David G. Bromley

Calvary Chapel

AKWELKWỌ AKW CKWỌ AKWALKWỌ

1927 (June 25) Charles (“Chuck”) a mụrụ Ward Smith na Ventura, California.

1946 Smith gụsịrị akwụkwọ na LIFE Bible College dị na Los Angeles, California.

1947-1964 Smith jere ozi ije ozi na Foursquare Gospel Church.

1965 Calvary Chapel malitere dị ka obere ọmụmụ Bible maka imechi ihe na ogige ụgbọala na-adọkpụ na Costa Mesa, California na Smith dị ka pastọ.

1968 Lonnie na Connie Frisbee bụ ndị Smith kpọrọ ka ha sonyere ndị ọrụ na Calvary Chapel, Lonnie bidokwara izi ndị mmadụ ozi na counterculture.

1968 Calvary Chapel meghere oflọ nke Ọrụ Ebube, ụlọ ọkara maka ndị na-agbanwe site na counterculture to Christianity.

1971 Frisbee na Smith kewara ụzọ n'ihi esemokwu mmụta okpukpe, ọkachasị gbasara amụma na glossolalia.

1971 Smith guzobere Marantha! Egwu, akara ndekọ egwu Ndị Kraịst.

1977 John Wimber, onye pastọ Calvary Chapel, malitere Vineyard Movement n'ime Calvary Chapel, na-ekwusi ike na ngosipụta nke onyinye ime mmụọ na ọgbakọ Calvary Chapel.

1978 Wimber kpọrọ Frisbee ka ọ gaa Vineyard Movement Calvary Chapel.

1982 Wimber's Yineyard Movement kewapụrụ na Calvary Chapel, na-ewere aha Association nke Ubi Ubi Vineyard.

1993 Frisbee nwụrụ n'ihi nsogbu na ọrịa AIDS.

1996 Smith hibere Calvary Chapel Music record label.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

A mụrụ Chuck Smith na Ventura, California na 1927 site na Charles na Maude Smith. Nna Smith ka etolitere Presbyterian, nanne ya gara ụka Baptist; otu o sila dị, nne na nna ahụ ghọrọ Ndị Kraịst a mụrụ ọzọ. Okwukwe ha sikwuru ike mgbe ha hụrụ ihe ha kwenyere na ọ bụ ọrụ ebube mgbe onye ụkọchukwu Smith, bụ onye butere ọrịa meningitis azụ, ka onye ụkọchukwu ụka Pentikọstal kpọtara. Mgbe Smith bụ nwata, ọ na-eme egwuregwu nke ọma, o nweghịkwa mmasị n'ozi; n'ezie, o kpebiri ịghọ dọkịta. Agbanyeghị, ọ gbanwere ụzọ ya n'ụzọ dị egwu wee kpebie ịdebanye aha na ụlọ akwụkwọ Bible mgbe ọ na-aga ogige ndị ntorobịa ndị Kraịst n'oge ọkọchị. Ọ na-echeta na "Amaara m na Chineke akpọwo m n'onwe ya na enweghị m ike ịjụ" (Smith, Jr. 2009: 25). Mgbe ahụ ọ gara LIFE (Lighthouse of International Foursquare Evangelism) Bible College dị na Los Angeles, California, ebe a na-enye ndị ozi ọzụzụ maka International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. Ọ bụ ezie na Smith gụsịrị akwụkwọ na LIFE Bible College, ọ na-akọ na ọ na-enwe mgbe ọ bụla na-anọghị na ngalaba ụka Foursquare (Smith, Jr. 2009: 41).

Mgbe e chiri ya echichi n’okpukpe nke Foursquare, Smith jere ozi dị ka onye nlekọta afọ iri na asaa. Ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka pastọ n'ọtụtụ chọọchị, na-enwe ọkwa dịgasị iche iche nke ihe ịga nke ọma na mmezu ya. Site na mbido, Smith bụ ihe na-ekweghi ekwe. Ọ na-echeta otu ihe mere ebe onye nlekọta ya gwara ya na ikpe mara ya na "mmehie nke nnupụisi na amoosu" (Smith, Jr. 2009: 131). Site n'akụkọ nke ya (Smith 1981), na ngwụcha nke ozi ya na Foursquare Gospel, ike gwụrụ ya: “E meriri m. Agabigawo m oge ntorobịa m ka ike na-agwụ m ma na-ahapụ ọtụtụ n'ime echiche m. ” Ọ chọpụtakwara na usoro okpukpe dị iche iche na-arịwanye elu (Miller 1997: 32). Smith (2005: 17-18) na-arụtụ aka na otu ahụmịhe n'ime ụka nke ọ malitere nke bụ ihe nkwalite ịhapụ ụka ahụ. “Anyị kpebiri ịgbanwe usoro a site na ọrụ abụ ọdịnala, ịma ọkwa, ekpere, na okwuchukwu gaa n'ụdị nnọkọ nkịtị karịa. Anyị nọ na-enwe ọrụ na American Legion Hall. Ya mere, ibutela n'isi ụtụtụ, mụ na nwunye m doziri oche na gburugburu karịa n'ahịrị. Kama iji ukwe, anyị fee Chukwu n’abụ ukwe. Anyi wee banye n’oge ekpere. Ọtụtụ ndị e kere agbụ mepere emepe wee kpee ekpere. Ọ bụ ahụmahụ pụrụ iche nye ha. ” Ndị isi ụka gwara Smith ozugbo na ya kwesịrị ịkwụsị ọhụụ a. Ọ na-echeta na "Aghọtara m n'oge ahụ na nke a agaghị abụ ebe m na-adịgide adịgide nke ije ozi" (2005: 19).

