Eugene V. Gallagher

Ndị David na ndị David David (1929-1981)

DAVIDIAN NA IKE DAVIDIAN TIMELINE

1885 (March 2) Victor Tasho Houteff mụrụ na Raikovo, Bulgaria.

1902 (Jenụwarị 5) Benjamin L. Roden mụrụ na Bearden, Oklahoma.

1907 Houteff kwagara United States.

1919 Houteff ghọrọ onye Adventist nke asaa.

1928 Houteff malitere ọmụmụ siri ike nke amụma Bible.

1929 Houteff malitere ịkụziri echiche ya na chọọchị Seventh-Day Adventist dị na Los Angeles.

1929 Houteff malitere ibipụta echiche ya Mkpanaka Onye Ọzụzụ Atụrụ.

1934 Mgbe ya na ndị isi Seventh-ụbọchị Adventist nụrụ, a napụrụ Houteff na ụlọ ọrụ ụka n'ihi nkuzi ya.

1935 (May) Houteff na obere ìgwè ndị na-eso ụzọ kwagara na mpaghara 189-acre na mpụga Waco, Texas, nke ha kpọrọ Ugwu Kamel.

1937 (Jenụwarị 1) Mgbe Houteff dị afọ iri ise na abụọ, Houteff lụrụ Florence Hermanson, nwa nwanyị dị afọ iri na asaa nke ụmụazụ ya abụọ.

1937 (February 12) Ben Roden lụrụ Lois I. Scott.

1940 Ben na Lois Roden sonyeere Chọọchị Adventist nke ụbọchị asaa, nke mbụ na Kilgore na Odessa, Texas.

1940s Na mbido rue etiti 1940 na Rodens zutere Houteff's Shepherd's Rod movement.

E hiwere otu 1943 Houteff dị ka "General Association of Davidian Seventh-Day Adventist."

1952 Houteff zipụrụ ndị ozi ala ọzọ iri atọ site na Ugwu Kamel, na ebumnuche nke ịgbasa ozi ya na ezinụlọ Seventh-ụbọchị Adventist na North America.

1955 (February 5) Houteff nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ 69.

1955 Florence Houteff ghọrọ onye isi nke otu ndị na-eso ụzọ di ya.

1955 N'ịkọwa onwe ya dị ka "Alaka" a kpọtụrụ aha na Zekaraịa 3: 8 na 6:12, Ben Roden kwuru na ya ga-edu ndị David.

1955 (Disemba 7) Ndị David rere ala mbụ ha ma kwaga "Ugwu Kamel Ọhụrụ," acres 941 dị nso n'obodo Elk, Texas, kilomita itoolu n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Waco.

1958 Ben Roden gara Israel iji guzobe obodo nke ga-abụ isi nke obodo David ọhụrụ nke 144,000.

1959 Florence Houteff kwenyesiri ike na ihe omume nke njedebe ga-eme n'oge Ememe Ngabiga, na-agwụ na ma ọ bụ banyere April 22.

1959 Somefọdụ ndị David 1,000 gbakọtara na Ugwu Kamel maka Ememe Ngabiga, mana ọnụọgụ ha belatara mgbe ọ nweghị ihe omume dị mkpa mere.

1959 Florence Houteff hapụrụ Ugwu Kamel nke dị na California wee kwụsị nduzi ọ bụla gbasara ndị David.

1959 Ben Roden putara dika onye isi ndi otu na New Mount Carmel Center.

1961 Site na amụma Florence Houteff dara, ụfọdụ ndị David kpebiri ịkwaga na mbụ na Riverside, California na 1970 na Salem, South Carolina; ìgwè a gbasasiri ike na-anọgide na-ekwesị ntụkwasị obi na nkà mmụta okpukpe Houteff.

1962 (March 1) Florence Houteff gbara arụkwaghịm dịka onye ndu nke ndị David.

Ndi otu ndi agha nke 1960s luru agha n'ulo ikpe maka ijikwa ihe omuma nke Ugwu New Carmel.

1973 (February 27) Ben Roden na Alaka David mechara zụọ Ugwu Kamel.

1977 Lois Roden bidoro amụma nke ya wee nata mkpughe na Mmụọ Nsọ bụ nwanyị.

1978 Ben Roden nwụrụ ma nwee ihe ịga nke ọma na nwunye ya, Lois.

1980 Lois Roden bipụtara mbipụta mbụ nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, Shekinah.

1981 David Koresh, nke a maara dị ka Vernon Howell, sonyeere ndị David David Alaka na Ugwu Kamel.

1983 Lois Roden ghọtara David Koresh dị ka onye nọchiri ya.

1986 Lois Roden nwụrụ ma lie ya n'akụkụ di ya na Ugwu Olive na Jerusalem.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Òtù ndị òtù okpukpe nke a maara dịka ndị David David nke Alaka so n'ihe akụkọ ntụrụndụ dị mgbagwoju anya. Ndi David David nke ohia bu ndi David Koresh bu, nke bu BATF ojoo mara nke oma n'Ugwu Carmel Center na February 28, 1993 na nke iri ise na otu ubochi nke ndi FBI bu nke mebiri na oku nke bibiri Center wee were 74 , bụ akụkụ nke ọdịnala nke ruru azụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala ruo na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu.

