Ọkụ anụ ọkụ

ND MANMỌR NA-ere ọkụ

1977: Gary Warne guzobere Club na-egbu onwe ya na San Francisco.

1982: Egbasaa icidetù Na-egbu Onwe Ya.

1986: E hiwere Cacophony Society na San Francisco site n'aka ndị mbụ so na Club igbu onwe ha, gụnyere John Law.

1986: Larry Harvey na Jerry James wuru ọmarịcha osisi ụkwụ mmadụ asatọ ma tinye ya na ndị enyi ole na ole na Baker Beach na San Francisco.

1988: John Law na ndị ọzọ nọ na Cacophony Society sonyere na ihe a na-eme kwa afọ a na-akpọ Burning Man.

1990: Na June, ndị e mere atụmatụ na ndị 800 gbakọtara na Baker Beach maka Burning Man, mana ndị ọrụ mmanye iwu kwụsịrị ihe omume ahụ. Na Septemba, ihe na-erughị mmadụ 100 kuru nwoke ahụ na-ere ọkụ gaa n'ọzara Black Rock na Nevada maka ụbọchị izu ụka ụbọchị izu ike.

1993: Ihe osise pụrụ iche na ihe ngosi pụtara, gụnyere "ogige isiokwu" mbụ na "ụgbọ ala nka."

1996: John Law hapụrụ ndị na-ahazi ọrụ na-esochi ọnwụ mbụ ọghọm na mmerụ ndị ọzọ dị egwu.

1997: Larry Harvey na ndị enyi ole na ole guzobere Black Rock City LLC iji jikwaa ma hazie ihe omume ahụ.

2000: David Best kere usoro a na-akpọ Oflọ nke Mind , nke dugara na mmepe nke omenala "Templelọ Nsọ" nke afọ Burning Man.

2005: Ndị na-ere ọkụ na-enweghị oke e guzobere dị ka azịza afọ ofufo na Hurricane Katrina.

2007: Prankster gbara ọkụ “Nwoke ahụ” ọtụtụ ụbọchị n'isi.

2010: Larry Harvey kwupụtara mkpebi igbari andlọ ọrụ ahụ ma gbanwee ikike nke ihe omume ahụ na 501 (c) 3 enweghị usoro.

2011: A na-ere tiketi ndị Burning Man na nke mbụ ya, na-eduga na ịpị tiketi tiketi.

2012: Arịrịrị tiketi lọtrị emere na Jenụwarị rere ngwa ngwa, na-ebute ọgba aghara n'obodo. Agbanyeghị, ka ọ na - erule oge emere ihe omume ahụ ọtụtụ ọnwa ka e mesịrị, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na ya eguzosie ike, na ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu nke ndị bịara ihe dị ka mmadụ 56,000.

2013: E mepụtara usoro nkesa tiketi ọhụrụ, nke mbido mbụ na-elekwasị anya na ikesa 10,000 tiketi maka ndị sonyere na akụkọ ihe mere eme gara aga nke onyinye na ihe omume ahụ. Emechaa afọ ahụ, BLM gbatịpụrụ oke ọnụọgụgụ maka ihe omume ahụ na 68,000. Ọnụ ọgụgụ kasị elu nke ndị bịara mgbakọ ahụ bụ 69,613 bịara.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

N’afọ 1977, otu nwoke aha ya bụ Gary Warne na mmadụ ole na ole n’ime ndị enyi ya hiwere otu òtù a kpọrọ “thelọ Ọrụ Na-egbu Onwe Onye Site n'inwe mkpalite sitere na omenala ọdịnala gụnyere Dadaism, Ọnọdụ, "ihe omume," Merry Pranksters, na Yippees, n'etiti ndị ọzọ bu ụzọ, ihe omume ndị otu ahụ gụnyere ịmegharị mbadamba azụmahịa, na-ejupụta Golden Gate na Bay Bridges, na-abanye n'ime ihe ndị akwadoro. site n'aka Rev. Sun Myung Moon, na ichoputa uzo mmiri na uzo. Ndị so n’ Clubtù Na-egbu Onwe Ha “kwetara ka e mee ihe nile dị n’ụwa, ịba n’ụwa Chaos, cacophony & dark saturnalia, ibi ndụ kwa ụbọchị dị ka a ga-asị na ọ bụ nke ikpeazụ.” ("San Francisco Suicide Club" nd; leekwa Evans, Galbraith and Law 2013) Otu nke igbu onwe ya gbasasịa site na 1982, Warne nwụrụ site na nkụchi obi na 1983. Na 1986, ndị bụbu ndị otu na-egbu onwe ha, gụnyere otu nwoke aha ya bụ John Law, guzobere Cacophony Society na mmụọ yiri nke ahụ. Otu ohuru a kwuputara na ya bu: “nchikota ndi mmadu ndi mmadu jikotara aka na ichota ihe omuma karia ihe ndi mmadu site na nduhie, ndi ozo, nka, ihe ndi ozo nyocha na nzuzu na-enweghị isi. Nwere ike ịbụworị onye otu! ” (Evans, Galbraith and Law 2013; lee kwa “May Pụrụ Bebụ Otu” nd).

Nakwa na 1986 (na nke mbụ na-enweghị njikọ na Cacophony Society ma ọ bụ ndị na-egbu onwe ya), nwoke aha ya bụ Larry Harvey na enyi ya Jerry James jikọtara ihe ọkụkụ dị elu asatọ ma gbaa ya ọkụ na Baker Beach na San Francisco na Summer Solstice eve . A mụrụ Harvey n'ime ime obodo na mpụga Portland, Oregon na 1948, ma kwaga mpaghara San Francisco Bay na ngwụcha 1970s. Onye nwere ọgụgụ isi, onye gụrụ akwụkwọ, na onye na-ekwu okwu, Harvey kọwara onwe ya dị ka ihe na-adịghị mma n'oge ndụ (Brown 2005). N'oge ntorobịa ya, o nwere ọtụtụ ọrụ dị iche iche ma na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-ahụ maka ọdịdị ala n'etiti 1980s mgbe ya na onye ọrụ ibe ya, James, kpebiri iwu ma gbaa ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ mechara ghọọ "BurningMan" (ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị onye n'ime ha jiri okwu a n'oge ahụ, ma ọ bụ hụ oke mmemme ọzara nke ọma na ihe omume ha a na-atụghị anya ya ga-abụ). Harvey mechara kweta na e nyere ya ike mmụọ nsọ, na akụkụ, ihe omume nke onye omenka akpọrọ Mary Graubarger mere na Baker Beach na ngwụsị afọ ndị 1970 na mbido 1980s, na nke ọ gakwuuru na onye bụbu enyi nwanyị ugbu a (Doherty 2004: 26 -28). Agbanyeghị, Harvey ekwuputala ugboro ugboro na ya na James enweghị atụmatụ ọ bụla pụtara n’uche mgbe mbụ ha wuru “Nwoke ahụ” ma kpọọ ya ọkụ. Ihe dị ka mmadụ iri abụọ bịara nke mbụ a "ọkụ," ọ bụ ezie na dị ka Harvey ga-akọ akụkọ ahụ na mgbe e mesịrị ọtụtụ afọ, ọnụ ọgụgụ ha toro ka ihe owuwu ahụ gbara ọkụ ma ndị na-achọ ịmata ihe gbalịrị ọsọ ọsọ. Onwere onye wetara guitar, onye ozo bu igba, onye bidoro gba egwu ya. Harvey ga-emesịa kọwaa ìgwè a gbakọtara n'onwe ha dị ka "obodo na-adịru nwa oge."