Smith hapụziri chọọchị ahụ wee chọta Corona Christian Center, nke bidoro dị ka otu obere ọgbakọ ọmụmụ Bible nke emere n'ụlọ Smith, na 1965 (Miller 1997: 32). Centerlọ Ọrụ ahụ gara n'ihu na-etolite wee bụrụ Corona Christian Association wee nye Smith ohere mbụ ya nwere maka onye ụkọchukwu na mpụga ọgbakọ. N'afọ ahụ ka a kpọrọ Smith ka ọ bụrụ onye pastọ maka obere ọmụmụ Bible maka ndị mechiri emechi n'otu ogige ụgbọala na-adọkpụ na Costa Mesa, California, nke bụ mmalite Calvary Chapel. Na obere otu nọ na-alụ ọgụ n’oge a wee kọọ na ọbịbịa nke Mụọ Nsọ: “Ọ sịrị na Ya ga-ebukwasị obi Chuck Smith ibu ka ọ bịa ka pastkọchukwu…. Chineke ga-agọzi ụka ma ọ ga-aga na redio. Chọọchị ga-abụ mmadụ juru n'ọnụ…. A ga-amara ụka n'uwa niile "(Miller 1997: 36; Smith 1981). Smith n’onwe ya kọọrọ na Mụọ Nsọ gwara ya okwu afọ abụọ gara aga ma na ọ natawo ụdị ozi-ọma nke na-abịa. Smith gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọkwa ya na Corona Christian Association. Ọ nakweere ọkpụkpọ oku maka pastọ ọgbakọ Calvary Chapel, nke toro site na ndị otu 25 ruo 2,000 n'ime afọ abụọ (McGraw 1997). Ka ọ na-erule afọ nke atọ chọọchị ahụ gafere n'otu nnukwu ụlọ na Newport Beach. Chọọchị ahụ gara n’ihu na-azụ ma zụta traktị iri acre na Costa Mesa, ebe ọ dị ugbu a. Na 1974, chọọchị ahụ meghere ebe obibi ọhụrụ 2,300 ma n'oge na-adịghị anya a manyere ya ijide ọrụ atọ na Sọnde ọbụlagodi na ikike ikike ịgbasawanye.

N'ịbụ onye dị ka ọ nọ na isi ebe a na-akụ azụ, Smith malitere izute "ndị hippies" na "Ndị Jizọs." Mmetụta mbụ ya nwere bụ nke na-adịghị mma: “N'ezie, n'oge òtù hippie ahụ, ụmụaka ndị a nwere ntutu dị ogologo ntutu, ụmụaka ruru unyi na-agagbara m gburugburu n'okporo ámá. The guzoro n'ihi na ihe niile m guzogidere. Anyị nọ kilomita site na echiche anyị, nkà ihe ọmụma, ihe niile ”(Smith 1981). Agbanyeghị, ọ bụ n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, na 1968, na ọ zutere otu n'ime ndị Jesus ndị ga-agbanwe Calvary Chapel, Lonnie Frisbee. O doro anya, nwunye Smith, Kay, nwere ọhụụ na Smith ga-erute ndị hipp. Smith na-echeta na "M tụgharịrị wee hụ anya mmiri na-agba ya ihu… na apụrụ m ịhụ na ọ na-ekpe ekpere" (Coker 2005). Smith gwaziri enyi nwa ya nwanyị, John Higgins, ka ọ chọta hippie ma kpọta ya n'ụlọ ha. Hippie onye Higgins buru n'okporo ámá wee weta n'ụlọ Smith bụ Lonnie Frisby dị afọ iri na asatọ mgbe ahụ. Smith (1981) na-echeta: “Asịrị m, 'Hi Lonnie'. Ejiri m aka m nabata ya n'ime ụlọ. Mgbe ọ malitere ịkekọrịta, akwadoghị m maka ịhụnanya sitere na nwata a. Hụnanya o nwere n’ebe Jizọs Kraịst nọ na-efe efe. Mmanụ nke Mụọ Nsọ dị na ndụ ya, ya mere anyị kpọrọ Lonnie ka ọ nọnyere anyị ụbọchị ole na ole. ” Ka ọnwa May, 1968, Smith, Higgins, na Frisbee guzobere House of Miracles, bụ "pad okuku" nke obodo maka ndị hippies "nabatara Onyenwe anyị" (Miller 1997: 33). Smith tinyere Frisbee na Connie nwunye ya ka ha lekọtawa ọrụ ahụ. Oflọ nke Ọrụ Ebube eburu ụzọ mee Ndị Kraịst atọ gbanwere 35 bụ ndị chọrọ enyemaka mgbe ha na-agbanwe site na ọgwụ ọgwụ site na ịnye ọnọdụ kwụsiri ike na inye nkwado ego ha (DiSabatino 1995: 59). Houselọ mbụ nke Ọrụ Ebube mechara tolite na ntanetị nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 20 "ụlọ obodo" nke Calvary Chapel na-akwado (Norridge 1992). Ka oge na-aga, Centlọ Ọrụ Ntorobịa nke Shiloh si na netwọk a pụta, na, ruo mgbe ọ daa na 1978, toro na ụlọ 175 na ndị 100,000 sonyere na counterculture.

Mkpebi Smith ịgakwuru ndị hippies ma tinye ha na ozi ya rụpụtara nnukwu mmụba na CalvaryLọ ekpere, n'ihi na Lonnie Frisbee na-adọrọ adọrọ izisa ozi ọma. A mụrụ Frisbee na Costa Mesa na 1950, ndị mụrụ ya gbara alụkwaghịm n'oge ọ bụ nwata. Mgbe nne ya lụgharịrị di na nwunye ya na nna ya, Frisby hapụrụ ụlọ na iri na ise. Ọ malitere isonye na subculture ọgwụ na Laguna Beach gay obodo. Frisbee mechara kwaga San Francisco ebe ọ ghọrọ onye Kristian, sonye na The Living Room, nke mbụ n'okporo ámá Christian obodo na 1967. Ruo afọ atọ ka ha zutere Chuck Smith, Frisbee ghọrọ onye isi ike na uto nke Calvary Chapel ma na retrospect kemgbe akpọrọ "John Baptist nke ndịda California" (Di Sabatino 1995: 8). E chiri ya echichi na 1971. Smith mere atụmatụ na n’oge Frisbee nọ na ndị ọrụ Calvary Chapel, ụka ahụ mere mmadụ puku 8,000 baptism ma gbanwee 20,000. Otu o sila dị, Frisbee na Smith kewara maka ikwu okwu n’asụsụ dị iche iche dịka Frisbee siri kwado mkpa mgbanwe na glossolalia dị ka ngosipụta nke ọnụnọ nke Mmụọ Nsọ, ebe Smith kwenyere na ịhụnanya bụ ngosipụta kachasị mkpa nke Mmụọ Nsọ. Lonnie na Connie Frisbee gbara alụkwaghịm na 1973 mgbe Connie nwere mmekọrịta ịkwa iko na pastọ ha.

