọ ikpe ikpe ikpe ikpeazụ kwuru, m na-ekwupụta ebum n'uche m ido onwe m n'okpuru iwu ndị ahụ, yana iji mmetụta m na ndị otu Nzukọ ụka nke m na-ekwupụta n'ihu ọha na ndụmọdụ m nyere ndị nsọ nke ụbọchị ikpeazụ a bụ ka ha ghara ịbanye na alụmdi na nwunye ọ bụla nke iwu obodo ahụ machibidoro (Iwu na ọgbụgba ndụ).

Mmetụta nke Manifesto abụghị nke zuru oke ma ọ bụ ngwa ngwa na-eme ka alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ kwụsị. N'ezie, ruo iri afọ abụọ sochirinụ, ọ dịkarịa ala, a lụrụ di na nwunye ọhụrụ 250 na nzuzo na ndagwurugwu Salt Lake, obodo ndị Canada ma ọ bụ Mexico ma ọ bụ na mpaghara ndị ọzọ na chọọchị niile (Hardy 1992: 167-335, Ihe Odide II).

N'oge mkpesa ndị omeiwu nke United States na nkwenye nke Utah Senator Reed Smoot n'etiti 1904-1907, alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ mmadụ gosipụtara ọzọ dị ka okwu mba. Smoot abụghị n'onwe ya ịlụ karịa otu nwanyị, ma okwu ahụ bụ ma ọ̀ ga-ekwesị ntụkwasị obi nye iwu nke United States ma ọ bụ nke nke chọọchị ya. Na nzaghachi nye nrụgide ọhụrụ a, Onye-isi-nduzi Joseph F. Smith n'April ogbako, 1904 kwupụtara "Manifesto nke Abụọ" nke gbakwunyere egwu nke nchụpụ na ndị jụrụ ịgbaso mmachi megide alụm di na nwunye di na nwunye. Akwụkwọ ahụ katọrọ ebubo na alụm di na nwunye ọhụrụ mere "na nkwado, nkwenye ma ọ bụ ihe ọmụma nke ”ka" (Allen na Leonard 1976: 443).

Onye-isi-nduzi Smith mere mkparịta-ụka ya site n’ịtụ aka na ịhụ mba n’anya nke chọọchị ahụ na kwa mkpa ọ dị nke nkwa nnwere onwe ikpe okpukpe. O kwuru, sị: “Ihe ndị anyị mere n’ ileghara iwu na mkpebi nke thelọikpe Kasị Elu metụtara alụm di na nwunye di na nwunye anya, bụ na mmụọ nke ijigide ikike nke okpukperechi dị ka nkwa iwu obodo siri dị, ọ bụghị na mmụọ nnupụisi ma ọ bụ iguzosi ike n’ihe nye gọọmentị. . ” N'ụzọ dị oke mkpa, "Churchka hapụrụ arụmụka wee maa ọkwa ebumnuche ya irube isi n'iwu obodo" (Clark 1965-75: 4: 151).

N'agbanyeghị Manifesto nke Abụọ, enwere nnukwu nghọta na chọọchị na ụka gbasara ịlụ di na nwunye. Alụmdi na nwunye a gara n'ihu na-enweghị nkwado nke onye isi ụka na mgbe ụfọdụ site n'aka ndị isi ọchịchị nke ụka. Mmechi iwu siri ike na ntaramahụhụ maka nnupụisi nke mmachibido iwu ahụ mere n'oge 1910 n'okpuru ndị isi oche Joseph F. Smith na Heber Grant. Onye isi Nduzi nke Nzukọ-nsọ ​​kwuru okwu n’ezi-okwu banyere ikike ọkwa nchụ-aja, ma mee ka ọkwa LDS mara nke ọma, na-ekwusi ike na “mkpịsị ugodi” zuru-nanị n’ime onye-amụma na Nzukọ-nsọ ​​(Bradley 1933: 13)