Harvey na James kpebiri ịmeghachi ihe omume ahụ n'afọ na-esote, na 1988 ha sonyeere ndị Cacophony Society, bụ ndị malitere inye aka ịkpọsa na ịhazi ihe omume ahụ. Arụpụta ahụ toro ruo mita iri atọ n’ịdị elu, ka a na-akpọzi Ọkụ ahụ Na-ere Ọkụ; ọ dọtara ebe dị ka mmadụ 150-200. Ka ọ na-erule June, 1990, Nwoke ahụ dị mita 40 n'ogologo, ìgwè mmadụ gbakọtara amụbawo na ndị e mere atụmatụ 800, na ndị uwe ojii Park Park kpebiri na ha enweghịzi ike ịme ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ ọkụ na ebe ahụ. N'oge a, John Law na ndị ọzọ tụrụ aro ka Black Rock Desert dị na northwest Nevada dị ka ebe ọzọ, ya onwe ya, Harvey, na ndị isi nhazi ndị ọzọ kpebisiri ike ịkpọrọ Nwoke ahụ ebe a ga-akpọ ya ọkụ ọnwa ole na ole ka e mesịrị na ngwụcha izu ọrụ.

Ọ dị ihe dịka 340 kilomita site na San Francisco, na 120 kilomita n'ebe ugwu nke Reno, akụkụ kachasị na Black Desert Black bụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri akụkọ 400-square kilomita gara aga a na-akpọ ihe (ụgbọelu buru ibu, nke tọchara chakoo, nke tọgbọrọ chakoo, nke dịkwa nnọọ larịị nke ụrọ alkali siri ike gbawara agbawa). Ihu igwe ebe ahụ nwere ike ịdị oke dị ka okpomọkụ na ngwụsị oge ọkọchị na-esite na iri anọ n’abalị ruo ihe karịrị otu narị Celsius Fahrenheit n’ehihie. Oke ifufe uzuzu na oke ocha nwere ike ifufe na mgbe ufodu kariri kilomita iri asaa na ise kwa awa (Goin and Starrs 2005).

Otu ebe n'etiti mmadụ asatọ na otu narị ndị ụjọ na-atụ njem mere njem nke mbụ na playa na Septemba nke 1990. Otu onye otu Cacophony Society a ma ama aha ya bụ Michael Mikel kpụchara ahịrị gafee elu playa ma kpọọ ndị bịara nzukọ ahụ ka ha gafere n'ọnụ ụzọ ahụ, wee bụrụ n'ụzọ ihe atụ. na-ebute ndị mbụ a sonyere na “Mpaghara.” (The Cacophony Society nwere nzukọ ndị ọzọ ole na ole ha kpọrọ "Mpaghara Njem," nke ha mere njem n'okporo ụzọ gaa na ókèala ndị ọzọ na ebe ndị ọzọ. Lee Beale 2007). Ihe omume ahụ toro nke ukwuu n'afọ ndị sochirinụ. Jerry James hapụrụ ihe omume ahụ maka ebumnuche nke aka ya na 1991. Na 1992, Mikel were moniker "Danger Ranger" wee hazie otu ọ kpọrọ "Black Rock Rangers" iji nyere ndị sonyere aka bụ ndị furu efu ma ọ bụ rapaara na nnukwu, efu Playa. Ndị Rangers na-aga n'ihu dị ka ihe nchekwa nchekwa nchekwa na nchekwa dị oke mkpa nke jikọrọ ndị gọọmentị etiti, steeti, na ndị ọrụ nchekwa iwu dị iche iche nke na-agagharị ugbu a.

Ka ọ na-erule 1993, e nwere ihe dị ka ndị bịara 1,000, ụfọdụ n'ime ihe nka na ọrụ ngosi pụrụ iche wee malite ịpụta. Iji maa atụ, Cacophonist Peter Doty dere “Ogige Ekeresimesi” site n’itinye osisi Krismas rọba n’ihu ụlọikwuu ya,iji ejiji ka Santa Claus, ma na-ekesara ndị ọzọ sonyere onyinye mgbe ha na-abụ abụ Christmas Carols, si otú a na-akpali ihe ga-abụ ọdịnala “ogige egwuregwu”. Ndị ọzọ sonyere bidoro iweta ihe nka ndị ọzọ nke omenaala na ihe omume mgbe emesịrị, gụnyere otu igwe eji arụpụta ihe akpọrọ akpọrọ “art cars.” Ebe a mara ụlọikwuu ahụ mechara bụrụ “Black Rock City” wee tokwuo anya ma nwekwaa okirikiri okirikiri, nweekwa ụzọ ụzọ ahaziri ahazi, otu ebe a na-ere kọfị, na ihe ndị ọzọ eji eme obodo.

Ka ọ na-erule afọ 1996, ihe omume ahụ agbachaala nye ndị e mere atụmatụ 8,000 so na ya, bụ nke malitere ịkpata obere akụrụngwa ihe omume ahụ mepụtara ruo oge ahụ. Ọnwụ mberede nke mbụ mere ụbọchị ole na ole tupu ihe omume ahụ amalite "n'ọchịchị," mgbe onye so na ya Michael Fury nwụrụ mgbe ọ na-agba ọgba tum tum ya (o doro anya na ọ drunkụbigara mmanya ókè na enweghị ọkụ) na-alaghachi n'ụlọikwuu ya na playa site na obodo dị nso nke Gerlach. Abọchị ole na ole mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, n'oge ihe omume ahụ bụ isi, mmadụ abụọ ọzọ sonyere merụrụ ahụ nke ukwuu, otu n'ime ha enwetabeghị kpamkpam, mgbe onye ọzọ na-egbu mmanya runụbigara mmanya ókè. Mgbe nsogbu ndị a gasịrị, John Law chọrọ ịkwụsị ijide ihe omume Burning Man n'ọdịnihu kpamkpam wee pụọ na ndị otu na-ahazi. Ọ laghachila na ihe omume ahụ kemgbe, ọ bụ ezie na ọ ka bụ onye a ma ama na nka Bay Area na obodo ọdịbendị ndị ọzọ (Iwu 2013; lelee Evans, Galbraith and Law 2013). Otú ọ dị, Harvey na ndị enyi ndị ọzọ chọrọ ịnọgide na-eme Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ ma yabụ malitere ịzụlite akụrụngwa a haziri nke ọma. Ihe omume na ọnụ ụzọ ámá ghọrọ nke a na-ejikwa nlezianya na-achịkwa, na ịkwọ ụgbọala n'ime saịtị ahụ ga-amachibido iwu ma e wezụga ụgbọ ala nka. Ọbụna ndị a ga-ejedebe na kilomita ise kwa elekere ma ga-emesịa jiri nlezianya dozie ma nye ya ohere. Harvey guzobere Black Rock City LLC dị ka usoro azụmahịa maka ihe omume ya na ndị enyi ole na ole tụkwasịrị obi.