Na 1978, Frisbee hapụrụ Calvary Chapel ma sonyere John Wimber, onye tinyekwara aka na Pentikọstal na n'oge ahụ na-azụ obere chọọchị Calvary Chapel na Yorba Linda. Frisbee nwere otu ụdị mmetụta dị na ụlọ ụka Wimber nke ya na Calvary Chapel nwere na mbụ. Iji maa atụ, ”N’ụbọchị ụka nne n’abalị 1980, Frisbee nyere onye ọ bụla gbara afọ iri abụọ na asatọ iwu ka ha bịa n’ihu ebe ahụ. Ndịàmà kwuru na ozugbo ụmụaka ahụ rutere n'akụkụ Frisbee, ha dara n'ala, pịa ka oké iwe n'ihu mmụọ nke Onyenwe anyị. Fọdụ ndị na-aga ụka na-asọ oyi na-ele ihe nkiri ahụ "(Coker 2005). Mgbe nke a gasịrị, Wimber hapụrụ Calvary Chapel ebe a na-anabataghị Pentikọstal ya ma soro ya na ndị ụkọchukwu Calvary Chapel nwere otu uche na Los Angeles nke ghọrọ Association of Vineyard Churches. Kaosinadị, n'oge na-adịghị anya, Wimber chọpụtara omume mmekọ nwoke na nwoke Frisbee ma kwụsị mmekọrịta ha; Frisbee mechara nwụọ n'ihi ọrịa AIDS na 1993.

Mkpebi Smith ịkpọbata ndị hipp n'ọgbakọ a anabataghị nke ọma n'akụkụ niile. E nwere mmegide ime obodo na nke mpụga. Smith na-echeta otu ihe mere nke ụka jiri tinye akwa mkpuchi ọhụrụ dị oke ọnụ, ụfọdụ ndị otu were iwe na hippies jiri ụkwụ ha na-ehicha kapeeti. Ọ na-akọ na ọ gwara ndị isi ụka ndị ọzọ na "… ọ bụ anyị tozuru oke Ndị Kraịst na-ekpe ikpe n'ihu ndị na-eto eto." O kwubiri, sị: “Ọ bụrụ na anyị ga-emechi ụzọ maka otu onye na-eto eto nke ụkwụ ya na-eru, n'ihi na anyị na-eme ka a zụchaa anyị, mgbe ahụ, ọ masịrị m ịdọpụsị ihe niile e ji mere kaetị na nwee aja ụlọ let .abụghị mgbe ọ bụla, , mechie onye ọ bụla ọnụ ụzọ n'ihi ejiji ma ọ bụ ụzọ ọ dị "(Smith 2005: 32). Churcheslọ ụka Evangelical ndị ọzọ enweghịkwa mmasị na mbido Smith. Dị ka Richardson si kwuo (1993: 213), “ọtụtụ ndị lere ndị sonyere na Calvary anya dị ka ndị ọghọm, ndị na-akpata nsogbu, ma ọ bụ ndị na-emegide mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya n'ihi na ha na-esonye n'okporo ámá na ọgwụ ọjọọ.” Smith na-echeta na ọtụtụ ụka dị na mpaghara were ọnọdụ "Ọ bụrụ na Chineke ehichawo ha n'ezie n'ime ahụ, ha ga-egosi ya n'èzí" (Smith, Jr. 2009: 181).

Mgbe Calvary Chapel na Association nke Ubi Vine kewara ụzọ, ha abụọ bịara nwee ọganihu. Churcheslọ ụka Vineyard ahụ toro karịa ndị mmekọ 600 na US na 1,500 gburugburu ụwa, yana ihe dị ka ndị otu puku 150,000 na US Calvary Chapel network nke ụlọ ụka mmekọ nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ karịrị 1,000, na ụka Costa Mesa na-elekọta ndị ọbịa 35,000 kwa izu.

AKOCKỌ / Nkwenkwe

Calvary Chapel na-ekwenye n'ozizi Ndị Kraịst nke Kraịst n'ụzọ kachasị mkpa. A ghọtara Akwụkwọ Nsọ ịbụ okwu Chineke sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ ma ghara ịdị irè. Calvary Chapel nabatara ozizi nke Atọ n’Ime Otu, na-akụzi na Chineke dị n’ime mmadụ atọ - Nna, Ọkpara, na Mmụọ Nsọ. Banyere Jizọs Kraịst, Calvary Chapel na-akụzi na Jizọs bụ Mezaịa ahụ, a mụọkwa ya site na nwanyị na-amaghị nwoke, kpọgidere ya n'osisi, bilitere n'ọnwụ nke anụ ahụ na-esochi n'obe, wee rịgoro n'eluigwe, nke a ghọtara na ọ bụ ebe nkịtị. A kwenyere na Jisos Kraist buru mmadu na Chukwu zuru oke ma nwuruwa n’aja nmehie nke mmadu nile. Ekwenyere na Kraist g'alaghachi n'onwe ya na obibia nke ugbo abuo, ma ilaghachi ga adi puku afọ (nloghachi nke aru ya geme tutu mmalite nke puku aro). Ndi kwere ekwe ga-adabanyere n'ike tupu oge nkpagbu. Ndi kwere na Kraist ma buru ndi azoputara bu ndi e kwere nkwa ndu ebighi ebi n’eluigwe, mana mmadu nwere onwe ya inabata ma obu ju amara Chineke. Ndi ahu anabataghi Kraist ga etinye ha na oku ebighi ebi. Ndi mmadu nile nwere ike “amuru ozo,” site na ncheghari site na nmehie ma nabata Jisos Kraist; nke a nemesi ike ka agbaghara ha nmehie ha ma ha gabigide ebighi ebi n’eluigwe. Calvary Chapel jụrụ akụkụ ụfọdụ nke Calvinism, dịka Irresistible Grace, na-ekwusi ike na onye ọ bụla nwere nnwere onwe ime nhọrọ ịnabata ma ọ bụ jụ amara Chineke. Na mgbakwunye, Chapel jụrụ Ozizi Calvinistic nke Akwụkwụghị Atọ (nkwenkwe na Kraịst nwụrụ maka naanị ndị a họpụtara), na-ekwusi ike na ọ nwụrụ maka mmehie nke mmadụ niile.