Ọ bụ ezie na Short Creek, Arizona mere ka a mata ya n'ihu ọha na 1953 na mwakpo Arizona na obodo ọtụtụ nwanyị, ndị ọbịa bịara na mpaghara ahụ na 1910's. N'ịbụ nke dị na mbara ọzara dị na ala nke Vermillion Cliffs, na-amalite na mbubreyo 1920s, Short Creek ghọrọ ụlọ nke ndị polygamist na-achọ ebe mgbaba site na mkpagbu sitere na ụwa. Mgbe John Y. Barlow ghọrọ onye isi na Council nke Oku na onye isi ndị isi, ọ gbara ndị na-eso ụzọ ya ume ka ha gbakọ na Short Creek. N'ịgbaso ụkpụrụ nke nnọkọ ahụ, dịka narị afọ nke iri na iteghete nke Ndị Nsọ nke Ikpeazụ, ezi ndị kwere ekwe guzobere obodo na-abụghị isi ebe ha nwere ike ịga n'ihu na omume ha nke ọtụtụ ndị nwunye. A na-eme atụmatụ na ezinụlọ iri anọ biri na mbara ala dịpụrụ adịpụ nke Arizona Arizona.

Na 1935, ndị ụka LDS chụpụrụ Short Creek polygamists, Ahịa W. Johnson, Edner Allred, na Carling Spencer. Ọ bụ ezie na Barlow anọghị n'ọchịchị ya na ileta ndị isi nnabata na mpaghara ahụ, Joseph Jessop, na mgbe e mesịrị nwa ya nwoke, Fred Jessop, duziri ndụ mmekọrịta na Short Creek ma nyere aka na mmepe akụ na ụba na mmepe. Barlows, Jessops na Johnsons nwere njikọ chiri anya site na njikọ okpukpe na nke obodo site na 1940s na 1950s.

Na 1944, na njide nke mbụ nke polygamists, ndị gọọmentị etiti na ndị isi obodo jidere ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị iri ise na Utah na Arizona. Nwa nwoke a gbara wakporo ebubo ịgba izu, iwu Mann na Lindberg mebiri iwu. N'ikpeazụ, ụmụ nwoke iri na ise jere ozi na ụlọ mkpọrọ Utah State tupu ha abịanye aka na iyi iguzosi ike n'ihe nke mere ka ụfọdụ n'ime ha laghachikwuru ndị ezinụlọ ha tupu okwu ha emee (Bradley 1993: 79).

Na July 26, 1953, gọọmentị nke Arizona wakporo obodo dị na Short Creek nke ịlụ ọtụtụ nwanyị. Dị ka ihe karịrị 100 ugbo ala nke Gọọmentị Howard Pyle gosipụtara mwakpo ahụ na redio, na-ekwupụta ọgụ ya megide "nnupụisi n'ime ala nke Arizona," na ebumnuche "iji chebe ndụ na ọdịnihu nke ụmụaka 263. . . . ngwaahịa na ndị metụtara ajọ izu ọjọọ. . . . obodo raara nye ndi ohu ohu. . . . ohu nke na-eme ihere. ” Ọ kọwakwuru isiokwu a.

Nke a bụ obodo-ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị, ọ dị mwute ikwu na ha na ụmụ nwoke ahụ - nke a raara onwe ya nye echiche ọjọọ ahụ bụ na a ga-amanye nwa agbọghọ ọ bụla na-etolite n'agbụ nke ọtụtụ nwunye ya na ụmụ nwoke nọ n'afọ niile maka naanị ebumpụta ụwa. ịbụ ndị a zụlitere ịghọ nanị mkparịta ụka nke ọrụ a na-emebi iwu kpam kpam.

Dị ka onye kachasị ikike na Arizona, onye e nyere iwu iwu ka ọ 'lezie anya ka e wee mezuo iwu ndị ahụ,' eburuwo m ibu ọrụ kasịnụ maka ịmalite omume nke ga-akwụsị nnupụisi a (Pyle 1953).