N'etiti narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na New York State, onye ụkọchukwu Baptist Miller (1782-1849) kwupụtara na site na
jiri nlezianya mụọ ihe ọ na-enwebeghị ike ịkọwa ihe omimi nke akwụkwọ Mkpughe nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ na, ya mere, banyere oge njedebe nke ụwa na ọbịbịa nke ugboro abụọ nke Jizọs. Site na 1831 rue 1843, o mere atụmatụ na ya ewetarala ọkara nde mmadụ ozi ya. Site na ngụkọta oge nke Miller, nloghachi nke Jizọs ga - eme n’agbata Machị 21, 1843 na Machị 21, 1844. Mgbe ụbọchị ikpeazụ gafere n’enweghị ihe dị egwu mere, Miller, dịka ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ buru amụma banyere ngwụcha, akwụsịghị okwukwe n’amụma ya. Utu ke oro, enye ama okpụhọ se enye akanamde onyụn̄ afiak ọtọn̄ọ usenọfiọn̄ October 22, 1844. Idotenyịn ama ọdọdiọn̄ okpon ke ini ndaeyo akabade edi iduọ, edi usenọfiọn̄ oro ama afiak edi eke unana ubiatini. Ndị kwenyere n'amụma Miller nwetara ihe a bịara kpọọ “Nnukwu ndakpọ olileanya,” ọrụ ibu amụma ya wee kwụsị. Mana ọbụna ahụmịhe nke abụọ nke nkwenye ahụ ezughị ezu iji kwụsị kpamkpam mmasị na mmalite nke narị afọ iri (Rowe 2008: 192-225).

Otu n'ime ndị Millerites bụ ndị jigidere nkwenye ahụ Miller ziri ezi na amụma ya, bụ obere otu na Washington, New Hampshire nke Joseph Bates, James White na Ellen G. Harmon (1827-1915), bụ ndị White lụrụ na 1846 Ha kwenyere na amụma Miller na-ekwu n'ụzọ ziri ezi banyere Kraịst ịbanye n'ime ime ụlọ nsọ nke eluigwe iji malite ọrụ ikpe ikpeazụ ya. Ya mere, ihe omume nke njedebe amalitela n'ezie, mana ha egosibeghị onwe ha n'ụwa. Dabere na nkọwa ha banyere Mkpughe 14 na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ndị ọzọ, ndị ọcha na ndị Bates kwadoro ka ha na-edebe ụbọchị Onyenwe anyị na Satọdee dị ka ụbọchị nke asaa nke izu, kwenyere na ikpe ikpeazụ na-apụta ugbu a, ma na-atụ anya na ọ ga-abụ nke mkpughe sitere na Chineke duziri ha n'oge nke ha. Ellen G. White, onye ghọrọ onye-amụma otu ahụ, bịara kpọwa mkpughe nke oge a “eziokwu dị ugbu a” ma ọ bụ “ọkụ ọhụrụ.” Abụọ ejima nke na-edebe Lord'sbọchị Onyenwe anyị na Satọdee ma na-atụ anya nloghachi nke Jizọs ga-abịaru nso iji bido ikpe ikpeazụ ga-abụ njiri mara nke ụbọchị Seventh-Day Adventism site na mgbe ọ malitere na obere ìgwè nke New Hampshire Millerites site na ya dum akụkọ ihe mere eme. Uzo nnabata nke amuma “eziokwu di ugbua” webatara ukpuru nke mgbanwe site na odinala ndi Adventist bu nke putara ihe di nkpa kari ndi David na ndi David David (lee Gallagher 2013).

Ebumnuche nke ndị David David nke dị na ya nwere ike ịchọta ọrụ nke Victor Houteff (1885-1955), Bulgarian
kwagara na United States sonyeere Chọọchị Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) na 1919 na Illinois. Ka Houteff na-amụ Bible, o wepụtara echiche abụọ dị iche na-ekwekọghị na nkuzi SDA. Nke mbu, na-ekwuputa ikpe doro anya nke ndi otu SDA Church, o kwenyeghi na Ellen G. White na ndi 144,000 ekwuru na nkpughe 7 dika ndi kwesiri ibanye na Jerusalem ohuru kwuru na ndi Adventist n’onwe ha. Kama, ọ rụrụ ụka na Churchka abụrụla ndị onwe ya juru afọ ma bụrụ ndị “ụwa” na-emetụta. Ọ hụrụ ọrụ nke ya dị ka ime ka ụka ahụ dị ọcha n'ime na ịchịkọta 144,000 kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi na-atụ anya nloghachi nke Onyenwe anyị. Nke abụọ, ọ rụrụ ụka na ọ bụ ọrụ ya iduru 144,000 ahụ dị ọcha gaa n'ala Israel oge ochie, ebe ha ga-ezute Kraịst na nloghachi ya. Omenala ndi David na nke ndi David meputara echiche nke onwe ha dika ndi ha gha abu ndi mbu agbaputara na nloghachi nke Jisos. Na-agbaziri echiche sitere n'ememe ọrụ ugbo nke ndị Israel oge ochie, Ben Roden, otu n'ime ndị isi soro Houteff, kọwara ndị David David nke Alaka dịka "nke mbụ n'ime mkpụrụ mbụ - ahịhịa-akụ, na-echekwa B NOT achịcha na-efegharị efegharị - 144,000, ndị agha" nke owuwe ihe ubi ikpeazụ nke nzọpụta (Ben Roden 1959: 4).