Site na 1997-2007, ihe omume a toro site na 10,000 ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị sonyere 50,000, ma mepụtakwa ọtụtụ nka, ememe, na omenala ndị ọzọ bịara ị mata mmemme ahụ. (A ga-atụle ihe ndị ọzọ gbasara atụmatụ ndị a n'okpuru Iwu / Nkwenkwe na Iwu.) Oge ngwụcha 1990s bụ oge na-atọ ụtọ mana oge ịma aka maka Burning Man, dịka ndị na-ahazi mụtara ijikwa oke uto ma mepụta nzukọ na-akwụ ụgwọ, ma na-abịakwa okwu ekwenye ekwenye na ụlọ ọrụ gọọmentị etiti na gọọmentị etiti, yana ndị nwe ala na ndị bi na obodo Gerlach, Nevada. Site na 2000s, usoro nke iwulite akụrụngwa kwa afọ maka Black Rock City bidoro nweta nkwụsi ike, na-enye ndị nhazi ohere ịtụgharị ụfọdụ ike ha n'èzí. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, oge dị ịrịba ama na akụkọ ihe mere eme mere na 2005, mgbe ndị na-ahazi Burning Man nyere aka ịkwado na iwulite nzaghachi afọ ofufo na Hurricane Katrina Crisis na Gulf Coast. Otu a, nke a kpọrọ akpọ Burners Without Border, nyere aka wughachi ụlọ nsọ Buddhist Vietnamese na Biloxi, Mississippi, kwatuo ọtụtụ ụlọ mebiri emebi na-enweghị ego maka ndị nwe ha, ma wughachi ụlọ nkeonwe na Pearlington, Mississippi. Nzukọ a na-aga n'ihu na-enyere aka ịhazi mbọ nzaghachi ọdachi na atụmatụ ndị ọzọ, gụnyere na New Jersey na-eso Hurricane Sandy na 2012 (lee "Burners Without Border" nd).

A ga-atụle ihe omume ndị ọzọ dị ịrịba ama (gụnyere ọkụ na-egbu oge nke mmadụ na 2007, nguzobe nke Burning Man Project 501c (3) na 2011, na nsogbu tiketi na 2011 na 2012) ga-atụle n'okpuru n'okpuru Organizationtù / Ọchịchị na Okwu na Nsogbu.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Isiokwu nke ozizi na nkwenkwe Burning Man dị mgbagwoju anya. Abughi ndi sonyere ma obu ndi nhazi ihe na-akowa Burning Man dika a “Okpukpe,” ma ọ bụ na ha na-azọrọ na ha na-akọ akụkọ ọ bụla banyere mpaghara a na-adịghị ahụ anya ma ọ bụ nke na-enweghị atụ. N'otu oge ahụ, ndị na-ahazi ihe omume na-ekwupụta ọchịchọ nke "mepụta mgbanwe ime mmụọ dị mma n'ụwa," site na ahụmịhe nke Burning Man ("Nkwupụta Ozi" nd). Ndi nhazi aburula ndi ezi okwu, ndi "Principle iri" nke ndi nchikota ya na ndi sonyere na ya na ebi ndu site na mmemme ahu na okpuru omenala ndi gbara ya gburugburu. Thesekpụrụ ndị a bụ: "nsonye na-agbanwe agbanwe, inye onyinye, decommodification, nnwere onwe ịdabere n'ụzọ ziri ezi, nkwupụta onwe onye na-agbanwe agbanwe, mbọ ime obodo, ibu ọrụ obodo, ịhapụ enweghị akara, isonye, ​​na ozugbo" (Gilmore 2010: 38; lee kwa "Tenkpụrụ Iri" nd ). Ndị sonyere (nke akpọrọ "Burners") na-eweta ọtụtụ echiche dị iche na usoro nkwenkwe gbasara ihe mmemme na ọnọdụ ime mmụọ n'ozuzu ya. Nnyocha m mere na 2004 nke ndị na-ere ọkụ na Burning Man chọpụtara na ihe dịka ọkara kọwara echiche onwe ha dị ka "mmụọ" ma ọ bụ "nke mmụọ mana ọ bụghị nke okpukpe," ebe ihe karịrị otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ kọwara echiche ha dị ka ekweghị na Chineke, agnostic, ma ọ bụ naanị ambivalent (Gilmore 2010: 48-49) . Ihe ndị a niile na-akwado nkwado nke nzukọ Burning Man nke aka ha kwa afọ ("AfterBurn Reports" nd). N'agbanyeghị nnukwu ọdịiche dị n'etiti echiche dị iche iche ndị a, o yikarịrị ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị a ga-edebanye aha dị ka "ndị na-abụghị ndị" na nyocha ndị dị ka Pew Forum's 2008 US Religious Landscape Survey ("Pew Forum" 2008). Ọ bụ mmadụ ole na ole so na Burning Man sonyere na ọdịnala okpukpe pụrụ iche. Na nyocha m, ndị kpọrọ aha ọdịnala ndị a na-amata nwere ọtụtụ njikọ, gụnyere ma ụdị nke Iso progressivezọ Kraịst na-aga n'ihu na nke na-agbanwe agbanwe, okpukpe ndị Juu na ndị na-emezigharị, ụdị dị iche iche nke Buddha na okpukpe Hindu, yana ụdị okpukpe dị iche iche nke oge a.

Ọ bụ ezie na a na-akpọkarị Burning Man ihe omume “ndị ọgọ mmụọ”, ọ dịbeghị mgbe ọ bụla nzukọ ma ọ bụ usoro mmụta okpukpe jikọtara ya na Paganism oge ochie (aka Neo-Paganism), Wicca, ma ọ bụ okpukpe ndị ọzọ nke oge a "ụwa". Nnyocha 2004 m mere ka ndị na-ekwu na ha bụ ndị ọgọ mmụọ dị ole m tụrụ anya ya (Gilmore 2010: 49-52). Agbanyeghị, m na-ekwusi ike na a ghọtara Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ dị ka ihe omume ndị ọgọ mmụọ "dị ala", na ntụgharị ya na nka ya sitere n'ọtụtụ ihe atụ, na-abụkarị nke ụmụ amaala na ndị ọzọ polytheistic imagery. Ọzọkwa, nyere ahụmịhe ahụ metụtara na ike anụ ahụ nke ịma ụlọikwuu na Black Rock playa, yana mgbakwunye na usoro ihe omume ahụ, Burning Man na-emetụta ọtụtụ ndị sonyere na visceral, ọkwa nke gụnyere nke a na-ejikọkarị ya na okpukperechi “ndị ọgọ mmụọ”. N'ime echiche ndị a, Burning Man na-atụgharị uche n'ihe Michael York kpọrọ "okpukpe mgbọrọgwụ" akụkụ nke okpukpe ndị ọgọ mmụọ (York 2005). Nwoke na-ere oku na-egosiputa ihe nke Bron Taylor kpọrọ "ọchịchịrị gbara ọchịchịrị" (Taylor 2009). Ndị na-eso ha na-enwekarị mmasị na nkwado maka nkwado nke obibi, nke na-eme ka akụkụ ụfọdụ site na nsogbu ịma aka siri ike na ahụmịhe siri ike nke okike nke ọzara chọrọ. Ọ bụ ezie na ememme ahụ n’onwe ya abụghị mmemme mmekọrịta enyi na anụ ụlọ kachasị elu (ebe ndị sonyere na-eri oke ọnụọgụ ego maka izu dị mkpirikpi na ịla n’iyi nke “potlatch”) ndị na-ahazi na ndị sonyere na-agbasi mbọ ike “ịhapụ enweghị akara” site na nke ọma na iji nlezianya hichaa ebe ihe omume na-esochi mmemme ọ bụla kwa afọ, wee bido ịzụta ihe arụ carbon na 2006.