Ihe karịrị otu narị ndị ọchịchị Arizona steeti wetara akwụkwọ ikike maka ụmụ nwoke iri atọ na isii na ụmụ nwanyị iri asatọ na isii. Iri atọitoolu n'ime akwụkwọ ikike ahụ bụ maka ndị bi n'akụkụ Utah nke obodo ahụ. Ebubo ndị ahụ gụnyere: ndina n'ike, mmeko nwoke na nwanyị, ihe ọmụma gbasara anụ ahụ, ibi ndụ ọtụtụ nwanyị, ibikọ ọnụ, ịlụ nwanyị, ịkwa iko, na iji ego ụlọ akwụkwọ eme ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi (Bradley 1993: 131). Mwakpo ahụ chọrọ “ịzọpụta ụmụaka 263 site na njigide nke enweghị isi n'okpuru atụmatụ Mgbalị United,” ka Attorney General Paul LaPrade si kwuo. "Ebumnuche bụ isi bụ ịzọpụta ụmụaka ndị a n'oge ndụ rụrụ arụ na-enweghị ohere ịmụ banyere ma ọ bụ lelee mpụga na echiche ụwa nke ibi ezigbo ndụ" (LaPrade 1953).

N'ime ụbọchị atọ sochirinụ, steeti ahụ guzobere ụlọ ikpe mkpegharị na ụlọ akwụkwọ dị na etiti obodo. A ga-ebuga ndị nwoke ahụ maka nyocha nke mbido na Kingman n'August 31, 1953. Obodo ahụ nwekwara ụlọ ikpe ụmụaka ebe ndị ọka ikpe Lorna Lockwood na Jesse Faulkner jidere nwatakịrị nke ọ bụla wee mee ha ngalaba nke ụlọ ikpe ahụ. Ndị ọkàikpe, ndị osote onye ọka iwu na ndị na-ese foto ụlọ ikpe gara n'ụlọ nke ọtụtụ ezinụlọ na Short Creek na-achịkọta ihe akaebe iji kwado ebubo ahụ. N'ụbọchị nke atọ mgbe mwakpo ahụ gasịrị, steeti nyere ndị nne ohere iso ụmụ ha mee njem (153 na mkpokọta) iji zụlite ụlọ na Mesa, Phoenix na ebe ndị ọzọ dị nso ebe ha nọrọ afọ abụọ na-esote ka ikpe ha pụta na ụlọ ikpe ma ha pụta n'ihu ụlọ ọrụ steeti. Afọ abụọ mbuso agha ahụ, ụmụ nwanyị niile alaghachila na Short Creek ma ewezuga otu onye dị obere n'oge mwakpo ahụ, mana onye laghachitere ozugbo ọ toruru ogo ime ya.

Utah weere ihe dị iche na ịnwa imebi ezinụlọ. Onye ọka ikpe David F. Anderson, nke Utah nke Sixlọikpe Ndị Isi nke isii nke Utah na St. George, Utah chepụtara ụzọ aghụghọ iwu nke wakporo nleghara anya ebubo ụmụaka nke ụmụ nwanyị karịrị otu nwanyị. Ọ bụ ezie na Anderson gbara akwụkwọ arịrịọ iri abụọ dị iche iche na-ebo ebubo na ụmụ asatọ eleghara anya, ọ họọrọ ịme Vera na Leonard Black nnwale ikpe nke izi ezi nke usoro a. Di na nwunye ahụ lụrụ karịa nwere ụmụ asatọ site na 1953. Anderson dabere na Nkebi nke 55-10-6, Utah Code Annotated, 1953 maka nkọwa nke nleghara anya: “Nwatakịrị enweghị ezigbo nlekọta nne na nna n'ihi mmejọ ma ọ bụ omume nke nne na nna ya, Nwatakịrị ma ọ bụ onye nlekọta A .Ọ bụ nwatakịrị nke nne na nna ya, onye nlekọta ma ọ bụ onye nlekọta leghaara ma ọ bụ jụ inye ya ezigbo nri, agụmakwụkwọ, nlekọta ahụike ma ọ bụ ịwa ahụ ma ọ bụ nlekọta ndị ọzọ dị mkpa maka ahụike ya, omume ya ma ọ bụ ọdịmma ya. Nwatakịrị nke a hụrụ n'ebe a na-adịghị eme ihe ọjọọ ma ọ bụ onye ya na ndị na-enweghị uche, ndị obi ọjọọ, ma ọ bụ ndị na-eme omume rụrụ arụ na-akpakọrịta. ”