N'adịghị ka Ellen G. White, Houteff adabereghị n'ike ya na ọhụụ ma ọ bụ ụdị mmekọrịta ndị ọzọ na chi ozugbo, mana o kwuru na ọrụ nke ya dị mkpa n'oge ya dịka ọrụ Moses dị na ya. O kwenyesiri ike na omume na mmụọ nke ọdịda nke ụka SDA dugara ya na nsogbu ma na ndị otu ya nwere ike ịhọrọ iso ya wee banye ọzọ n'okporo ụzọ maka nzọpụta ma ọ bụ na-arapara na nkuzi nke ụka dị ka ekwupụtara na mbibi na nso nso a. . Na 1929, Houteff, mgbe ahụ na Los Angeles, malitere ịkụzi ozi ya. Mgbe ụka SDA jụrụ akwụkwọ Houteff nke ọma na 1934 wee chụpụ ya, ọ chere na ọ nweghị ihe ọzọ ọ ga-eme karịa ịhazi nzukọ ya. Site na 1935, Houteff kpebiri ịkwaga ya na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na Texas ma mee ndokwa maka ịzụta nnukwu traktị nke ala na mpụga Waco ebe ha guzobere Ugwu Carmel Center (dabere na nghọta ha banyere amụma dị na Amos 1: 2). N’igosipụta olile anya ya maka mweghachi nke alaeze Mesaịa anụ ahụ na Israel, ọ kpọrọ aha ya otu Davidian Seventh-Day Adventist Association iji kpoo alaeze oge ochie nke Eze David chịrị.

Houteff bu ụzọ bipụtara echiche ndị mmụta okpukpe na traktị nke isiokwu ya Mkpanaka Onye Ọzụzụ Atụrụ , na ìgwè nke ndị na-eso ụzọ ya bụ ndị nkịtị onye aha ya bu Victor Houteff 1930. Mpịakọta nke mbụ bụ nke abụọ na nke 1930s, 1940s na mmalite 1950s Houteff mepụtara ọtụtụ okpukpe okpukpe na nchịkọta okwu ya nke ndị ọrụ Devid bipụtara site na ndepụta nke ndị SDA Church. Na February, 1943 ka o bipụtara Levitikọs nke ndị Seventh-Day Adventist , nke na-akọwa usoro iwu, iwu iwu, usoro gọọmentị, na ụdị akwụkwọ maka obodo David (Victor Houteff 1943). Otutu nke akwukwo akwukwo otu di iche iche bu ihe edeputara ihe omuma ndi ozo site na Baibul na akwukwo nke Ellen G. White.

N'okpuru iduzi Houteff, ndị David kwadoro ma mepee obodo na Ugwu Kamel ma wepụta oge, mgbalị, na ego iji gbasaa ozi ha nye ndị otu SDA Church na North America na gafere (gụnyere Australia, England, India, na West Indies) ). Ha gara n’ihu na-eme ka nghọta ha nwere banyere amụma Akwụkwọ Nsọ ka sie ike ma na-enwe olile anya ha na nlọghachi Jizọs iji duzie ikpe ikpeazụ ga-eme n’oge adịghị anya.

Mgbe Houteff nwụrụ na February, 1955, ndị David nwụnahụrụ onye ndu ha ma chee nsogbu ihu na-emetụta ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na mbụ-ọgbọ okpukpe. Kenneth Newport na-atụ aro na ọ dịkarịa ala ụfọdụ n'ime 100 ma ọ bụ karịa ndị otu nọ na Ugwu Kamel nwere ike ịpụ mgbe Houteff nwụsịrị, mana ndị nọgidere na-eche ọrụ nke ịmepe ọhụụ ọhụrụ (Newport 2006: 66). N'ime mmebi ahụ batara nwunye Houteff, Florence, yana ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ na-ese okwu. N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe Victor nwụsịrị, Florence malitere ịkọ amụma banyere ọdịnihu nke obodo, na-egosi na ọ ga-akpọlite ​​Victor n'onwe ya. N'ikwu na mgbe ọ nwụrụ, Victor gbara ya ume ka ọ weghara ọnọdụ ya, Florence mere ngwa ngwa wee gaa n'ihu ikpe ya na Executive Council of the Davidian Association wee mee ka a mata ha.

N'oge ya dị ka onye ndú nke ndị David, Florence Houteff nọgidere na-akọwapụta okwu ọhụrụ nke oge Ihe atụ ahụ Usoro, nke akwụkwọ mpịakọta itoolu ebipụtara n'oge ndụ di ya (Florence Houteff 1955-1958). Ruo taa, enwere arụmụka banyere ma '' Koodu ọhụụ '' nke Florence nwere ezigbo nkuzi nke di ya. Mana ihe kachasị dị egwu na nke esemokwu nke Florence mere bụ ịtọ ụbọchị nke mmalite nke oge njedebe. N'ịkọghachi mkpebi William Miller nke mepụtara Nnukwu Ndakpọ ahụ, Florence kwupụtara na na ngwụsị nke oge Ememe Ngabiga, n'April 22, 1959, ihe omume nke njedebe ga-amalite ime (Newport 2006: 101). Ọ gbara ndị David ume ka ha zukọta n'Ugwu Kamel Center, ụfọdụ 1,000 mere.

Ihe mere Florence ji ele anya na otutu ihe di ya kwusara. Agha ga-ebibi Middle East ma meghee ohere maka ndị David ịchọta alaeze ha na Mesaịa n'ala Israel; Chọọchị Katọlik ga-adị ọcha na 144,000 ruru eru maka nzọpụta ga-achịkọta.

Odida nke amụma Florence Houteff fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bibie obodo Ugwu Kamel. Ndị fọdụrụ n'ime obodo gbasoro usoro ọzọ amaara ama maka ịmezu amụma amụma. Otu akụkọ na-arụ ụka na 1960 rụrụ ụka na alaeze ahụ emezighị emezi n'ihi na mbọ ndị na-ezisa ozi ọma nke David bụ naanị sọọsọ ụka SDA. Ọ gbara ume ka agbasaa ozi ahụ na ụka niile Protestant (Newport 2006: 107). Mkpebi ahụ, ọbụlagodi, zụtara obodo oge iji gbasaa ozi ya.