Ozizi Calvary Chapel dị iche n'akụkụ ụfọdụ dịka Chuck Smith chọrọ ala dị n'etiti Pentikọstal na Fundamentalism. Dị ka Calvary Chapel si kọwaa mkpali a: “N'ime afọ ndị gafeworonụ,… nkwanye ugwu, ebe ọ bụ na ọ nọgidesiri ike na-eguzosi ike n'ezi ihe nke Okwu Chineke, bịara bụrụ nke na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe, na-akwado iwu na ịnakwere onyinye ime mmụọ. N'otu aka ahụ, Pentikọstism ghọrọ onye ịnụ ọkụ n'obi na mmụọ n'ihi nkuzi nke Okwu Chineke ”(Taylor nd). Ọ bụ ezie na Calvary Chapel na-akụzi na Akwụkwọ Nsọ enweghị ntụpọ ka ndị isi okpukpe, ụka anaghị ekwenye na ọgụgụ isi nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Ọ bụ ezie na Calvary Chapel na-anabata ịsụ asụsụ dị iche iche dị ka onyinye ime mmụọ dịka ndị Pentikọst, ọ naghị anabata ụdị okwu a na ọgbakọ ọgbakọ. Ọrụ Calvary Chapel, dị ka ọrụ Pentikọstal, bụ nnukwu ume, mana dịka ọ dị na Fundamentalism enwere nnukwu nrụsi ike na ịkụzi Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Smith anọgidewo na-achọ mgbanwe mgbanwe nke ozizi dị ka ụzọ isi kwalite ịdị n'otu Ndị Kraịst ma na-ezere ihe Smith na-ele anya dị ka nkewa maka obere okwu mmụta okpukpe. Smith kwukwara na ịhụnanya maka Kraịst kwesịrị ịbụ ihe mgbakwasị ụkwụ maka mkpakọrịta Ndị Kraịst ma kwesiri ịhapụrụ ụka na obere nkuzi dị iche iche. Dị ka anyị kwuworo, site na mmalite afọ Calvary Chapel, Smith jụrụ kpam kpam na-ewepụ ndị mmadụ na mkpakọrịta Ndị Kraịst dabere na ọdịdị ha ma ọ bụ ụdị ofufe ha.

Enwekwara mmewere nke apocalypticism na mbu Calvary Chapel ozizi. Na Ọgwụgwụ Times (1980), Smith kwuru na ya na-atụ anya na ọgbọ ahụ amụrụ malite na 1948 ga-abụ ọgbọ ikpeazụ nke ụwa, na ọ tụrụ anya na ụwa ga-akwụsị mgbe ọ gasịrị karịa 1981. N’ezie, Calvary Chapel mere emume Afọ Ọhụrụ n’abalị 1981 na atụmanya nke uwa na agwu. Odida nke amuma a dubara na ndakpọ olileanya na ụfọdụ mmeri mana o metụtaghị oke na ogo Calvary Chapel (Arellano 2011).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ebumnuche nke ofufe na Calvary Chapel bụ iji gosipụta ịhụnanya, otuto, na ekele nye Chineke. Otu ihe ngosipụta nke ọrụ ofufe Calvary Chapel site na mgbe etolitere ya bụ ozi ha. Ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ ndị otu na-eji ejiji ejiji n'ụlọ ụka, ụka na-akpọ ndị bịara ka ha "bịa dị ka ị dị" ebe ọ bụ mgbanwe dị n'ime ma ọ bụghị nkwekọ na mpụga nke ụka chọrọ iji nweta. Ndi ozuzu aturu na adukwa ndi mmadu na eji ejiji ka ihe di nkpa belata. E nwere usoro zuru ezu na ọrụ ahụ, ọ bụ ezie na ụka dị iche iche dịgasị iche iche, nke gụnyere ngalaba na ekele, otuto na ofufe, ozi, na onye na-akwụ ụgwọ. Ọrụ ofufe na-agbanwe agbanwe ma na-emeghe ka Mmụọ Nsọ wee duzie ha ma gbaa ume imeghe obi ndị na-efe ofufe. N’ihi ya, a gwaghị ndị na-efe ofufe oge ha ga-anọdụ ala, guzo, ịgụ, ma ọ bụ ịgụghachi. Na mgbakwunye otu akụkụ dị mkpa nke ọrụ ahụ gụnyere egwu, mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka oge a mana mgbe ụfọdụ ọdịnala (Miller 1997: 80), n'ihi Calvary Chapel na-akụzi na ofufe kwesịrị ịbụ nke mmụọ nsọ. Ihe omuma banyere ejiji na ofufe na idi egwu nke egwu ndi emeputara na mpaghara nile nke ulo uka mgbe ndi mgbanwe ndi meghariri metutara ya.