N'ozuzu, ndị na-ere ọkụ na-egosipụta nghọta dịgasị iche iche gbasara ọdịdị na ihe omume ahụ n'onwe ya. N'ime nyocha m, ihe karịrị ọkara kwuru n'ụzọ doro anya na ha lere ma ọ bụ hụ na ihe omume ahụ dịka n'ụzọ ụfọdụ "nke mmụọ" ma ọ bụ "nke mmụọ, mana ọ bụghị nke okpukpe.” Ihe ha bu n'uche na nke ahụ dịgasị iche iche dị ukwuu, na echiche ha abụchaghị otu. Ọtụtụ kọwara ọchịchọ nke ma onye ọ bụla ma inwe njikọ chiri anya na “ihe karịrị nke ahụ,” ọtụtụ (ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ pasent 40) kwetakwara n'ụzọ doro anya ma gbagwojuru anya dị n'etiti Nwoke na-ere ọkụ na “okpukpe” Ma ha na-ahụkarị njikọ ndị a dị ka nsogbu, na-esite na nhụjuanya zuru oke nke "okpukpe". Akụkụ ọzọ buru ibu (ihe dịka 15%) kwenyere "okpukpe" ma ọ bụ "ọnọdụ ime mmụọ" dị ka usoro ziri ezi maka ihe omume ahụ, ma kwusi ike na ụdị ọ bụla dị n'etiti Burning Man na okpukpe bụ echiche ụgha, mkparị, ma ọ bụ abụọ. Na njedebe, ọtụtụ (ihe karịrị 40%) nwere ezigbo ntụsara ahụ na-ekweta na mmemme ahụ nwere ike ịbụ “ihe ọ bụla ịchọrọ,” na echiche a na-egosi ịdị njikere nke mmemme ahụ, yana oke nke ọ na-egosipụta miri emi. ụkpụrụ nke onye ọ bụla nke Protestant America (Gilmore 2010: 57-62).

Esemokwu dị iche iche dị na Man Burning bụ, ana m arụ ụka, n'etiti igwe na-anya ụgbọ ala nke ihe omume ahụ. Ka ndị sonyere na-arụrịta ụka ma na-eme ụkpụrụ, ụkpụrụ, na mmemme ahụ, ọdịdị ya, ihe ọ pụtara, na ọnọdụ ya na-aga n'ihu. (A ga-atụle ihe ndị ọzọ na nke a n'okpuru okpuru / Ihe ịma aka.) Kama ịmepụta NRM pụrụ iche, Nwoke na-ere ọkụ bụ kama ebe a ga-eme ihe, ma ọ bụghị n'ememe, ọtụtụ ihe mmụọ nke mmụọ a na-akọwakarị dị ka nke ọzọ, esoteric, afọ ọhụrụ, ma ọ bụ “nke ime mmụọ, ma ọ bụghị nke okpukpe.” Na nke a, Burning Man na-enye nsogbu oke gburugburu ihe enwere ike ịkọwa ma ọ bụ kọwaa dị ka "okpukpe," dị ka ụkpụrụ Western si kwenye.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Malite na mmemme mmeghe nke ọkara na Baker Beach na 1986, ọkụ nke mmadụ nwere ọrụ dị ka ihe omume a bido nke oma. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 1989, ihe osise ahụ ewerewo ihe ghọrọ ụdị ọdịdị ya (ya na obere ọdịiche dị iche iche n'oge ụfọdụ) n'ime iri afọ abụọ na-abịanụ (onye ọrụ ọrụ lattice-nke na-arụ ọrụ, nke na-echetara ogige trellis ma ọ bụ ụlọ elu eletrik, nke ejiri ihe ngosi diamond yiri diamond). ọ bụ ezie na ụdị nke ọkụ ahụ agbanweela n'ọtụtụ ụzọ karịa oge. N’afọ ndị mbụ, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị nile bịara ya sonyere n’ibuli Nwoke ahụ ka o guzoro ọtọ site n’iji winch na pulley eme ihe. Agbanyeghị, ebe ọ bụ na 2001 Nwoke ahụ eguzola n'elu ikpo okwu dị elu (nke gosipụtara otu isiokwu kwa afọ) ma tinye ya ụbọchị crane tupu ọtụtụ ndị sonyere abata. Enweghị usoro ọ bụla ma ọ bụ usoro a kapịrị ọnụ iji soro na Burn, ma ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ puku mmadụ niile bịara ihe omume ahụ na-agbakọta gburugburu Nwoke maka ihe omume a. A na-ebu ụzọ gbaa ọkụ ọkụ site na ịgba egwu egwu dị egwu (ezubere ịgbazinye ụfọdụ gravitas na ihe nkiri), mana imirikiti ọtụtụ puku ndị sonyere na-agaghachi azụ na igwe mmadụ iji lelee ọrụ ndị a.

Emere mmemme emume ndị ọzọ na mmemme ahụ site na mbido ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na 1991 otu ụmụ nwanyị jiri ogbe achịcha mee chi nwaanyị ọmụmụ na oven (Harvey 1991). Omenala "isiokwu ogige" nke malitere site na Peter Doty's Christmas Christmas Camp na 1993, nwere ihe ngosi na ihe omume ihe ndị na-adọta site na usoro ọdịbendị, nka, na akara ngosi zuru ụwa ọnụ nke na-akpali ọtụtụ isiokwu na-enweghị isi (Maka ọmụmaatụ, lee "Theme Camps & Villages" nd). Na 1994, onye na-ese ihe bụ Pepe Ozan malitere ịkpụ ụlọ elu iri na iri abụọ gbagoro elu nke ejiri ọkpụkpọ waya na apịtị apịtị nke ọ kpọrọ "lingams," nke a ga-eji nkụ wee kpoo. Malite n’afọ 1996, ihe osise ndị a ghọrọ usoro maka “opera” a kapịrị ọnụ. Edere ma megharia, ihe ngosi ndị a na-adabere na isiokwu okpukpe na nke ime mmụọ gụnyere Dante's Inferno, Ishtar's Marriage and Descent, Vedic Hinduism, Vodou, na Atlantis mythos ("Burning Man Opera" nd). Opera ndị a kwụsịrị ịbụ akụkụ pụtara ìhè nke Burning Man mgbe afọ 2000 gasịrị, mana obodo ndị na-ese ihe na ndị na-eme ihe nkiri mepụtara ha ga-aga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ dịgasị iche iche, gụnyere opera banyere Burning Man (akpọ Otu esi adị ndụ na Apọkalips ) nke edobere na San Francisco na 2009, Los Angeles na 2011, na Las Vegas na 2012 ("Otu esi enweta ndụ Apocalypse" nd).