Enwere ihe mgbagha ọzọ site na nkwenye ahụ. Nzukọ 1961 dị na Los Angeles mere ka ndị David bụrụ ndị dị iche iche dị iche iche. Otu n'ime ha nọgidere na Ugwu Carmel ma onye nke ọzọ nọ na Salem, South Carolina, ebe ọ na-aga n'ihu taa (General Association of David's Seventh Adventists 2013; Newport 2006: 108).

Mgbe ahụ, ọ na-ewe oge maka nduzi doro anya ka ọ pụta n'etiti Ugwu David Carmel. Mgbe ọ mere, ọ bụ na onye Benjamin Roden (1902-1978). Mgbe ọ banyere na SDA ụka na 1940 Roden na nwunye ya Lois (1905-1986) zutere Victor Houteff's Shepherd's Rod ozi oge ụfọdụ n'etiti 1940s. O yiri ka ndị Rodens mbụ gara Ugwu Kamel n'oge na-adịghị anya karịa 1945. Ha laghachiri ọtụtụ ugboro n'ime afọ iri na-abịanụ, na mgbe Victor Houteff nwụrụ na 1955, Ben Roden nwere obi ike na ya onwe ya na ọ na-emezughị akara maka isi nke ndị isi obodo.

Roden gosipụtara nkwupụta ya ịbụ onye isi na ntọala nke ọkpụkpọ oku ya. N'ịkọwapụta akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ dị ka Aịsaịa 11: 1, Zekaraịa 3: 8 na 6:12, na Jọn 15: 1-3, ọ malitere iche na ya bụ "Alaka", onye Chineke họọrọ ka ọ rụchaa ọrụ Victor Houteff amalitela (Ben Roden 1958). Nkọwa onwe nke Roden ga-enyefekwara ndị na-eso ụzọ ya, bụ ndị a bịara mara dị ka alaka ma ọ bụ Alaka David. Ọ bụ ezie na Roden ekwenyeghị na ọ bụghị ya bụ onye isi obodo ugwu Kamel, ọ dọrọ uche ya gaa ebe ọzọ na 1950s ikpeazụ. Ya na nwunye ya na ezinụlọ ya, ọ chigharịkwuuru Israel ma guzobe obodo nke ga-abụ ihe ndabere nke obodo Mesaịa David na-eme na Ala Nsọ Ben Roden 1960). Ọ bụ ezie na Florence Houteff na Ugwu Kamel David David kwagara n'ụzọ na-enweghị atụ maka ụbọchị nke Eprel 22, 1959, Ben Roden ji aka ya guzobe obodo na Israel, na-emepe ozizi ya dị iche iche dịka "Alaka", na ịtọ ntọala isi na Odessa, Texas . Na 1965, mgbe Florence nwụsịrị, ọ gbalịrị ịzụta ihe fọdụrụ n'ugwu Carmel n'aka onye na-elekọta ụlọ ahụ ka ekenye ya mmiri. Mgbe arụmụka gbasara iwu gbasara onye nwere aha ya, tinyere ihe ndị ọzọ, Roden mechara zụọ ya na February nke 1973 (Newport 2006: 128).

N'ime afọ 1960 na 1970s Roden gara n'ihu na-etolite ma nụchaa echiche mmụta okpukpe ya. Ntọala nke alaeze Chineke nke Israel na-anọgide bụ isi na-elekwasị anya, Roden nwekwara onwe ya okpueze "Onye Nleda nke Chineke Kachasị Elu" na June, 1970 na Ugwu Kamel (Newport 2006: 148). Ihe odide Ben Roden adighi mfe. Ọ na-agbaso ihe nlereanya nke Victor Houteff n'ịchịkọta ihe odide dị mgbagwoju anya nke nkwupụta sitere na Bible na ndị isi ndị ọzọ dị ka Ellen G. White. O doro anya na ihe ha pụtara pụtara ìhè n'ihi na ọ na-enye obere nduzi banyere otu esi atụgharị ha. David Koresh ga-emesị jiri otu ụdị ngosi ahụ na ihe odide ya na-agwụbeghị banyere ihe akara asaa ahụ dị n'akwụkwọ Mkpughe.

Roden kwusiri ike na ezi ndị Adventist kwesịrị ime ka ọ bụghị naanị iwu omume nke Agba Ochie Ndị Kraịst kama iwu nke ememe. N'ihi ya, o mere ka ememme ndị dị ka Ememe Ngabiga, Pentikọst, na Ụlọikwuu dị iche iche dị ka Ememe Ngabiga, Pentikọst, na Ụlọikwuu dị na Ugwu Carmel ma mee ka nghọta ha dị na ya. Ịhụ Ememe Ngabiga n'Ugwu Kamel ga-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'ime mkparịta ụka n'etiti ndị FBI na ndị nọ n'ógbè ahụ na-anọchi ụbọchị iri ise na otu (Tabor na Gallagher 1995: 15).

Dika ndi ndu ndi Adventist bu ya, Ben Roden adighi adi ndu ka olile anya nke obi uto ya. Nloghachi Jizọs na-eduzi ndị Ikpeazụ Ikpe ọzọ na-egbu oge. Mana ọnwụ Roden atụghị obodo ahụ ụjọ site na mgbagha n'ihi na nwunye ya bụ Lois adịla njikere iburu ibu ọrụ nke onye ndu, n'agbanyeghị na nwa Roden ahụ bụ George rụrụ ụka na ya enweghị ikike, ọ ga-anọgide na-ewe oke iwe na ugwu Kamel ruo oge ụfọdụ. Dị ka di ya, Lois kwadoro nkwupụta ya na ntọala obi ụtọ. Ọ malitela ịnata mkpughe na 1977, ha bụkwa ndị na-akpali akpali maka usoro mmụta mmụta ọhụụ ọhụrụ, ọkachasị echiche bụ na Mmụọ Nsọ bụ nwanyị (Lois Roden 1980). George gara ebe ọdịnala karịa maka nkwupụta ya, na-ekwusi ike na nna ya họpụtara ya ka ọ bụrụ onye isi ọrụ na njem ahụ, ebe Ben Roden kwenyere na ụmụ ya ga-adị ndụ ịhụ mgbe a ga-ewughachi ụlọ nsọ ahụ na Jerusalem.