The ikpe, Na Re Black , kpaliri site n'ụlọ ikpe ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ abụọ, n'ikpeazụ na 1955 na-ejedebe na mkpesa na Courtlọikpe Kasị Elu nke Utah. N’afọ 1955, Courtlọikpe ahụ kwadoro ihe ụlọikpe ka nke ikpe ahụ kpere banyere nne ha, kwubie na ndị na-alụ karịa otu nwaanyị enweghị ikike ichebe ụmụ ha. Ọtụtụ ndị kwuru, sị: “Omume ịlụ karịa otu nwanyị, ibikọ ọnụ n'ụzọ iwu na-akwadoghị na ịkwa iko bụ ihe jọgburu onwe ya, n'etinyeghị ndụ aka nke ụmụaka nke ihe ọjọọ ha. Enweghi ike imebi iwu na ihe ojoo ”(Driggs 1991: 3) Mgbe ọ nọsịrị na nlekọta nlekọta maka afọ atọ, Vera nwetara ikike nke ụmụ ya, mana ọ bụ naanị mgbe ọ bịanyere aka na iyi na-agọnarị na ọ kwenyere na alụmdi na nwunye di iche iche (Bradley 1993: 178).

Atụmatụ nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-eme ọtụtụ di na nwunye na ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri abụọ, sitere na iri atọ ruo puku iri ise. Tupu ọ nwụọ, Ogden Kraut polygamist kwuru na "enwere ike ịnwe ma ọ dịkarịa ala mmadụ 30,000 na-ewere onwe ha Fundormist Mormons, na-akwado ma ọ dịkarịa ala nkwenkwe na nkwenkwe nke ọtụtụ di na nwunye" (Kraut 1989). Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme bụ Richard Van Wagoner kwukwara na ndị nkwenkwe 30,000 dị na 1986 (Van Wagoner 1992). Na 2009, Melton nyere otu atụmatụ (Melton 2009: 650). Kemgbe ọ malitere n'etiti ndị Mormon na 1840s, omume nke ọtụtụ ndị nwunye abanyela n'okpuru ala na ụwa nzuzo, nke okpuru ala nke okpukperechi na nkwenkwe, omume na omume ndụ na-echekwa, na oge ụfọdụ, dị ka nke Short Creek , Arizona, site na nchebe nke ụwa eke.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ndi FLDS kwenyere na ndi isi nkuzi nke ulo uka nke Jisos Kraist nke Ndi Nsọ nke ubochi nke iri na iteghete, tinyere Principle (ozizi nke otutu di na nwunye), nraranye na nlekota oru (otu ndi otu ndi otu), otutu nke Chineke (ikike maka onye ezi omume obula ibu Chineke mgbe ebighi ebi), na ikike onye amuma inweta nkpughe site n’aka Chineke. Ọtụtụ na-akọwa Chọọchị LDS dị ka ụka nke Chineke na ụfọdụ na-esonye n'ememe ụlọ nsọ LDS, na-eje ozi ndị LDS ma ọ bụ na-akwụ otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri na ngalaba LDS tupu a chụpụ ha maka nkwenkwe ha ma ọ bụ ụdị ndụ ha.

Ọ bụ ezie na ndị nọ n’èzí na-akọwakarị ndị isi okpukpe Mormon dị ka ndị na-alụ karịa otu nwanyị, ndị FLDS n’onwe ha na-eji ọtụtụ okwu akọwa ọrụ pụrụ iche ha nwere banyere ọtụtụ ndị nwunye: “Prinkpụrụ,” “Alụmdi na Nwunye Celestial,” “Ọgbụgba Ndụ Ọhụrụ na Ebighị Ebi,” “alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ, ”Ma ọ bụ“ Ọrụ nchụ-aja ”(Quinn 1993: 240-41).