Akụkụ ọzọ pụrụ iche nke ọrụ ofufe Calvary Chapel bụ ntinye aka na ịkọwapụta Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Smith chọpụtara nkuzi nkwupụta akụ na mberede mgbe ọ na-agwụsị ihe ọ ga-ekwu maka okwuchukwu ya. Ọ chọtara WH Griffith's Onyeozi John (1984), akwukwo nke na-akowa ihe omumu akwukwo di iche banyere akwukwo ozi nke John 1. Mgbe usoro izi ihe a meputara obi uto na itinye aka na nzuko, o gbasaa echiche a na akwukwo ndi ozo nke Baibul (Smith, Jr. 2009) 80: 2009). Dị ka Smith si kwuo ya, "Mgbanwe ahụ nwere akụkụ atọ: Agara m site na ime nkwusa ruo nkuzi; Okwuchukwu ahụ si na isiokwu gaa na nkọwa; na ọdịnaya nke ozi ahụ sitere na mmepe nke ederede Akwụkwọ Nsọ na Akwụkwọ Nsọ n'onwe ya (Smith, Jr. 88: 1996). Site ugbu a gaa n'ihu, n'ofufe ofufe ọgbakọ kpaliri Bible site na mbido ruo n'ọgwụgwụ, na-agụ amaokwu na akwụkwọ ọ bụla n'usoro. Site na Calvary Chapel, ebumnobi bụ nkuzi karịa ikwusa ozi ọma. N'ihi ya, ọ pụrụ ịbụ na ndị nọworo ogologo oge n'ọgbakọ amụwo Bible dum otú a ọtụtụ ugboro. Dị ka Smith (“Bob Coy, Chuck Smith, Gayle Erwin” XNUMX) kọwara mgbe ọ bụ ebumnobi ya: “nanị izi ihe banyere ofwa nke Chineke n’ụzọ dị mfe.” Approachzọ a dugara na Calvary Chapel mesiri ike na nkuzi kama ikwusa ozi ọma: uto nke okwukwe na ihe ọmụma ga-eduga ndị mmadụ ịbanye n'okike nke okwukwe ha.

Calvary Chapel na-eme ma baptism ma udo. N'oge mbido, mgbe mgbanwe mgbanwe ọdịbendị bụ isi ihe dị mkpa maka Chuck Smith na Lonnie Frisbee, a na-emekarị baptizim na Oke Osimiri Pasifik ma a na-efe ofufe n'ụsọ osimiri. Ebe ememe ndị ahụ nyere ohere ka e mee ha baptism n'ime arịa ime ụlọ na ofufe ụka, ọ bụ ezie na a ka na-anakwere baptizim n'ime mmiri mmiri. Ekwenyeghi na baptism bu ihe di nkpa maka nzoputa nke mo kama akuku ya dika ihe nlere nke ngbanwe nke ime. Ọgbakọ dị iche iche na-emekọ oriri na ọ Commụ Commụ, nke ndị otu na-enweta achịcha na mmanya, dịgasị iche iche.

Ọnọdụ Calvary Chapel na “onyinye ịsụ asụsụ dị iche iche” na-egosipụta nchọgharị chọọchị na-achọ ọnọdụ nke etiti n’etiti Fundamentalism na Pentikọstalism. Ambivalence Smith banyere glossolalia na ịbụ onye e gburu na Mmụọ dị ogologo oge. Ọ na-ekwu na mgbe ọ na-amụrụ ihe na LIFE Bible College ọ “nwere obi abụọ na Mmụọ nke Chineke ga-akpali mmụọ nke ga-eme ka ndị mmadụ yie nzuzu ma ọ bụ nwee njikwa. Kinddị omume ahụ megidere echiche m banyere otú Jizọs, Pọl, ma ọ bụ ndị ọ bụla n'ime ndị na-eso ụzọ Jizọs gaara esi kpaa àgwà. ” Ọ gara n'ihu na-ekwu na "A bụ m naanị m nọ na klasị gụsịrị akwụkwọ nke m" egbughị na Mmụọ Nsọ "mgbe m natara echichi m" (Smith, Jr. 2009: 42). O kachasi ike ikwuputa ihe omuma di otua na mmuo nso: ndi Pentikost na ndi Kristain mara nma kowara igbu ha na mo ha dika “ihe mo nke Chineke ji biakwasi ndi madu ike nke na ha apugh iguzo n ukwu ha. na ụdị ma ọ bụ euphoric swoon. Ọ bụ ezie na nsị bụ ihe dị mma, ahụmịhe mmadụ, enwere m obi abụọ mgbe niile banyere ịkọ ụkọ ọgwụ ọjọọ ndị a (Smith Jr. 2009: 54). Ya mere Smith gbara ume ịme onyinye ndị ahụ "n'ụzọ dị mma na n'usoro dị mma," nke tụgharịrị gaa na nke onwe ya karịa ofufe ọha ma ọ bụ nkwupụta ihu ọha na ọrụ "mgbe glow" (Taylor nd).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Chuck Smith hiwere ma duzie netwọk ụka Calvary Chapel kemgbe ọ malitere na 1965. Ọ bụ ezie na ụka dị iche iche nwere onwe ha ma nwee ike ịhọrọ usoro nduzi nke aka ha, ọtụtụ na-agbaso ihe a na-akpọ "Moses Model" nke onye ndu, nke Smith guzobere na Costa Mesa. Dịka ụdị a si dị, Chineke bụ onye ndu kachasị elu, onye ụkọchukwu ọ bụla na-arụkwa ọrụ nke Moses, na-eje ozi n'okpuru ikike nke Chineke na ibu ọrụ nye Chineke. Ndị pastọ na-eduzi ụka dị ka Mmụọ Nsọ na-akụzi (Taylor nd) Onye ụkọchukwu nwere ike ịhọpụta ndị ụkọchukwu na-enyere aka, mana enweghị usoro nhazi usoro (Miller 1997: 80). Ya mere ndi ozuzu aturu nwere ikike zuru oke na ulo uka ha. Mụ nwanyị na ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwoke enweghị ike ịhọpụta dịka ndị ozuzu aturu.