Ọ bụ ezie na a họọrọ mama ya n'ụzọ doro anya ka ọ na-edu ndị David nke Alaka na 1979, George Roden nọgidere na-emegharị onwe ya n'aha, na-eduzi ya vitriol mbụ megide nne ya na mgbe megide ya na David Koresh, onye, ​​dị ka Vernon Howell, sonyeere Ugwu Kamel na 1981. George mechara nwee mmeri n'ọchịchị ntuli aka na 1984, mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ gbanwere aha nke Ugwu Kamel gaa “Rodenville” ma jisie ike na-arụ ụka maka isi ya. Ọ na-ewe usoro ihe omume dị mgbagwoju anya, gụnyere ọtụtụ ikpe n'ụlọ ikpe, ikpe George maka nlelị nke ebubo ụlọ ikpe, yana njide 1989 ya maka igbu ọchụ na njedebe na ụlọ ọrụ ọgụgụ isi, tupu Koresh enwee ike ịnụ ụtọ ndị isi na-akwadoghị nke ndị David David.

Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Lois ji aka ya rụọ ọrụ iji zụlite echiche ndị sitere n'ọhụụ 1977 ya nke kpughere na Mmụọ Nsọ bụ akụkụ nke nwanyị nke Chineke. Malite na 1980, ọ bipụtara Shekinah (mgbe niile na-eme ka akwụkwọ edemede atọ nke mbụ na-eme ka o doo anya), nke depụtaghachiri ihe ndị na-akwado nkwenkwe ya site na ọtụtụ ebe a na-ewu ewu (Lois Roden 1981-1983; Pitts 2014. dị ka oge ikpeazụ n'ime nhazi nke ụka SDA maka nkwadebe maka ikpe ikpe ikpeazụ.

Site na mmalite 1980s Lois nọgidere na-agbasa ozi ya, na-ejegharị na US, Canada, Israel, na Philippines. N'otu oge ahụ, ọdịnihu David Koresh ma ọ mụtara ihe site na ya, n'ụzọ dị ukwuu site na Ọmụmụ Bible ya, ma malite ịzụlite nkà mmụta okpukpe ya, nke a kọwara na ntinye nke ndị Davidson Branch (1981-2006). Koresh mechara nwee ihe ịga nke ọma Lois dị ka onye nkụzi bụ isi maka Ugwu Kamel, ọ bụ ezie na George Roden na-enweghị nkwụsịtụ na nkwụsị ụka nke onye nkụzi mbụ ya, Lois.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ebe ọ bụ na ndị David malitere site n'ịchọsi ike ime ka chọọchị SDa dị ọcha na ihe mgbaru ọsọ ahụ nọgidere bụrụ onye a ma ama n'aka Victor Houteff site na oge Rodens, ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya na ọtụtụ n'ime echiche dị iche iche nke ụka SDA buuru ndị David na Alaka Ndị Devid. N'agbanyeghi ihe omuma ihe omumu nke ndi ozo, ndi David na ndi ozo nke Devid we nwe olile anya na nloghachi nke Jisos ka o debe ikpe ikpe ikpe di nso. Dịka Millerites na SDA n'ihu ha, ha rutere ná nkwubi okwu ahụ site na nyochagharị amaokwu Akwụkwọ Nsọ, bụ ebe njedebe nke asụsụ ihe atụ nke akwụkwọ Mkpughe mere ka ọ pụta ìhè. A na-echekwa mgbalị ha na-akọwa n'ime ọtụtụ akwụkwọ mmụta okpukpe, Studies Bible, na akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ, a na-edebe ọtụtụ n'ime ha na ịntanetị. Ndị Davidia na ndị omekome Davidian exegesis na-emekarị arụmụka na-edozi anya ma dị mgbagwoju anya, bụ nke, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọnụ ọgụgụ ma ọ bụ ihe omume sitere n'Agba Ochie Ndị Kraịst ka a na-ele anya dịka ụdị ihe atụ na ihe ndị sitere na Agba Ọhụụ, a na-ahụ nke a na-ahụ dịka ha antitypes. Aha ohuru nke ochie Vernon Howell nakweere na nkowa nke akwukwo nso nke apuru ihu ya dika Devid na Saịrọs.

Site na oge Victor Houteff site na oge ndu ndu nke David Koresh, ntọala ọchịchị alaeze Mesaịa nke dị n'ala nke Israel bụkwa isiokwu a ma ama banyere nkà mmụta okpukpe. Ben Roden gbalịsiri ike ime ka alaeze dị otú ahụ na-atụ anya mgbe ọ ga-amalite oge ikpeazụ, na-aga ọtụtụ njem gaa Izrel iji guzobe obodo n'ebe ahụ ndị na-eso ụzọ ya nwere ike ịkwaga. Ọrụ kachasị dị mkpa nke Israel na iche echiche Davidson ga-emesị bụrụ ndị agha 1993 nke Ugwu Carmel Center, dịka David Koresh na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya gbalịsiri ike ijikọta bọmbụ BATF na njedebe oge ha tụrụ anya ya.