Isi okwu nkewa n’etiti FLDS na Nzukọ-nsọ ​​nke Jisus Kraịst nke Ndi-nsọ terbọchị-Ikpeazụ a bụ maka ikike nchụ-aja. Ndị isi okpukpe kwenyere na Chọọchị LDS hapụrụ 1890 Manifesto ma mechaa tufuo ikike ndị ụkọchukwu ịme alụmdi na nwunye nke Celestial. Ndi FLDS kwenyere na otutu ndi nwunye bu nkwenkwe bu isi nke Nzuko nke Jisos Kraist nke ndi nso ikpeazu, ihe di nkpa maka nzoputa na ihe ama nke ezi omume. Ọzọkwa, ndị FLDS nakweere ikike ịbụ ndị isi n'ọchịchị nke aka ha, ikike ha na-achọpụta na 1886 site na akụkọ nke Lorin C. Woolley. Woolley kwuru na na 1886 President John Taylor bi na Centerville, Utah na ala zoro ezo site n'aka ndị ọrụ gọọmentị etiti. Ọ kọrọ na onye amụma Joseph Smith bịara leta ya ma na-ekwe nkwa na ya "ga-ekwe ka aka nri m bipụ" tupu ọ bịanye aka na akwụkwọ na-enye iwu ịhapụ alụmdi na nwunye ọtụtụ (Musser 1934). Dị ka akụkọ Joseph Musser si dị na 1912, a sịrị na Taylor gwara Woolley na ụmụ nwoke ndị ọzọ bịara ya: George Q. Cannon, L. John Nuttall, John W. Woolley, Samuel Bateman, Daniel R. Bateman, Charles H. Wilkins, Charles Birrell, na George Earl iji gaa n'ihu omume nke di na nwunye di na nwunye. Ọ bụrụ na Chọọchị LDS agbahapụ omume ahụ, ma ọ bụ "cikpụrụ," obere ìgwè nke ụmụ nwoke ise-Cannon, Wilkins, Bateman, John W. Woolley, na Lorin C. Woolley ga-ebu ikike ọkwa nchụ-aja na-aga n'ihu ịme ọtụtụ di na nwunye ma nwee ike ichi ndị ọzọ ime otu ihe ahụ (Bradley 1993: 19). Efi 1929 reba no, Woolley de nnɔnhwerew awotwe na ɛyɛ adwuma. O bufere otu ike nhọpụta a n'aka otu ndị ahọpụtara na "Kansụl nke Ndị Enyi ma ọ bụ Kansụl nke Ọkwa Nchụ-aja." Ndị ikom a ghọrọ ndị isi nke usoro nke a ga-emesị mara dị ka Mormon fundamentalism, ndị bụbu Ndị Nsọ nke terbọchị Ikpeazụ a bụ ndị nọgidere na-eme ihe banyere ọtụtụ ndị nwunye.

Maka FLDS, mmekọrịta alụmdi na nwunye bụ ntọala nke alaeze ezinụlọ. Otú ọ dị, ebumnuche bụ isi nke alụmdi na nwunye abụghị ịhụnanya, kama ọ bụ usoro mmekọrịta nke eluigwe. Alụmdi na nwunye di na nwunye bụ akụkụ nke ọha na eze na ndị isi na-achịkwa usoro iwu nna ochie. Nwatakịrị ahụ nọ n'okpuru nne; mẹkpoo ndu bu l'alị-a; ya onwe ya, lekwara onye amụma anya maka nduzi; ebe onye amụma ahụ zara Jizọs Kraịst ma kwuo maka ya. Ebe ọ bụ na Chineke nọ n'isi ụwa, di bụ onyeisi ezinụlọ n'ezinụlọ. Àgwà kwesịrị ekwesị nke e chere ihu n'ebe onye ka mmadụ gụnyere gụnyere ịkparị na nrubeisi. Omume kwesịrị ekwesị nke enyere ndị nọ n'okpuru ya nwere ntụziaka, ịdị mma, na ịkwụ ụgwọ ma ọ bụ ntaramahụhụ (Bradley 1993: 101).

Mụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị lụrụ “Mee ka ụwa jupụta ụwa.” Mmekọahụ nwere ihe metụtara okpukpe ma jikọta ya na ịmụ nwa. Musser kụziri na “nwanyị ọ bụla kwesịrị ịdị na-achọ ịlụ nwanyị na ịbụ nne. Ọ na-achọsi ike ikpu okpueze nke ebube. Ihe kachasị dị oke ọnụ ma chọọ maka ọla bụ ụmụaka ịkpọ nne ya ”(Musser 1948: 134).

Joseph Musser kwuputara ihe dị iche na nwoke na nwanyị maka eziokwu eke 1948: “Udọn̄ fo eyedi eke ebe fo, ndien enye ayakara fi. N’itinye nwoke n’isi, iburu Ọkwa Nchụ-aja, iwu, iwu ebighi ebi, ka a mara ọkwa. ” A kọwapụtara ọrụ nke ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị na ederede iji kee usoro mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. “Nwoke, nwere onyinye ndi sitere na Chukwu, ka amuru ka o buru onye ndu, nwanyi bukwa iso, ma otutu mgbe ka nwanyi nwere onyinye di obere nke ndu. Mana ụmụ nwanyị, n'aka nri, na-elegara ndị otu nwoke anya maka idu ndú na nchedo. ” Dabere na Musser, ụmụnwaanyị kwesịrị “ịsọpụrụ ma sọpụrụ onwe ha, dịka arịa dị nsọ, nke akwadoro ma bulie mmekọrịta ebighi-ebi na nke dị nsọ nke nwunye na nne.” Ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị metụtara nke nwoke, dị ka “ihe ịchọ mma na ebube mmadụ; ịkọrọ ya okpueze na-anaghị ada ada na ọchịchị na-abawanye ruo mgbe ebighi ebi ”(Musser 1948: 134).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ndị FLDS jiri mee ihe bụ otu nke ụka LDS: nke Book of Mormon, na Bible, na Ọla Pel nke Oke Ọnụ-ahịa na Ozizi na ọgbụgba ndụ. Nkwenkwe dịka ọtụtụ nke Chi, Okwu nke Amamihe, ọdịdị nke eluigwe na ndụ mgbe a nwụsịrị fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu. E hiwere ụlọ ụka abụọ ahụ n'usoro nke nwoke, ikike nke ndị nchụàjà.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ emume okpukpe nke ndị FLDS na-eme dị ka nke ndị nsọ nke ụbọchị ikpeazu, ọdịnala nke ijide Schoollọ Akwụkwọ Sọnde n'ụlọ obibi ndị mmadụ ebe sacrament na-eje ozi, karịa n'ụlọ nzukọ, bụ otu ihe dị mkpa. ihe dị iche. Meetinglọ nzukọ Johnson dị n'etiti obodo dị na Colorado City bụ ụlọ ọrụ LDS abụọ ma ọ bụ ebe a na-anọ efe ofufe ofufe, egwu egwu obodo, na nzukọ azụmahịa obodo. Oghere nzukọ etiti ahụ nwere ndị na-ege ntị n'etiti 1,500 na 2,500. Ọzọkwa, ndị FLDS na-enwe nzukọ ofufe kwa izu dịka ọ dị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na chọọchị LDS. Dị ka LDS, ndị isi okpukpe na-eyi uwe ndị nchụàjà dị nsọ wee họrọ uwe dị mma karịa ụdị ewu ewu n'oge a.

Ndị isi nchụ aja, na onye amụma nke otu ahụ, na-ahazi alụmdi na nwunye n'etiti FLDS na omume a na-akpọ alụmdi na nwunye. Otu nwunye di na nwunye kwuru na “a zụlitere anyị ikwere na Ọkwa Nchụ-aja ahụ [Council] ga-ahọrọ onye anyị ga-alụ na anyị agaghị ekwe ka anyị hụ onye ọbụla n’anya,” onye ọzọ na-eto eto FLDS kwuru “N’otu anyị, anyị anaghị eme enyi ”(Quinn 1992: 257). Onye isi ụka ahụ na onye isi nke Ọchịchị Nchụ aja na-ekpe ekpere maka ntụziaka Chineke banyere mmekọrịta di na nwunye. Maka FLDS, alụmdi na nwunye a haziri ahazi na-eme ka mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya nwee mmetụta nke usoro ezinụlọ nke nwere mkpa ebighi ebi.