Kemgbe 2001, ememme nke abụọ a maara dị ka Temlọ Nsọ apụtala. Ndị a bụ ihe owuwu mara mma nke a na-akpọ ndị sonyere ka ha hapụ ihe odide na obere ihe maka ndị ha hụrụ n'anya nwụrụ anwụ, yana ozi ndị ọzọ oge ụfọdụ banyere ibu arọ nke ndị sonyere na-atọhapụ onwe ha. A na-akpọ ụlọ nsọ ọkụ n'abalị Sọnde, n'abalị na-esote nsure nwoke ahụ. Omenala ụlọ nsọ ahụ bụ onye omenkà aha ya bụ David Best hiwere ya, onye gbanwere usoro ọ wuru maka ihe omume na 2000 (nke e wuru site na mpempe dinosaur dinosaur ma kpọọ "Templelọ nke Mind") ka ọ bụrụ ihe ncheta nwa oge maka enyi nwụrụ anwụ na nso nso a. . O kpebiri imeghachi ihe omume ahụ n'afọ na-eso ya, nke nwere nnukwu ihe owuwu a kpọrọ "Temple of Tears." Haziri site na ndị na-ese ihe dị iche iche, gụnyere Best, kwa afọ kemgbe, thelọ Nsọ abụrụla ihe omume a ma ama nke ukwuu. N’ụzọ dị iche na ikuku n’abalị ahụ Nwoke na-ere ọkụ, a na-ahụkarị ụlọ nsọ ahụ n’ịgba nkịtị na emume. (Pike 2001, 2005, 2010, na 2011)

Ewezuga ihe atụ ndị a buru ibu, ọtụtụ emume dị nta na mmemme dị ka emume na-ewere ọnọdụ na Burning Man. N'ime afọ ọ bụla, ntụgharị site na ndepụta nke mmemme na ihe omume nke ndị sonyere nyere gụnyere: klaasị Yoga, klaasị Kabbalah, Reiki attunement, Vipassana, Zen na usoro mkparịta ụka ndị ọzọ, Pagan na ememme emume emume, Balinese kechack, na ọrụ Shabbat. (n'etiti ọtụtụ ihe omume "nke ụwa" nke doro anya). Ezutewo m Ndị Kraịst na-achọghị mgbanwe ụka nke na-ekesa karama mmiri dị ka “ngosipụta nke ịgba ama amụma” site n'ogige isiokwu nke ezubere iji gosipụta akwụkwọ mmiri Ein Gedi. Achọburu m onye isi nke "Black Rock City JCC" isiokwu mara ụlọikwuu, onye na-agaghị ekwe ka m teepu-edekọ ajụjụ ọnụ ụtụtụ Satọdee anyị maka idebe iwu Sabbathbọchị Izu Ike. Nwoke na-ere ọkụ anabatakwala ọtụtụ arụmọrụ site n'aka onye na-ese ihe nkiri New York na onye na-ahụ maka ikpe ziri ezi ọha na eze Reverend Billy na Churchka ya nke Stop Shopping (nke a makwaara mgbe ụfọdụ dị ka Church of Life After Shopping, na Church of Earth-a-lujuah) (Talen na D. 2010; lee “Churchka Church of Stop Shopping” nd).

N'ikpeazụ, ruo n'ókè dị nta, a na-akpụzi Burning Man site na usoro isiokwu dị kwa afọ, dị ka Oge Ugboro (1999), N'ebe Nkwenkwe (2002), Nwoke Okike (2007), Rites nke ngafe (2011), na Gotù nzuzo (2013) ịkpọ aha ole na ole. Ndị a na-enye ogo mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ihe osise, arụmọrụ na mmemme emere maka mmemme ahụ site na ndị sonyere. N'ikpeazụ, enwerekwa echiche nke enwere ike ilele ihe omume ahụ dum dị ka emume njem uka, ya na ndozi ndị na-elekọta ya na mgbatị, ịga ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ na nke dị ntakịrị, ịgafe ụzọ, ọrụ mmekọrịta, mmechi mmechi, na ịmegharị mgbanwe na-agbanwe agbanwe , ọha mmadụ kwa ụbọchị (Gilmore 2010).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Na mbido 1990s, Burning Man nwere site na njikọ mmekọrịta iwu dị n'etiti Larry Harvey, John Law, Michael Mikel nke akpọrọ na nzuzo "oflọ Nsọ nke Gumụ Atọ ahụ," na ihe omume ahụ n'onwe ya haziri ahazi ndị atọ ahụ, nwere ogo dị iche iche enyemaka site na mmekorita ya na ọtụtụ ndị enyi ndị ọzọ na ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo. Malite na 1996, Larry Harvey guzobere formedlọ Ọrụ Na-akwụ ụgwọ Dị Obere site na ya iji nwee ma jikwaa ihe omume ahụ na otu ndị enyi a tụkwasịrị obi. Oge izizi akpọrọ Burning Man LLC, agbanyeghị na Black Rock City LLC ga-anọchi ihe a na 1997. Ndị otu LLC gbanwere ntakịrị na mbido afọ, mana ha mechara biri na isi mmadụ isii ndị na-ejidekwa isi njikwa ọnọdụ n'ịhazi ihe omume ahụ. Larry Harvey na-eje ozi dị ka Onye isi Nchịkwa na onye isi ọhụụ nke ihe omume ahụ. Dị ka e kwuru na mbụ, Michael Mikel guzobere Black Rock Rangers, ma na-eje ozi ugbu a dị ka enigmatic "Ambassador" na "Director of Genetic Programming." Crimson Rose ghọrọ Onye isi Nchịkwa Ọchịchị, na onye ya na ya na-emekọrịta ihe ogologo oge, Will Roger na-eje ozi dị ka onye isi nke Nevada Relations & Projects Pụrụ Iche, ọ bụ ezie na ọrụ nchịkwa ya na-arụsi ọrụ ike emeela ka ọ daa mbà kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ. Harley Dubois mejupụtara ọrụ dị mkpa dị ka Director nke Ọrụ Ndị Ọrụ Obodo na Playa Safety Council. N'ikpeazụ, Marian Goodell (onye ọhụụ ọhụụ na-etinyeghị aka ruo mgbe ihe omume 1996) mechara bụrụ ihe dị oke mkpa dị ka Director of Business and Communications.