Echiche SDA nke onye amụma nke oge a nwere ike ịbụ onye na-eweta "eziokwu dị ugbu a" na-eme ka ndị ọzọ dị iche iche nkwonkwo nke ọdịnala ahụ. N'oge mmalite nke Chọọchị SDA, James White, onye guzobere SDA na ya na Ellen nwunye ya, bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ oge ya Eziokwu Eziokwu a. Na peeji nke mbụ nke mbipụta mbụ ya na 1849, o hotara nkwa nke onye edemede nke II Peter 1: 12 gaa na chọọchị Ndị Kraịst oge mbụ, "Agaghị m eleghara anya iji cheta ihe ndị a, ọ bụ ezie na ị maara ha , ma guzosie ike n'eziokwu a dị ugbu a. "White kwuru na eziokwu dị ugbu a agaghị ejikarị oge ndịozi ma ọ dịkarịa ala ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ ga-adị. O dere na "eziokwu nke oge a ga-adị ugboro ugboro, ọbụna ndị e guzobeworo na ya. Nke a dị mkpa na ndịozi (sic) ụbọchị, ọ dịghịkwa mkpa anyị, ndị na-adị ndụ tupu ọgwụgwụ oge. "(James White 1849: 1). N'otu aka ahụ, n'ihe banyere idebe Ụbọchị Izu Ike na Satọdee, Ellen G. White dere n'akwụkwọ nke abụọ ya Akaebe maka Church (1885) na "eziokwu nke ugbu a, nke bụ ule nye ndị ọgbọ a, abụghị ihe nlere nye ọgbọ nke ọgbọ dị anya. Ọ bụrụ na ìhè nke na-enwu anyị ugbu a maka Ụbọchị Izu Ike nke iwu nke anọ ka e nyere ọgbọ nile n'oge gara aga, Chineke gaara ejide ha maka ìhè ahụ. "(Ellen White 1885: 693).

N'ụzọ dị iche iche nke onwe ha, ndị isi nke ndị David na ndị David David nke Ala ọzọ kwuru na ha ga-eweta eziokwu dị ugbu a. Victor Houteff bụ onye na-ekwusi ike banyere ịkọ ụdị ikike amụma ọ bụla, mana nke ahụ egbochighị ya ịkọwa nkuzi nkuzi nke Shepherd dị ka ihe dị oke mkpa. Na mpịakọta mbụ nke Mkpanaka Onye Ọzụzụ Atụrụ , o dere banyere ihe ọ na-akụzi na “ọ dịghị eziokwu e kpughere ekpughe e nyere chọọchị ahụ n’ime afọ iri anọ malite n’afọ 1890 ruo 1930, n’ihi ya kwa na onye ọ bụla nke na-azọrọ ozi sitere n’eluigwe n’oge ahụ bụ nke ụgha.” (Houteff 1930: 86). Site na nkuzi Houteff n'onwe ya, ọ na-egosi, "ọkụ ọhụrụ" na-enwu ọzọ na ụka SDA. Onyinye nke Florence Houteff nke eziokwu ugbu a dabere na amụma ya na Eprel 22, 1959 ga-amalite oge nke njedebe. Ben Roden nwere nlezianya onwe onye nke amụma ma webata ọtụtụ usoro mmụta okpukpe na usoro ọhụụ dabere na ikike nke ya ịnapụta eziokwu dị ugbu a. N'otu aka ahụ kwa Lois Roden, ọkachasị na nkuzi ya na Mmụọ Nsọ bụ nwanyị. N'ozuzu, ịrịọ maka echiche mmụta okpukpe nke Adventist banyere "eziokwu dị ugbu a" bụ ụzọ bụ isi nke isi ndị isi nke Alaka David gbalịsiri ike ime ka ikike ha bụrụ nke ziri ezi. Mgbe ha na-ewu mmadụ ha dị ka onye amụma, ha tụkwasịrị obi na echiche mmụta okpukpe siri ike nke jikọtara ha n'otu oge gara aga ma gosipụta mbọ ha na-agbanwe. Ihe omuma banyere ihe omumu ha bu ihe omuma nke eziokwu di ugbu a.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

N'iburu mkpa nke ịkọwa ozi nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ banyere njedebe nke ụwa na ikpe ikpeazụ, ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya na ememe bụ isi maka ndị David na ndị Alaka David bụ Ọmụmụ Bible. Dika ndi ndu dika Lois Roden, na David Koresh mechara mee, ihe omumu nke akwukwo nso abughi ihe nchoputa banyere ihe ufodu uzo karia ha bu ihe omuma nke edere iji mee ka nghota di nma nke ihe ederede. N'ime omumu Akwukwo Nso na otutu ihe omuma nke ndi ndu Davidian na ndi ozo ndi David, hare akwukwo nso dika ot'nwere ezi nghota. Amamihe nke onye ntụgharị okwu lekwasịrị anya na ịhazi ihe odide nke akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke ga-eme ka nghọtahie ọ bụla dị na ederede ahụ na-atụle ma mee ka ndị na-agụ ya ghọta ya. Ntughari na teepu nke ihe omumu nke akwukwo nso bu uzo ndi ndu si agbasa ozi ha nye ndi mmadu karia Ugwu Kamel.