Ezinụlọ FLDS bụ nna ochie, ọ bụ ezie na ndụ ụbọchị nke ụmụ nwanyị ezinụlọ na-arụ ọrụ akụ na ụba na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. Ọtụtụ nwere nnwere onwe dị elu nke na-arụ ọrụ. Enwere otutu ụlọ maka ezinụlọ ndị bi na obodo FLDS. Familiesfọdụ ezinụlọ na-ahọrọ ịnwe ụmụ nwanyị niile na ụmụ ha n'otu ụlọ ma ndị ọzọ nwere ọtụtụ ezinụlọ maka nne dị iche iche na ụmụ ha. Colorado City / Hildale na Centennial Park bụ ndị ama ama site na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke nnukwu ụlọ ezinaụlọ. Onye na-ese ụkpụrụ obodo, Edmund Barlow, na 2003 tụrụ aro na ka ụlọ na-abawanye n'ihe a na-ese na square footage, na ha ga-anabata koodu ụlọ maka nke ụlọ. Nnukwu ezinụlọ ndị nwere ọtụtụ ezinụlọ n’okpuru otu ụlọ rụrụ ụlọ ndị Schoollọ Akwụkwọ Sọnde maka ofufe ezinụlọ n’ụlọ ha.

Joseph Smith kpughere ụkpụrụ nke ịchụ-aja na ọrụ nlekọta na chọọchị nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. Na Utah, "United Order" rụrụ ọrụ dị ka obodo ebumnuche na ngosipụta nke echiche okpukpe. N'okpuru United Order, ndị otu e doro ihe onwunwe ma nata ọrụ nlekọta nke nyere ha iwu iji akụ maka ọdịmma nke otu ahụ yana onye ọ bụla. N'okpuru iduzi Barlow, Kansụl Nchụ aja na 1936 guzobere United Trust. E wezụga ala, ntụkwasị obi ahụ nwere osisi na akụrụngwa ejiri rụọ ọrụ ugbo "maka nzube nke iwulite alaeze Chineke" (Driggs 2011: 88). Afọ isii ka nke ahụ gasịrị, obodo ahụ mebiri ntụkwasị obi ahụ wee weghachite ala ahụ. Mgbalị nke abụọ na nzukọ nke otu ihe onwunwe bụ Atụmatụ Mgbalị nke United, nke bụ ihe onwunwe ma ọ bụ ntụkwasị obi azụmahịa karịa nzukọ okpukpe. N'otu oge, akụnụba dị na UEP ruru ihe ruru $ 100 nde ma "dabere na mkpofu nke ngalaba UEP ma ọ bụ Council Council (Hammon na Jankowiak 2011: 52).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ulo elu nke ndi ndu na nhazi nke FLDS bu Council nke Ochichi, nke ha kwenyere na ha nwere ikike ime di na nwunye di iche iche ma nke anakpo dika ikike karia nke ulo uka LDS n'onwe ya. Ndị otu a, nke a na-akpọkwa Kansụl nke Ndị Enyi, bụ ndịozi nke Jizọs Kraịst ma ọ bụ ndị isi nchụàjà (Hammon na Jankowiak 2011: 44). Onye isi oche nke nnukwu onye nchụ aja, onye isi ndị otu, na-edu kansụl ahụ. Dabere na ndị isi okwukwe, John W. Woolley duuru Council of Priesthood ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1928. N'oge ahụ, Lorin Woolley kpọrọ ndị ọhụrụ ka ha kansụl, na-ahọpụta ndị ikom anọ ka ha bụrụ ndịozi: J. Leslie Broadbent, John Y. Barlow, Joseph W. Musser, na Charles F. Zitting (Hammon na Jankowiak 2011: 45). Otutu, onye isi okenye ma obu onye isi kansụl na anata mkpughe banyere onye aga akpo nzuko, ma obu ndi nwoke. N'ime afọ ndị a, chọọchị LDS kewapụrụ onwe ya na omume nke ọtụtụ ndị nwunye. Omume a mechara mara dị ka Mormon fundamentalism haziri gburugburu ndị ahụ kwenyere na alụmdi na nwunye di iche iche dị mkpa maka nzọpụta ha ma jụọ ikike na ụzọ nke ụka LDS were.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N’agbata afọ 1930 na afọ ugbu a, ọzụzụ agụmakwụkwọ dịgasị iche iche. Na 1991, obodo mepụtara atụmatụ buru ibu maka "Barlow University," yana atụmatụ anụ ahụ maka akuko ịnyịnya na-aga nke ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ dịka nke a na Mahadum Utah. N'okpuru nduzi nke Warren Jeffs na ngwụsị afọ ndị 2000, ndị nne na nna kpọpụrụ ụmụ ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze wee gụọ ha ụlọ. Ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ tupu nke ahụ, ụmụaka gara ụlọ akwụkwọ na-akwụ ụgwọ site na ụtụ isi gụnyere ụlọ akwụkwọ elementrị, ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị na ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị. Ọtụtụ ndị otu obodo gara Southern Utah State College na Cedar City iji nweta asambodo nkuzi ha, na dịka nkwupụta D. Michael Quinn si na 1993, pasent 85 nke ụmụ okorobịa na ụmụ nwanyị nọ na otu ahụ gara kọleji, gụnyere Mohave County Community College na dị na obodo (Quinn 1993: 267). Na 1960, Short Creek gbanwere aha ya na Colorado City / Hildale wee wuo ụlọ akwụkwọ obodo — Citylọ Akwụkwọ Ọchịchị nke Colorado City. Ruo mgbe mmechi ya na 1980, Academylọ akwụkwọ ahụ nyere agụmakwụkwọ sitere na nkuzi okpukpe dị ka ihe ọzọ na agụmakwụkwọ ọha.