Na 2010, Harvey kwupụtara na Onye Na-ere Ọkụ ga-amalite ịgbanwe site na LLC gaa na 501c (3) na-enweghị uru akpọrọ Burning Man Project (Curley 2010). Na 2011, e guzobere ndị isi nchịkwa iri na asaa maka nzukọ ọhụrụ a, nke gụnyere mmadụ isii ahụ nọ na LLC ogologo oge yana mmadụ iri na abụọ ndị ọzọ sitere na San Francisco na mpaghara nka na azụmahịa nke West Coast.

Dika edeputara na obere oge di elu, onu ogugu kacha elu nke ndi obodo Black Rock City bawanyere site na ndi ruru 100 sonyere na 1990 rue ihe ruru 70,000 na 2013. (“Black Rock City 2013 Population” 2013) O siri ike itule oke nke obodo uwa nile. nke ndị na-ere ọkụ (ya bụ, ndị nwere oge ụfọdụ kemgbe mbido 1990 gara mmemme ahụ opekata mpe otu oge), agbanyeghị na ọnụọgụ ahụ nwere ike narị otu narị puku. Na mbido afọ 2014, akwụkwọ ozi e-mail kacha nke nzukọ a kpọrọ Jackrabbit Okwu, nwere ihe karịrị ndị debanyere aha 170,000 na Burning Man's Facebook page nwere ihe karịrị 530,000 "nwere mmasị."

Gburugburu ala, obodo Burning Man dị na Mpaghara San Francisco Bay, agbanyeghị na enwere nnukwu ntụle n'ọtụtụ obodo ndị ọzọ dị na US, ọkachasị Reno, Austin, Los Angeles, na Portland, n'etiti ndị ọzọ. Na mgbakwunye na ndị a ịbụ obodo ndị mepere emepe dịkarịrị nso na ọnọdụ omume, obodo ndị a bụkwa ebe obibi nke nnukwu nka na "ọzọ" sub-omenala. Ndị na-ahazi achọ ịzụlite "Regional Network" nke ndị Burning Man sonyere na obodo ndị a na obodo ndị ọzọ, ọtụtụ n'ime ha na-ahazi ma kwado ihe omume Burning Man-esque na mpaghara nke ha. "Ihe omume mpaghara" ndị a dị ka Canada, UK, Ireland, Australia, na South Africa ("Regional Network" nd). Ọ bụ ihe a na-anụtụbeghị maka ụfọdụ ndị sonyere ịga naanị ihe omume mpaghara ha, mana ọ bụghị isi ihe omume na Nevada, ma ka na-ewere onwe ha ka ha bụrụ Onye Ọkụ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Isi okwu na nsogbu ndị Burning Man chere ihu sitere na mmụba ngwa ngwa nke ihe omume ahụ, nsogbu metụtara metụtara ego na azụmahịa, yana esemokwu obodo sara mbara banyere ihe na ụdị ihe omume ahụ. Ọ dịla anya ndị na-ahazi Burning Man kwuru decommodification dị ka otu n'ime Iwu Iri ha, na-asị: “obodo anyị na-achọ ịmepụta gburugburu mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke nkwado azụmahịa, azụmahịa, ma ọ bụ mgbasa ozi na-akwadoghị. Anyị dị njikere ichebe ọdịbendị anyị pụọ na nrigbu ndị dị otú ahụ. Anyị na-eguzogide ngbanwe nke oriri maka ahụmịhe na-ekere òkè "(" Tenkpụrụ Iri "nd). Mkpesa nke Burning Man nke "e rere" abụwo nsogbu kemgbe ọ dịkarịa ala n'etiti 1990s, mgbe isiokwu nke afọ mbụ (Inferno na 1996) weputara nnabata nke satirical weputara Burning Man site na nzuko ndi mmadu nke satan na-akpo “HelCo.” Na nzaghachi nke ebubo nke ịmaliteghachi ọrụ, Harvey kwuru okwu na ihe omume na 1998 nke ọ depụtara ọdịiche dị n'etiti "azụmahịa" na "commodification" (Harvey 1998). Nzukọ ahụ ga-emesịa kwuo na weebụsaịtị ha: “Anyị etinyela usoro nkewa gburugburu ihe omume ọzara anyị iji kewapụ kpọmkwem, ahụmịhe ozugbo na ụwa azụmaahịa nke ọchịchọ mepụtara. Ọ bụghị na anyị na-emegide azụmahịa, kama anyị na-emegide azụmahịa na-enweghị obodo, oriri na-enweghị nzube na uru na-enweghị uru. ” (“Ebe ahia” nd; leekwa Gilmore 2010). Dabere na nke a dị mma, ha na-anwa ịchịkwa iji azụmaahịa nke aha nwoke ahụ na-ere ọkụ, ihe oyiyi, na akara ngosi, iji mee ka ndị ọzọ ghara itinye ego na ika Burning Man (maka ihe atụ na-adịbeghị anya, lee Pippi 2012).

Ihe omuma atu ozo banyere otu esi eme ihe di iche bu na eziokwu na Burning Man anabataghi nkwado nke ulo oru, kama ịdabere na ahia ahia iji kpuchie ugwo mmeputa nke ihe omume. Costsgwọ ndị a gụnyere iwu kwa afọ na nhicha nke akụrụngwa nke Black Rock City, ụgwọ dị ukwuu kwa mmadụ / kwa ụbọchị nke BLM boro, mkpuchi, ụgwọ ọrụ, ahụike mberede na ọrụ nchekwa ọha na eze n'oge mmemme ahụ, onyinye maka ịhọrọ ọrụ nka akwadoro, yana ọtụtụ ụgwọ ndị ọzọ dị iche na nhazi. N'ihe gbasara 2012, Nwoke na-ere ọkụ kọrọ ihe karịrị nde dolla iri abụọ na mmefu kwa afọ ("AfterBurn Report 2012" 2012). Agbanyeghị, ndị sonyere na-eme mkpesa banyere ihe a
ọnụahịa tiketi dị elu nke ihe omume ahụ, nke bilitere site na $ 35 na 1995 ruo $ 380 na 2014. Na mbọ iji lebara ọnụ ahịa ahụ anya ma mee ka mmemme ahụ nwekwuo ike ịnweta ndị nwere obere ego, site na ndị nhazi 1999-2012 nyere tiketi na ọnụ ala na-adabere na oge nke afọ zụrụ. Ha na-aga n'ihu na-eme ọnụ ọgụgụ pere mpe nke tiketi obere ego dị kwa afọ, dị site na ngwa, na tiketi a na-akwụkarị ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo a tụkwasịrị obi.

