David G. Bromley Caitlin St Clair

Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta

KRAISTST NT RTA NTEDTA

1850s (ufọt ufọt narị afọ): Nna Pedro Maria Boss rịọrọ ka ego nye Princess Isabel iji wuo nnukwu ihe ncheta okpukpe n'elu ugwu dị na Rio de Janeiro.

1870: Achụrụ echiche nke iwu ihe ncheta ahụ.

1889: Brazil ghọrọ mba Republic, nke nwere iwu nkewa maka nkewa nke ụka na steeti.

1921: Archdiocese kwadoro atụmatụ nke abụọ maka iwu ihe oyiyi dị n'akụkụ ugwu na Rio de Janeiro. Enwetara ego site na onyinye sitere na ndị Katọlik Brazil.

1922 (February): A họpụtara atụmatụ Heitor Da Silva Costa.

1924: Costa gara Europe ka ọ gakwuru ndị na-ese ihe. Paul Landowski nyere ọrụ ahụ.

1926: Ewube ncheta ahụ bidoro.

1931: E wuchara ụlọ ahụ.

1931 (October 12): Emere nraranye.

2003: Ndozigharị gụnyere mgbakwunye nke igwe mbugo, ndị na-ebuli elu na ndị na-aga.

2006 (October 12): E doro ụlọ ụka dị na ntọala ahụ nsọ, na-ekwe ka agbamakwụkwọ na baptizim mee na ncheta ahụ.

2007 (July 7): A kpọrọ Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta dị ka otu n'ime ọhụụ asaa ọhụụ nke ụwa.

2010: A rụzigharịrị ihe ncheta ahụ; emezigharị mmezigharị ọzọ maka 2020.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

N'etiti 1850s, Fada Pedro Maria Boss rịọrọ adaeze Brazil bụ Isabel, onye isi ala nke oge, maka ego iji wuo nnukwu ihe ncheta okpukpe na Rio de Janeiro ilegharị anya n’obodo ahụ. Fada Boss kwuru na a ga-arụ ihe ncheta a maka asọpụrụ Princess Isabel (Dunnell nd) Ọ ga-abụ ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke Jizọs, nke a na-akpọ Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta, wuru na Corcovado, ugwu osisi dị na ugwu Rio. Princess Isabel gosipụtara mgbagha ya site na ịghara ime ihe nna anyị rịọrọ. Mgbe nna ya, Emperor Pedro II, si agha Paraguay lọta na 1870, ọ nweghị aha ọzọ akpọrọ ma ọ bụ mee ihe na ntinye ahụ.

Mgbe a kwaturu ọchịchị eze na Brazil ghọrọ mba Republic na 1889, nkewa nke ụka na steeti nabatara dị ka ụkpụrụ ntọala, nke mere ka owuwu ihe ncheta okpukpe sie ike. Mgbe Agha Iwa Mbụ gasịrị, otu ìgwè ndị Brazil si Archdiocese nke Rio de Janeiro “tụrụ egwu mbili nke enweghị nsọpụrụ Chineke” (Bowater, Mulvey na Misra 2014) na, na 1921, ha tụrụ aro iwu nnukwu akpụrụ akpụ nke Kraịst dị ka ụzọ nlọghachi Rio de Janeiro maka Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst. Ugwu Akara Sugar, ọdịdị dome dị mma na-ebili na mmiri nke Guanabara Bay, bụ ebe a tụrụ aro otu a, mana Corcovado, saịtị ahụ site na arịrịọ mbụ, ka ekpebiri ka ọ bụrụ nhọrọ ka mma.

A tụlere ọtụtụ atụmatụ ncheta. Ọrụ mbụ maka imepụta ihe akpụrụ akpụ gara Carlos Oswald. Ọhụụ ya Kraist bu obe ya ma jidekwa uwa aka ya mgbe o guzoro n’elu ebe edere n’uwa. N’ikpeazu, a hoputara akpụrụ akpụ nke Kraist, nke gbasapụrụ iji gosipụta ihunanya na nnabata. Archdiocese rịọrọ maka onyinye sitere n'aka ọtụtụ ndị Katọlik bi na Brazil, na n'ime otu izu emere maka ego (Semana do Monumento), Ego zuru ezu iji bulie ọrụ ahụ, yana ego na-aga n'ihu na mmecha ya (Dunnell nd).