Ndị SDA maara nke ọma mgbọrọgwụ ndị Juu nke ndị otu Kristi, nke butere ha na mbụ idebe ụbọchị izu ike na Satọde. Otu n'ime ndị isi David na ndị isi Ala David Ben Roden nwere mmasị dị ukwuu n'ịgbasa usoro omume na Ugwu Kamel gụnyere ememe ndị Juu bụ isi (Ben Roden 1965). Ndị David na ndị David nke Alaka kwadoro ụdị okpukpe ndị Juu nke oge a nke gosipụtara ememme na-aga n'ihu n'etiti okpukpe ndị Juu nke ụbọchị Jizọs na ngagharị ọ tọrọ ntọala.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ọ bụ ezie na ndị David na ndị Alaka David nwere ụlọ ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, ha ka na-adabere n'ụdị nduzi nke mmụọ. Echiche nke eziokwu dị ugbu a kwadebere ndị Adventist ile anya na ndị na-azọrọ n'oge a na ikike amụma, ọbụlagodi ka ikike okpukpe na-etinye n'otu ezinụlọ na ọzọ. N'ụzọ dị iche iche, onye isi ọ bụla sitere na Victor Houteff site n'aka David Koresh kwuru na ya ga-enye nduzi dị otú ahụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Ben Roden, ọ bụghị naanị bịara ghọta onwe ya dị ka "Alaka" Akwụkwọ Nsọ, ọ ghọtara ọrụ ya iji gaa n'ihu na ọ bụghị naanị nke Victor Houteff kamakwa nke Ellen G. White n'onwe ya, na-ekwughị ndị amụma sitere na Bible. O dere na “o doro anya ịhụ na Ellen G. White na Victor T. Houteff bụ n’ezie ndị amụma nke Chineke ma, n’ezie, na-ede ihe n'okpuru nduzi nke Mmụọ nke Amụma. Hwɛ Amos 3: 7. Ebe ọ bụ na Oriakụ White na VT Houteff ha abụọ nọ n’ili, dị ka ndị amụma Akwụkwọ Nsọ, ọ dị mkpa ịkpọtụrụ Alaka na Joshua, Ndụ Akaebe Jizọs na ụka taa, maka nkọwa kwekọrọ n’Akwụkwọ Nsọ na ihe ha dere . ” (Ben Roden 1955-1956: 95). Lois Roden kwadoro ikike nke ya site na ịkọwa ọhụụ 1977 ya nke ọ mụtara ezigbo ọdịdị na okike nke Mmụọ Nsọ. N'ihe banyere ndị bu ya ụzọ, David Koresh na-azọrọ ikike na ugwu Kamel dị ka ọdịiche na isiokwu. Ukem nte Ben Roden, enye ama okụt idemesie ke Bible, akpan akpan ke mbiet Eyenerọn̄ Abasi oro ẹsiakde ke Ediyarade 5, nte odot ndikụbọde ikpan̄wed oro edimde ufịkn̄kpọ itiaba. Dị ka Lois Roden, Koresh kwukwara na ọ bụ ahụmahụ pụrụ iche nke mkpughe, ihe dị ka ịrịgo n'eluigwe mgbe ọ nọ na Jerusalem na 1985. Ọzọkwa, dị ka Victor Houteff na Ben Roden, Koresh hụrụ onwe ya dị ka onye na-arụ ọrụ pụrụ iche na nguzobe nke Davidic alaeze Mesaịa.

Nkwuputa ikike na enweghị ikike mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya belụsọ ma a matara ma mee ya eme. Ndi ndu ndi David na ndi Ala ozo gosiputara na ha nwere ike idota ma obu ndi n’eso uzo Ugwu Kamel na, site na igbasa nke nkuzi ha, ime ka ndi ozo kwenye na ha enwetala nghota ohuru banyere ihe amaokwu ndia dere. Iwebata ihe omimi ohuru, dika Florence Houteff ịtọọ ụbọchị maka mmalite nke oge njedebe na mkpọsa Lois Roden na Mmụọ Nsọ bụ nwanyị, na-ewekarị oge ọgba aghara maka opekata mpe ụfọdụ ndị na-eso ụzọ ha. Achọpụta ọrịa na ọ dịkarịa ala otu nghọtahie dị n'etiti ndị David nwere oge dị ka ndị ahụ. N'aka nke ọzọ, ndị jisiri ike webata echiche ọhụụ gbasara mmụọ mmụta ọhụụ na mbido nkwa ha mere ka ha kwenyesi ike na otu ahụ na onye ndu ya ugbu a. A pụrụ ịhụ usoro nke itinyekwu obi na-ewusi ike n'ụzọ doro anya na mmekọrịta ọmụmụ Bible. Ebe ọ bụ na ọmụmụ Bible nwere katabụ karịa ọrụ nyocha, oge ọ bụla mmadụ gara mmadụ ihu na ihu, gụọ otu ma ọ bụ nụ otu na teepu, ọ ghọrọ ohere iji gosipụta ma kwadosie ike na ozi a na-ezi. Na mgbakwunye na ịbụ oge iji kọwaa nkà mmụta okpukpe pụrụ iche nke ndị David na ndị Alaka David, ọmụmụ Bible ghọrọ ohere maka ndị isi na-esote iji gosipụta ma mesie onye ndu ha ike.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ma David ma ndị David David nke David nọgidere na-eche ihe ịma aka ihu na ha na ndị otu puku afọ ọzọ. Dịka ụmụazụ nke William Miller bụ ndị chere nnukwu Oké Mgbaghara ihu, ha na-eche mgbe nile na ọbịbịa nke ọbịbịa Jizọs n'oge ikpe ikpeazụ. Mgbe Florence Houteff, dị ka Miller na ndị ọzọ nọ n'ihu ya, mere n'ezie otu ụbọchị maka ihe omume nke njedebe, ihe ịma aka ahụ ghọrọ ihe ka ukwuu. Oge na-aga n'ihu na njedebe nke ọgwụgwụ ahụ na-eri ụdị dịgasị iche iche nke nọ na Ugwu Carmel Center, ma ọbụna ndị ekwesịrịghị ịmalite ịma jijiji site na ntukpu amụma ma ọ bụ nkwụsị ngosi dị iche iche na-eme ka ha ghọta oge na otú ihe ga-esi na njedebe ga - , n'ikpeazụ, gosipụtara. Ndị isi chere ihe ịma aka nke ịnọgide na-enwe mmetụta nke ịdị ngwa anya na-atụ anya na ụwa ga-agbanwe n'oge na-adịghị anya na ha aghaghị ịkọwa nkọwa maka oge na-adịghị agwụ agwụ.