Na 2011 na 2012, Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ chere ihu na nsogbu banyere ọnụ na nnweta mgbe tiketi maka ihe omume ahụ rere maka oge mbụ na akụkọ ntolite ya. Nke a rụpụtara na scalpers tiketi depụtara ha maka ọrịre na narị otu narị ma ọ bụ puku kwuru puku karịa ọnụ ahịa ọnụ ahịa ($ 210- $ 360 na 2011 na $ 240- $ 420 na 2012). A lọtrị lọtrị emere na Jenụwarị, 2012 kụrụ afọ n'ala mgbe ọtụtụ ndị sonyere ogologo oge hụrụ onwe ha na-enweghị tiketi, ọnụọgụ tiketi ndị ọzọ dabara ọzọ n'aka ndị scalpers. Na nzaghachi, ndị nhazi kpebiri iji kesaa tiketi ha fọdụrụnụ na ndị otu ama mara ama mara ama. Nke a nọchiri anya mgbanwe iwu dị mkpa maka otu nzukọ nke gosipụtara "enweghị isi inclusivity" dị ka otu n'ime isi ụkpụrụ ya (Grace 2012). E mesịa, na June 2012, ndị na-ahazi natara ikike site na BLM iji bulie okpu ha bịara 60,900, ka ọ na-erule etiti Ọgọstụ, ọ dị ka tiketi juru ebe niile. Na njedebe, ngụkọta ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu maka 2012 bụ ndị ụlọ ọrụ Associated Press kọrọ na ha bụ 52,385, nke gbadara ntakịrị ntakịrị site na ọnụ ọgụgụ 2011 zuru oke nke 53,735 (Griffith 2012). Na 2013, Nwoke na-ere ọkụ kwupụtara ọkwa ọhụrụ, nke dị mfe nke a ga-akwụ ụgwọ tiketi niile na $ 380 na tiketi 10,000 mbụ ga-adị naanị site na itinye site na ogige ama ama ama ama ama ama ama ama, ma na-eme ka ndị ọzọ dị na nkebi ( Chase 2013). Ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ tiketi ka na-emerụ na scalpers na mbido 2013, site na mgbe ihe omume ahụ mere na mbubreyo August ọkọnọ na ọkwa ọkwa pụtara ka ọ kwụsie ike. Ndị na-ahazi kwupụtara atụmatụ yiri nke ahụ maka 2014, yana mgbakwunye ọhụrụ nke ngafe ụgbọ ala $ 40, ezubere iji belata ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụgbọ ala na ihe omume ("Burning Man 2014 Tiketi Information" 2014).

N'agbanyeghị mgbalị ndị a iji mee ka usoro ire tiketi ahụ kwụsie ike, n'agbanyeghị na nzukọ ahụ emeela ụfọdụ tiketi ruo ọtụtụ afọ iji họrọ ndị na-achọ ego dị ala na ego efu, ụfọdụ ndị sonyere na-eme mkpesa ogologo oge na ụgwọ dị oke elu. Ọnọdụ ahụ gosipụtara nrụgide dị ogologo nke mpụga, na nke ime, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya n'ime ihe omume na obodo ndị gbara ya gburugburu. N'otu aka, agbụrụ ọdịbendị nke Burning bụ n'ụzọ doro anya na nka, ndị bohemia, na ndị otu na-arụ ọrụ. Ma kemgbe etiti 2000s, ihe omume a na-adọtawanye onye nwere akụ na ụba, na-adọrọ adọrọ, mba oriri na ọ internationalụ internationalụ mba ụwa, onye nwere ike ịkwụ ụgwọ ụgwọ tiketi dị elu, yana ndị na-emebiga ihe ókè na okomoko. Enwekwara ihe na-eto eto nke ogige a na-akpọ "nkwụnye na-egwu" nke na-eme atụmatụ, na-esi nri, ma na-ahazi ogige maka ndị dị njikere ma nwee ike ịkwụ ụgwọ dị elu, mgbe ụfọdụ na $ 1000s. Ihe omume a emeela ka ọtụtụ ndị bara ọgaranya si na mpaghara San Francisco Bay Mpaghara Silicon Valley tech (Turner 2009). Ndị na-eso ọkwa na ndị na - eme ihe nkiri, ka ọ dị ugbu a, na-eme mkpọtụ na enweghị mmasị na usoro ndị a, dịka e gosipụtara na mkparịta ụka n'ịntanetị na ọgbakọ maka mmadụ Burning (dịka ọmụmaatụ, lee "Burners.Me" 2012).

Nwoke na-ere ọkụ echewo ihe ịma aka ndị ọzọ dị iche iche ihu na nkatọ banyere izi ezi nka na ọdịnala kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na 2004 na 2005 otu ndị na-ese ihe bụ ndị nyeere aka ogologo oge na Burning Man (nke Jim Mason duziri) guzobere njikọta ha kpọrọ "Borg2" nke na-ama ndị na-ahazi Burning Man aka ka ha nwekwuo ego maka nka na mmemme ahụ, na democratize ụzọ ahọrọ onyinye onyinye. Agbanyeghị enweghị mgbanwe dị ukwuu na usoro inyeaka ma ọ bụ amụma nke Burning Man sitere na esemokwu ahụ, Borg2 gosipụtara ókè ndị sonyere na-akatọkarị ọrụ nchịkwa nke nzukọ Burning Man.

Ihe ọzọ merenụ nke kwuru okwu banyere esemokwu ndị a mere na 2007, mgbe otu nwoke aha ya bụ Paul Addis rịgoro n'usoro nkwado maka Nwoke ahụ ma gbaa ya ọkụ ọtụtụ ụbọchị tupu oge. Nzaghachi nke ndi obodo na mkparita uka banyere ihe omume a buru ibu. Ọtụtụ ndị sonyere chere na ọ bụ mmebi iwu, ihe egwu, na ịchọ ọdịmma onwe onye mpụ, ebe ndị ọzọ chere na ọ mere nkwupụta dị oke mkpa ma na-atọ ọchị n'ịgbalị ịtụte ụfọdụ ọgbaghara na enweghị atụ nke gosipụtara Burning Man n'oge Cacophony Society. N'ịbụ onye na-arịa ọrịa na-emetụta ụbụrụ ma mana nnukwu obodo nke ndị omenkà ibe ya na ndị na-eme ihere hụrụ n'anya na mpaghara San Francisco Bay, Addis mechara mezie $ 25,000 maka nkwụghachi ụgwọ ma maa ya ikpe ọnwa 12-48 n'ụlọ mkpọrọ maka ịgba ọkụ. N'ịchụso ebubo megide Addis, ndị na-ahazi Burning Man kwusiri ike na omume Addis nwere ike itinye ndị ọzọ so na-ehi ụra n'ụdị ụlọ ntu ahụ nke kwadoro nwoke ahụ n'afọ ahụ. A tọhapụrụ Addis na 2009 wee nwaa ịnwụ ndụ ya dị ka onye ọka iwu gara aga tụgharịrị onye na-egwu egwuregwu na onye ọka mmụta, mana, n'ụzọ dị mwute, ọ gburu ndụ ya na njedebe 2012 (Jones 2012).