Heitor da Silva Costa, onye engineer Brazil, mere ihe oyiyi ahụ, na onye France na Poland bụ onye na-ese ihe, Paul Landowski rụpụtara ya, na-arụ ọtụtụ ihe owuwu na France. Onye na-ese ihe na Romania, Gheorghe Leonid, mere ihu ihe oyiyi ahụ. Ha nile, Costa na Landowski, onye Juu, bidoro iwube ihe akpụrụ akpụ na 1926 ma wuchaa ya na 1931. Ihe eji ewu ụlọ mbụ bụ $ 250,000, nke ga-abụ ihe karịrị $ 3,000,000 na dollar ugbu a (Dunnell nd). Emere nraranye na October 12, 1931, ụbọchị nke Our Lady nke Apareida, onye nchebe dị nsọ nke Brazil (Ihe ebube nke ụwa). Ruo mgbe 2010, ọ bụ ihe osise kachasị mma na ụwa, tupu Kraịst Eze karịa na Poland.

Kemgbe ihe ncheta ndị a rụrụ, e megharịrị ọtụtụ ihe. E wuru ihe akpụrụ akpụ n'elu ihe igwe na-eche ihu na ihe karịrị 6,000,000 taịl nile. A na-agbari ebe a na-awa nkume maka nkume nke mbido mbụ, ya mere o siri ike inweta taịl ndị na-anọchi anya ya. Ka oge na-aga, ihu ihe oyiyi ahụ adịchago ọchịchịrị na mmegharị ọ bụla. Iji cheta ncheta afọ iri asaa na ise ahụ, agbakwunyere ụlọ ụka e mere ncheta nke Lady anyị nke ngosi (Nossa Senhora Aparecida) na ntọala nke ncheta ahụ na 2006. Ọ nwere ike ịnọdụ mmadụ 150 ma nabata agbamakwụkwọ na baptism. Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta aghọwo otu n'ime ebe ndị njem nleta na-agakarị na Brazil, na-adọta ihe dị ka nde mmadụ abụọ kwa afọ.

N’agbanyeghi na mbido ya na ihe nkwalite ugwu ya bu nke okpukpe, o nwere ihe putara ihe. Otu n’ime ndi bidoro oru ngo a na 1920s, Count Celso, kọwara ya dị ka "ihe ncheta nke sayensị, nka na okpukpe" (Bowater, Mulvey, and Misra 2014). Padre Omar Raposo, onye isi oche nke ụka dị n’okpuru ihe akpụrụ akpụ, kwuru, “Ọ bụ akara okpukpe, akara ọdịnala na akara nke Brazil. Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta na-eweta ọmarịcha ọhụụ nke ịnabata ogwe aka nye ndị niile na-agabiga na obodo Rio de Janeiro ”(Bowater, Mulvey, and Misra 2014). N'oge ememe a na-eme kwa afọ na Rio, otu n'okporo ámá a na-akpọ Suvaco do Cristo (Ogwe aka Kraịst) na-agbada n'okpuru ihe oyiyi ahụ iji nye ụtụ maka ịgbatị aka ya.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Corcovado dị n'ime Ogige Ntụrụndụ Tijuca, yabụ na-ekenye nchịkwa maka akara ngosi a n'etiti Archdiocese nke Rio na Ministry of the Environment (Morales 2013). Nchịkwa nke ụlọ ụka ahụ dị n'aka Padre Omar Raposo. Archdịọcese na Mịnịstrị nke Gburugburu Ebe obibi na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ iji hazie ohere ịbanye n'ụlọ arụsị.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Iwu ihe oyiyi ahụ n’onwe ya bụ nnukwu nsogbu. Nnukwu nke ihe akpụrụ akpụ na ogologo ogologo nke ogwe aka gbatịrị agbatị pụtara na mpempe akwụkwọ a kwesịrị ịdị ike karịa, yabụ ejiri nlezianya tụlee ihe eji ewu ụlọ. Okike Costa kpebiri na ígwè-mesikwuru ihe, "ihe nke ọdịnihu," ka o kwuru (Bowater, Mulvey and Misra 2014). Agbanyeghị, ọ lere anya na ihe siri ike na nke jọgburu onwe ya ka ọ bụrụ mmecha. Ọ mere n'otu isi iyi dị na Champs Elysees nke ejiri ọlaọcha na-acha ọlaọcha. Costa dere, sị: "Site n'ịhụ ka obere taịl nile si kpuchie profaịlụ nke isi iyi ahụ, n'oge na-adịghị anya, echiche nke iji ha na-ese onyinyo nke m na-echekarị n'uche m." Kwafe site n'echiche ahụ gaa na imepụta ya were ihe na-erughị awa 24. N'ụtụtụ echi m gara ụlọ ọrụ seramiiki ebe m mere akpa ihe atụ "(Bowater, Mulvey and Misra 2014). Ọ họọrọ nkume nchara maka taịl nile n'ihi na ọ na-adịgide adịgide. Site na okwute ndị dị nso na obodo Ouro Preto, obere obere triangles nke nchacha agba ọcha, 3cm x 3cm x 4cm na 5mm thick, ka e bepụrụ wee tinye ya na akwa akwa akwa site na ụmụ nwanyị n'otu parish dị n'akụkụ ụkwụ Corcovado. Ndozi na-enyekwa ihe ịma aka ebe ọ bụ na taịl nile na-adabaghị na ya adịghị. Dị ka ọnụ na-ekwuchitere Institutelọ Ọrụ Na-ahụ Maka Ihe Mere Ihe Akụkọ na Nkà nke Ihe Ọmụma nke Brazil kwuru, "O siri ike ịchọta nkume Kraịst" (Bowater, Mulvey na Misra 2014).