Na 1981, obodo nke FLDS kewara n'ime otu abuo banyere ndi isi ochichi (ndi otu ndi nchu aja na otu onye nkuzi), nkọwa di iche iche nke ihe ndi mmadu / ihe ndi mmadu (ikike), na omume ndi mmadu (otutu di iche iche nke akwukwo akwukwo na ndi mmadu). Amara site na mgbe ahụ gaa n'ihu dịka "Akpa Warders" ma ọ bụ "Nke abụọ Warders," nkewa ahụ mepụtara otu asọmpi na mgbe ụfọdụ ndị na-emegide ndị otu. Mgbe 1984 gasịrị, Leroy Johnson duru ndị FLDS n’okpuru “nkuzi otu nwoke” ma kesaa Council nke Ọkwa Nchụ-aja ruo ọbịbịa nke abụọ nke Kraịst (Driggs 2011: 91). Mgbe Rulon T. Jeffs nọchiri Johnson dị ka onye amụma nke Ward mbụ na 1986, Chọọchị Ndị Isi Ebere ọhụrụ nke Jesus Christ nke Ndị Nsọ Ikpeazụ, chụpụrụ ndị otu Ward nke abụọ.

References

Allen, James B. na Glen A. Leonard. 1976. Akụkọ nke Ndị Nsọ nke Ikpeazụ. Salt Lake City: Companylọ Ọrụ Akwụkwọ Deseret na Ngalaba Akụkọ Ihe Mere Eme nke Chọọchị nke Jizọs Kraịst nke Ndị Nsọ Ikpeazụ.

Bradley, Martha Sontag. 1993. Ọchịchị Gọọmentị na Short Creek Polygamists. Salt Lake City: Mahadum nke Utah Press.

Clark, James R., ed. 1965-1975. Ozi nke Otu Ndị-isi Nduzi Mbụ. Vol. 4. Salt Lake City: Mpempe Akwụkwọ.

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Ụbọchị Post:
31 October 2012

OZI NKE CHINEKE KWESỊRỊ NKE NDỊ NA-ECHICHE NDỊ DỊ N'ỤLỌ NCHE

 

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