N'agbanyeghị nnukwu ozi ala ọzọ ha, nke bụ isi n'etiti ndị otu SDA ụka, ndị David na ndị Davidson Alaka tụlekwara n'eziokwu na ndị na-ege ha ntị na-ajụ ozi ha ọtụtụ oge karịa ka a nabatara ya. Site na Victor Houteff gaa n'ihu, ndị isi David na Alaka ndị David anaghị akọwasị ebubo ha na chọọchị SDA. Otú ọ dị, ha mere ndị òtù ụka ihe mgbaru ọsọ ha bụ isi maka ime ntọghata. Ọnụ ọgụgụ dị nta nke ndị bi n'Ugwu Kamel na ndị nwere ọmịiko na-egosi na oge dị iche iche, na-egosi na ìgwè dị iche iche nọgidere dị ka ndị rụrụ arụ na ndị jụrụ okwukwe n'anya ọgbakọ SDA dị ka ha dị mgbe mbụ a chụpụrụ Houteff na 1934. Omenala dị iche iche malitere Ihe ịma aka Houteff na ụka SDA ka bụ obere ndị otu obere esemokwu na nne na nna ha ma na-enwe ike ịghachite ihe karịrị narị mmadụ ole na ole. Esemokwu na-aga n'ihu nke ndị David na ndị Alaka David nwere na SDA ụka mechara mechaa esemokwu agha nke Ugwu Kamel nke David Koresh nwere na ndị agha gọọmentị US.

References

Gallagher, Eugene V. 2013. "'Eziokwu dị ugbu a' na ntụgharị n'etiti ndị David David nke Alaka" Pp. 115-26 n'ime Nyochagharị na Mgbanwe dị iche iche na New Movements, nke Eileen Barker dere. London: Ashgate.

Houteff, Florence. 1958. Usoro Ihe Omume , Flights. 10-13. Nweta site na http://www.davidiansda.org/new_codes_or_false_codes.htm na 2 August 2013.

Houteff, Victor. 1943. Levitikọs nke ndị Seventh-Day Adventist. Nweta site na http://www.the- B ranch.org/Davidian_Association_Leviticus_Bylaws_Constitution_Houteff na 2 August 2013.

Houteff, Victor. 1930. “Mkpanaka Onye Ọzụzụ Atụrụ, Mpịakọta. M traktị. ” Nweta site na http://www.the-branch.org/Shepherds_Rod_Tract_Israel_Esau_Jacob_Types_Houteff na 2 August 2013.

Newport, Kenneth GC 2006. Ndị David David nke Alaka nke Waco: History and Beliefs of a Apocalyptic Sect. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pitts, William L. 2014. "SHEkinah: Lois Roden's Quest for Gender Equality. ” Nova Religio 17 :: 37-60.

Roden, Ben L. 1965. “Mmemme Nsọ nke Chukwu.” Nweta site na http://www.the-branch.org/Six_Holy_Feasts_In_The_Old_And_New_Testaments_Ben_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Roden, Ben L. 1960. "Akwụkwọ Ozi Ala Ala Nye Ndị kwere n'Ala Nkwa ahụ." Ha si n'aka http://www.the-branch.org/Lois_Roden_In_Israel_As_Chairman_Ben_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Roden, Ben L. 1959. "Owuwe Ihe Ubi Atọ nke Ọpụpụ 23: 14-19; Lev. 23. "Nabatara na http://www.the-branch.org/Passover_Wavesheaf_Antitype_Branch_Davidians_Ben_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Roden, Ben L. 1958. "Ezinụlọ Ezinụlọ-Aịsaịa 11: 1." Nweta site na http://www.the-branch.org/Isaiah_11_Family_Tree_Judgment_Of_The_Living_Ben_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Roden, Ben L. 1955-1956. "Akwụkwọ edemede asaa na Florence Houteff. "Nabatara site na http://www.the-branch.org/Jesus%27_New_Name_The_Branch_Day_Of_Atonement_Ben_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Roden, Iwu I. 1981-1983. SHEkinah. Nweta site na http://www.the-branch.org/Shekinah_Magazine na 2 August 2013.

Roden Lois I. 1980. "Site na Mmụọ Ya. . . . "Nabatara na http://www.the-branch.org/Godhead_Masculine_Feminine_Father_Mother_Son_Lois_Roden na 2 August 2013.

Rowe, David L. 2008. Ọrụ Dị Iche nke Chineke: William Miller na Ọgwụgwụ nke .wa. Ukwu Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Tabor, James D. na Eugene V. Gallagher. 1995. Gịnị mere Waco? Ndi ogwu na agha maka Nnwere onwe okpukpe na America Taa. Berkeley, CA: Mahadum California Press.

Òtù Na-ahụ Maka Ndị Ọchịchị nke Ụbọchị Seventh-Day. 2013. Nweta site na http://www.davidian.org/ na 2 August 2013.

White, Ellen. 1885. Akaebe maka Chọọchị , vol. II. p. 693. Nweta site na http://www.gilead.net/egw/books/testimonies/Testimonies_for_the_Church_Volume_Two na 2 August 2013. .

Ụbọchị Post:
3 August 2013

 

Share