Na ntọala Calvary Chapel, Smith hapụrụ ụdị nzukọ a maara nke ọma iji zere ihe ọ weere dị ka iwu na-egbochi mmadụ, omume nkewa, na esemokwu banyere ọdịiche dị iche iche n'ozizi. Calvary Chapel na-akọwa onwe ya dị ka mkpakọrịta nke ụka. Nanị njikọ njikọta dị n'etiti ụka bụ na ha na-egosipụta ihe onyonyo nke nduru n'ime ụka ahụ ma ha nwere ike tinye Calvary Chapel n'aha ụka, ọ bụ ezie na a chọghị nke a. Mkpakọrịta ụka dị iche iche enweghị usoro iwu okpukpe ma ọ bụ nke usoro iwu ego. E nyere ụlọ ụka dị iche iche ikike isonye na Calvary Chapel network site na nkwado nke Calvary Chapel Outreach Fellowship. Iji kwado ya, ndi ozuzu aturu nke ulo uka ndi choro aghaghi ikwenye ihe di iche nke Calvary Chapel. Achọghị ka ndị ụkọchukwu nke ụka nwee akara mmụta seminarị. Mgbe a jụrụ Chuck Smith ihe seminarị ndị chọrọ ịbụ ndị ụkọchukwu kwesiri ịga, ọzịza ya bụ na ha kwesịrị ịga otu seminarị Ndị Na-eso cizọ gara ya nọdụrụ n'ụkwụ Jizọs ("Bob Coy, Chuck Smith, Gayle Erwin" 1996). Na Calvary Chapel n'akụkọ ihe mere eme, Smith họpụtara ndị gwara ya na ha natara oku na nkwusa ma bụrụkwa ndị raara onwe ha nye na nkà ihe ọmụma nke Smith. N'ezie, ọtụtụ n'ime ndị agha mbụ nke ndị pastọ Calvary Chapel bụ ndị ikom si na counterculture na enweghị ọzụzụ ọzụzụ ozi (Smith na Brooke 2005). Ikike Smith nwere ịzụ na ịhọpụta ndị ozi ji aka ha mee ka ụlọ ụka ahụ kụrụ nke mere ka mmepe ngwa ngwa nke Calvary Chapel Fellowship network. Dị ka ọ na-adị, chọọchị ọhụrụ amalitela dị ka ìgwè ọmụmụ Bible ma jiri nke nta nke nta ghọọ ọgbakọ dị iche iche. Urcheska ụka adịghị n’otu; ndị na-aga ọrụ na-esonye na ọrụ ụka na ihe omume.

Na mgbakwunye na netwọkụ nke ụka, Calvary Chapel guzobere Calvary Chapel Bible College, School of Leadership, the Owuwe Ihe Ubi, Maranatha Music, na netwọk redio. E guzobere Calvary Chapel Bible College na Murrieta, California na 1975 wee toro n'ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ nwere mmekọ ebe ụmụ akwụkwọ nwere ike nweta ogo mmụta na nkà mmụta okpukpe ma ọ bụ ọmụmụ Bible. Enabataghị Mahadum Bible mana ya na ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ akwadoro nwere mmekọrịta mmekọrịta nke na-enyere nnabata mbufe maka ụmụ akwụkwọ ịga kọleji. Chuck Smith bụ onye isi oche nke Mahadum Bible, ndị nkuzi bụ ndị ozi Calvary Chapel. Schoollọ Akwụkwọ nke Ndị Isi na-anọghị na Mahadum Bible mana ha nyere ọnọdụ maka ọrụ maka ndị nwere ebumnuche nke ije ozi (Denna 2001: 8). Owuwe Ihe Ubi ahụ, nke malitere na 1990s n'agbanyeghị na Calvary Chapel's Harvest Christian Fellowship na Riverside, California, na-enye ngwakọta nke egwu egwu egwu Ndị Kraịst na ọgbakọ maka ịnye akaebe Ndị Kraịst. Otu ọgụ dị egwu nke ihe mebere Jizọs People of 1960 bụ ihe egwu na ife egwu egwu n'ụdị folk-Rock nke emeputara site na mmegharị. ndị otu. Lọ Calvary malitere ịbịaru na ọdọ mmiri talent a, na 1971 guzobere Maranatha! (Onye nwe anyi) Egwu dika ihe omuma nke ulo uka. Maranatha! Egwu wepụtara ọba izizi ya n'afọ ahụ, The Everlastin 'Living Jesus Music Concert. Otutu ndi otu egwu batara na Maranatha! na Calvary uka.

N'etiti 1990s Chuck Smith soro nwa ya nwoke na onye ụkọchukwu Calvary Chapel ọzọ, Mike Kestler, mepụta netwọkụ ruru, Calvary Satellite Network, nke ejiri ego si Smith's Costa Mesa ụka (Goffard 2007). Netwọk ahụ gbasaa ngwa ngwa ma mechaa nwee ụlọ ọrụ 400, na-eme ka nkuzi Calvary Chapel dị na mba ahụ. Mmekọrịta ahụ kwụsịrị na 2003 n'etiti esemokwu na-enweghị ngwọta n'etiti ndị ọzọ. Calvary Chapel eguzobewokwa ozi redio nke Todaywa maka Taa nke a na-agbasa gburugburu ụwa (Austin 2005).