N'iburu ogo na ọnọdụ ya n'elu ugwu, iyi egwu na-aga n'ihu na-eche ncheta ga-abụ ọkụ. Onye Brazil Oflọ Ọrụ Na-ahụ Maka Nnyocha Ohere na-eme atụmatụ na e nwere ụzọ abụọ ruo anọ na-aga kwa afọ, mana na akụkọ ihe mere eme, mmebi ahụ pere mpe. Exceptionfọdụ oke mmiri ozuzo dị egwu emeela n'afọ ole na ole gara aga, agbanyeghị. Bowater, Mulvey and Misra (2014) na-akọ na "N'ime afọ ole na ole gara aga, e nweela ụfọdụ ifufe na-edebanye aha ihe karịrị 1,000 àmụmà, nke na-emeghị na mbụ." Ihe omume ndị a na-eme ka otu igwe eletriki nke ikuku dị na mbara igwe megharịa usoro ntọala nke ogwe ọkụ. Ihe oyiyi ahụ efuola mkpịsị aka mkpịsị aka ya, enwekwa mmebi n'azụ isi ihe oyiyi ahụ n'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya. Ihe oyiyi ahụ abụrụla ihe mbibi (Ribeiro 2010).

N'agbanyeghị nsogbu dị iche iche na-echekwa ihe ncheta na gburugburu ebe obibi na-emegide mmadụ, Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta anọgidewo na-enweta nnabata ma bụrụ ihe nlereanya maka ihe oyiyi ndị ọzọ. A kpọrọ Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta aha na New Seven Wonves of the World, site na nhoputa aka zuru ụwa ọnụ, yana saịtị ndị ọzọ ama ama (Nnukwu mgbidi nke China, Rome nke Colosseum, Machu Picchu, na Taj Mahal) (Wilkinson 2007). Ekwuputala atụmatụ ịkwụ ụgwọ maka Brazil iji mepụta ihe oyiyi okike na England tupu 2016 Olympic Games ("Brazil Plans to Build" 2012). Ekereworị ihe ndị ọzọ, nke sitere n'aka Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta na saịtị ndị dị ka Lisbon, Portugal; Guanajuato, Mexico; Havana, Cuba; na Arkansas, United States.

References

Bowater, Donna, Stephen Mulvey, na Tanvi Misra. 2014. "Ogwe aka Wide Open." BBC News, March 10. Nweta site na http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/special/2014/newsspec_7141/index.html on 27 April 2014.

"Brazil na-ezube iwu Christ the Redeemer Replica Statue in London." The Guardian, January 26. Nweta site na http://www.theguardian.com/news/blog/2012/jan/26/brazil-christ-redeemer-replica-london na 27 April 2014.

“Kraịst Onye Mgbapụta.” 2011. Ihe-ịtụnanya nke ụwa . Nweta site na http://www.thewondersoftheworld.net/christtheredeemerstatue.html na 27 April 2014.

Dunnell, Tony. nd "History of Christ the Redeemer Statue, Brazil." Nweta site na https://suite.io/tony-dunnell/2stf2j7 on 27 April 2014.

Morales, Elizabeth. 2013. “Ọ dị mma ịga Rio. ” Youthbọchị Ndị Ntorobịa Worldwa. Nweta site na http://worldyouthday.com/good-to-go-for-rio-jmj-youth-preps-for-pilgrims.

Wilkinson, Tracy. 2007. "Ihe ịtụnanya asaa nke ụwa, 2.0." Los Angeles Times, July 8. Nweta site na http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-wonders8jul08,0,299368.story?coll=la-default-underdog#axzz305XU1q7T na 27 April 2014.

Ribeiro, Patricia. 2010. "Ihe oyiyi mgbapụta nke Kraịst na Rio: Mgbe mmiri ozuzo na mbibi gasịrị." Gaa Brazil, April 16. Nweta site na http://gobrazil.about.com/b/2010/04/16/christ-the-redeemer-statue-in-rio-after-the-rain-and-vandalism.htm.

Ụbọchị Post:
28 April 2014

KRISTI EGO MFE EGO

 

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