Na 2012, o guzobere kansụl na-edu ndú mmadụ 21 iji lekọta Calvary Church Association, mkpakọrịta nke ụfọdụ ọgbakọ 1,600 nwere ụdị obi na United States na mba ofesi.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Calvary Chapel etinyela aka n'ọtụtụ esemokwu site na akụkọ ntolite ya. Ná mmalite, chọọchị ahụ katọrọ ma n'ime ma n'ime obodo ndị na-agbasa ozi ọma maka ịkpọbata ndị mmadụ na ndị hippies omenala na ọgbakọ. Uwe mara mma nke ụka na ụdị ofufe na-enweghị isi yana nkuzi ya ndị na-agbanwe agbanwe nke chọrọ iji dozie esemokwu ụka dị iche iche enweghịkwa nkwenye. Site na icho niche n’etiti ndi mbu na Pentikostali, Calvary Chapel nwetara mmegide site na ma. Chọọchị ahụ lanarịrị nkwụsị nke counterculture ọtụtụ ihe ịga nke ọma karịa ọtụtụ mmegharị ndị ọzọ nke 1960s. Ndị mmadụ si na counterculture ahụ ghọrọ ndị isi ụka na, na ụfọdụ, ndị pastọ ka ha na-etolite ma na-ebi ndụ ndị ọzọ. Site na ntinye aka ya, ụka ahụ chọpụtakwara otu ọhụụ ọhụụ eji arịọ arịrịọ. Rees (2009: 63) kwuru, sị: “Ka hippies nke omenala countertop toro ma guzosie ike, Calvary soro ha. Ka oge na-aga, ọ hapụrụ ime baptizim na oke osimiri, n'agbanyeghị na ụfọdụ ndị ntorobịa na-emegharị omume a taa. Ka ọ na-erule etiti afọ iri asatọ, Smith nọ na-ezi ọgbọ ọhụrụ nke ndị na-eto eto Californians ozi nwere ụkpụrụ ọhụụ nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya: a gbanwere nnupụisi site na ịre ahịa, ndị agha na-agbanwegharị. Egwuregwu eletriki na-anọchi anya ndị na-anụ ọkụ, a na-agbadasị ihe ndị na-adọrọ adọrọ nke ofufe, chọọchị ahụ wee na-adịkarị mma, ọ bụ ezie na ọ ka na-adịkarị nkịtị. Mgbe Costa Mesa dị iche iche dị iche iche na 80s na 90s, Smith na ndị ọrụ ya malitere ịgbasawanye ebumnuche ha na ndị na-abụghị ndị na-asụ Bekee na-eto gburugburu ha. A gbakwụnyere asụsụ Spanish, yana Filipino na Korea ma mejupụta ngwa ngwa. ” Worshipdị ofufe ofufe na-enweghị isi, mgbanwe nkuzi, na egwu dị egwu nke malitere na Calvary Chapel bụ ọtụtụ ụka ndị ọzọ nakweere, na-eme ka Calvary Chapel bụrụ nke kachasị na usoro ahụ.

Leadershipdị onye ndu (nke Moses Model) na Calvary Chapels mekwara ka nsogbu na-aga n'ihu. Enwere ọtụtụ ikpe ebe a na-ebo ndị ụkọchukwu nọ na chọọchị dị na Calvary Chapel ebubo ịkwa iko nke alụmdi na nwunye, ịkwa iko, ma ọ bụ mmejọ ego; na, n'ihi usoro ndu, enwere obere ịza ajụjụ. (Billiter 1992; Haldane 1992). N'ụfọdụ n'ime okwu ikpe ndị a Chuck Smith nyere ọkwá na Cost Mesa ụka mgbe achụsịrị ndị ozi ahụ n'ụlọ ụka ochie ha (Moll 2007). Nzaghachi Smith nye ajụjụ banyere ọgwụgwọ nke ndị ozuzu aturu ebubo ma ọ bụ ndị ikpe mara nke aghara aghara bụ na enwere mbọ iji weghachi ha ma ọ bụrụ na ha echegharị: “Ọ bụrụ na ha echegharịa, anyị na-achọ iweghachi na mmụọ nke ịdị nwayọ, na-echebara onwe anyị echiche nwaa, ”ka Smith na-ekwu. "Anyị na-eche na anyị nwere ihe ndabere Akwụkwọ Nsọ [maka ime nke a]" (Moll 2007). Smith na-ekwu na ọ na-eme mweghachi na ndị pastọ ndị eweghachiri na ozi ha mgbe ha mechara mmehie enweela ike ije ozi na-aga nke ọma: “Enwere m ike ịgwa gị banyere ọtụtụ ndị ozi, ndị isi ozi, ndị anyị nọworo na-enyere aka weghachite, na ọ dabara nke ọma na nsogbu ahụ emeghị ka ọha na eze mara nke mere na ndị mmadụ amaghịdị ya. Echere m na nke ahụ bụ nsọpụrụ nye Chineke ”(Moll 2007).

Calvary Chapel bụ ụlọ ụka na-eme nke ọma, nke Chuck Smith na-eduzi. Agbanyeghị, ọdịnihu nke mkpakọrịta Calvary Chapel nke ụka ka ga-ekpebi. Smith na nwa ya nwoke nwere nsogbu mgbe Chuck Smith Jr. jụrụ ajụjụ nkà ihe ọmụma nna ya na nkwenkwe okpukpe. Mkpesa malitere n'ime ụka: "Ngagharị iwe na ndị ọkụ na-ekesa na ntanetị nke obere ụlọ ụka Smith kwuru ka ọ hapụ aha" Calvary "n'ihi nnabata ya na-arịwanye elu n'okwu ndị na-enweghị esemokwu dị ka ihe ọjọọ nke ndina ụdị onwe na nkwa nke hel maka ndị na-ekweghị ekwe (Goffard 2006). Esemokwu ahụ mere ka Smith chụpụ nwa ya nwoke na ozi ya na 2006, na-ewepụ ohere nke nna-nwa nwoke. Ọnwụ Smith n'ọnwa Ọktọba, 2013 mgbe agha gachara na ọrịa kansa akpa ume mere ka ndị isi na-aga n'ihu (Fletcher 2012; Goffard 2013). N'iburu n'uche onwe Smith maka nhazi na ọchịchị na-aga n'ihu nke Calvary Chapel, ọdịnihu nke netwọkụ ahụ na-enweghị iduzi Smith ga-abụrịrị ya nnukwu ihe ịma aka nhazi.

References

Arellano, Gustavo. 2011. "Na-echeta Mgbe Chuck Smith buru amụma na Ọgwụgwụ Times – Ha emeghị." OC kwa izu, 7May 2011. Nweta site na
http://blogs.ocweekly.com/navelgazing/2011/05/remembering_when_chuck_smith_p.php na 15 August 2012.

Austin, Ian. 2005. Pastor Chuck Smith na Calvary Chapel Movement: Ebumnuche maka Ọga n'ihu na Uto nke Calvary Chapel . Asheville, NC: Mahadum nke North Carolina na Asheville.

Billiter, Bill. 1992. "Santa Ana si Rev. Hocking kwụsịrị Pulpit Mgbe Afọ: Akụkọ: Onye a ma ama Minister kwetara 'Mmekọahụ Mmekọahụ' na Nwanyị lụrụ na Ọgbakọ nke Calvary Church." Los Angeles Times, 09 October 1992. Nweta site na http://articles.latimes.com/1992-10-09/local/me-790_1_calvary-church na 28 August 2012.

"Bob Coy, Chuck Smith, Gayle Erwin - Calvary banye n'plọ Ekpere." 1996. Calvary Chapel Midwest Pastor's Conference . Nweta site na http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&NR=1&v=5wSW1FEIbKg na 22 August 2012.

Udochukwu, Mat. 2005. ”Onye Mbụ Jesus Freak.” OC kwa izu, 3 Mach 2005. Nweta site na http://www.ocweekly.com/2005-03-03/features/the-first-jesus-freak/ na 15 August 2012.

Denna, David. 2001. Akụkọ banyere Calvary Chapel Movement. Louisville, KY: Seminary Baptist Baptist Baptist.

Di Sabatino, David. 1999. Okpukpe Ndi mmadu nke Jesus: akwukwo akwukwo na akwukwo ndi ozo. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Fletcher, Jaimee Lynn. 2012. "Calvary banye n'plọ Ekpere guzobere Lung Ọrịa Cancer." Akwụkwọ ndekọ Orange County, 5 Jenụwarị 2012. Nweta site na http://www.ocregister.com/news/smith-334349-chapel-calvary.html na 15 August 2012.

Goffard, Christopher. 2013. “Pastọ Chuck Smith nwụrụ n’afọ 86; Onye guzobere Calvary Chapel Movement. ” Los Angeles Times, October 3. Nweta site na http://www.latimes.com/obituaries/la-me-1004-chuck-smith-20131004,0,7276715.story na 4 October 2013.

Goffard, Christopher. 2007. "Calvary Radio Empire, nke ndị mmekọ na Christian Evangelist wuru, bụ ebubo gbasara Mmekọahụ, Ego na Njikwa." Los Angeles Times, 28 February 2007. Nweta site na http://articles.latimes.com/2007/feb/28/local/me-calvary28 na 28 August 2012.

Goffard, Christopher. 2006. “Nna, Nwa na Onyinye Dị Nsọ.” Los Angeles Times, 2 September 2006. Nweta site na http://articles.latimes.com/2006/sep/02/local/me-smiths2 on 15 August 2012.

Griffith, WH 1984. Onyeozi John Ndụ Ya na Ederede Ya. Thomas, MI: Akwụkwọ Kregel.

Haldane, David. 1992. “Mmekọahụ e ji achụpụ mmadụ, na-agbaghara ụkọchukwu e wedara n’ala.” Los Angeles Times, 23 Disemba 1992. Nweta site na http://articles.latimes.com/1992-12-23/local/me-2228_1_senior-pastor na 28 August 2012.

McGraw, Carol. 1997. “Ka Ifuru Childrenmụaka Ifuru Bịakwute M: Pastọ Chuck Smith Na-eje Ozi Dị Ka Nna Chukwu nye Jizọs Freaks.” Akwụkwọ ndekọ Orange County, 1 July 1997.

Miller, Donald. 1997. Ịghaghachi Protestant America: Iso Ụzọ Kraịst na Narị Afọ Iri Ọhụrụ. Berkeley, CA: Mahadum California Press.

Moll, Rob. 2007. “ofbọchị nyocha: Chuck Smith na Calvary Chapel chere ọdịnihu a na-ejighị n’aka. Iso Ụzọ Kraịst Taa, March 2007. Nweta site na http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2007/march/7.53.html na 28 August 2012.

Rees, Myev Alexandra. 2009. Nzube ohuru: Rick Warren, Megachurch Movement na Early Twenty-First Century American Evangelicalism. Oxford, Ohio: Mahadum Miami.

Richardson, James. 1993. "Njikọ ọnụ, 'Alụmdi na Nwunye', Njikọ aka, na Denominationalization: Uto nke Calvary Chapel." Syzygy: A Journal of Alternative Religion na Omenala 2: 205-23.

Smith, Jr., Chuck. 2009. Chuck Smith: Ihe ncheta nke Grace. Costa Mesa, CA: Okwu maka Ndị Nkwusa Taa.

Smith, Chuck. 2004. Calvary Chapel Distinctives: Thekpụrụ Ntọala nke Calvary Chapel Movement. Costa Mesa, CA: Okwu maka Ndị Nkwusa Taa.

Smith, Chuck. 1992. Charisma megide Charismania. Costa Mesa, CA: Okwu maka Taa
Ndị Bipụtara Ya.

Smith, Chuck. 1981. "Akụkọ banyere Calvary Chapel." Oge Ikpeazụ, Fall, 1981. Nweta site na http://web.archive.org/web/20080716203806/http://www.calvarychapel.com/assets/pdf/LastTimes-Fall1981.pdf na 8 August 2012.

Smith, Chuck. 1980. Ọgwụgwụ Oge: Akụkọ nke Ọdịnihu Futurelanahụ. Costa Mesa: Okwu Maka Ndị Nkwusa Taa.

Smith, Chuck na Tal Brooke. 2005. owuwe ihe ubi. Costa Mesa, CA: Okwu maka Ndị Nkwusa Taa.

Taylor, Larry. nd, “Calvary Chapel History na Nkwenkwe.” Nweta site na http://calvarychapel.com/library/taylor-larry/text/wcct.htm#01 na 18 August 2012.

Ụbọchị Post:
1 September 2012

update:
4 October 2013

CALVARY CHAPEL Njikọ Njikọ

 

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