Ihe omume ndị a na-egosi ókè ndị sonyere na-enwe echiche dịgasị iche gbasara mmadụ n’ọkụ. Maka ụfọdụ, ọ bụ ihe omume nke ime mmụọ na ohere iji weghachite onwe ha site n’ememe na obodo; maka ndị ọzọ, ọ bụ naanị oriri na-eri oke ma dị oke ọnụ. Ma, maka ọtụtụ akụkụ nke mmụọ na hedonistic nke Burning Man anaghị abụcha otu ụzọ. Ndị sonyere achọtala ụzọ dị iche iche iji katọọ ndị na-ahazi oge ọ bụla ha gosipụtara enweghị ike ibi ndụ kwekọrọ n'echiche nke Burning Man na Iwu ndị ekwuputara, ma gbasara ụgwọ, azụmahịa, ma ọ bụ eziokwu nka. N'ime nke a, ha na-atụnye ụtụ na mkparịta ụka buru ibu gbara gburugburu ihe omume ahụ, wee si otú a na-akpụzi ya site na imezigharị na ịgbasawanye ohere ya.

N'iburu mgbanwe nke akụrụngwa, na oge ezumike nká nke ndị egwuregwu gbara ọkpụrụkpụ, ọ ga-abụrịrị ka a hụ otu ihe omume ga-esi gbanwee n'ọdịnihu na nsogbu ndị ọzọ nwere ike ihu. Ọtụtụ ndị sonyere na 1990s akwụsịla ịga Burning Man, n'akụkụ ụfọdụ n'ihi mmụba na mmemme ahụ, kamakwa n'ihi na ha emeghị ememme ahụ ma ọ bụ na-aga n'ihu na ndụ ha. Ọgbọ na-abịa n'ihu na-ewetara Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ ihe na-enweghị atụ na nchegbu ya, yana, ka ọ na-ede ihe a, ọ dị ka enweghị mpe ndị ọhụụ ga-adị njikere inye oge na ume dị ukwuu iji mee ka ihe omume a dịrị kwa afọ.

Foto 
Foto # 1: Cacophony Society. Aha njirimara: http://www.lastgasp.com/d/38983/.
Image # 2: Larry Harvey, foto nke Tony Deifell dere. Isi Iyi: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Larry_Harvey_wdydwyd.jpg.
Image # 3: Black Rock Desert, foto nke Patrice Mackey sere.
Foto # 4: Art Car 2007, (amaghi onye omenka), foto nke Patrice Mackey, Aha njirimara: http://www.chefjuke.com/burnman/2007/slides/BMAN07-020.html Foto # 5: Black Rock City, foto nke Kyle Harmon Harmon sere. Isi Iyi: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Burning_Man_aerial.jpg.
Foto # 6: "Onye Amụma Mee N'onwe Gị," 2003 (onye na-ese ihe amaghị), foto nke Lee Gilmore dere.  Aha njirimara: http://www.sjsu.edu/people/lee.gilmore/burningman/Gilmore_DIYProphet2003.jpg.
Foto # 7: Razụlite Nwoke ahụ, 1994, foto nke Patrice Mackey sere. Isi Iyi: http://chefjuke.com/LEE2014/slides/1994-BMAN06-004.html.
Image # 8: Fire Lingam, 1995, nke Pepe Ozan, foto nke Patrice Mackey sere. Isi mmalite: http://chefjuke.com/LEE2014/slides/1995-BMANB-004.htm.
Image # 9: Temple of Tears, 2002, nke David Best dere, foto nke Patrice Mackey sere. http://chefjuke.com/LEE2014/slides/1995-BMANB-005.html.
Image # 10: “Ronald McBuddha,” 2002, (onye na-ese ihe amaghi), foto nke Lee Gilmore sere. http://www.sjsu.edu/people/lee.gilmore/burningman/Gilmore_Mcbuddha2002.jpg.

References

"Afterburn Akụkọ." nd Nweta site na http://afterburn.burningman.com na 30 January 2014.

"AfterBurn Report 2012: Ego Chart." 2012. Nweta site na http://afterburn.burningman.com/12/financial_chart.html na 30 January 2014.

Beale, Scott. 2007. "Badbọchị Ọjọọ na Black Rock (Cacophony Society Zone Trip # 4)." Blog Squid na-achị ọchị , Jenụwarị 18, 2007. Nweta site na: http://laughingsquid.com/bad-day-at-black-rock-cacophony-society-zone-trip-4/ na 30 January 2014.

Bey, Hakim. 1991. TAZ: Mpaghara Kwadoro Nwa Oge, Ontological Anarchy, Poet Terrorism . Brooklyn, NY: Autonomedia.

"Black Rock City 2013 Population." 2013. Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ, 13 Septemba 2013. Nweta site na http://blog.burningman.com/2013/09/news/black-rock-city-2013-population/ na 30 Jenụwarị 2014.

Bowditch, Rechel. 2010. N'elu Utopia: Arụ Ọrụ na Nlekọta na Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ. London: Akwụkwọ Seagull.

Bowditch, Rechel. 2007. "Templelọ Nsọ nke Anya mmiri: Nweghachi na ventchọpụta Iwu na Obodo Na-ere Ọkụ na Black Rock Desert, Nevada." Akwụkwọ akụkọ banyere okpukpe na .lọ ihe nkiri 6: 140-54.

Agba aja aja, Damon. 2005. Nwoke na-ere ọkụ: Karịrị Black Rock (Ihe nkiri).

Ndị na-ere ọkụ. 2012. “Lee Dahhling, Nnukwu Ọkụ! Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ n'Obodo na Mba. ” M Burning Man Commentary Blog , Mee 3, 2012. Nweta site na http://burners.me/2012/05/03/look-daaahling-a-sparkle-pony-burning-man-in-town-and-country/ na 30 January 2014.

"Ọkụ na-enweghị ala." nd Nweta site na http://www.burnerswithoutborders.org na 30 Jenụwarị 2014.

"Burning Man 2014 tiketi Ozi." 2014. Nweta site na http://tickets.burningman.com na 30 Jenụwarị 2014.

"Ọkụ nwoke Opera." nd Nweta site na http://www.burningmanopera.org/ na 30 January 2014.

"Ọkụ nwoke usoro iheomume." nd Nweta site na http://www.burningman.com/whatisburningman/about_burningman/bm_timeline.html na 30 January 2014.

Chụrụ, Ga. 2013. "Burning Man 2013 Tiketi Ahịa." Man Blog na-ere ọkụ, Jenụwarị 4. Nweta site na http://blog.burningman.com/2013/01/news/burning-man-2013-ticket-sales/ na 30 Jenụwarị 2014.

Chen, Katherine. 2009. Agingbanye Creative Chaos: Nzukọ ahụ Na-akpata Ihe Omume Na-ere Ọkụ. Chicago: University nke Chicago Pịa.

"Chọọchị nke Stopzụ ppingzụ ahịa." nd Nweta site na http://www.revbilly.com na 30 January 2014.

Curley, John. 2010. "Ọnọdụ nke Nwoke ahụ." Man Blog na-ere ọkụ , September 1, 2010. Nweta site na http://blog.burningman.com/2010/09/eventshappenings/the-state-of-the-man/ na 30 January 2014.

Doherty, Brian. 2004. Nke a bụ Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ: Nbili nke New American Underground. New York: Obere, Brown na Co.

Evans, Kevin, Carrie Galbraith na John Law, ụmụ nwoke. 2013. Njirimara nke San Francisco Cacophony Society. San Francisco: Nkwupụta Ikpeazụ Gasp.

Gilmore, Lee. 2010. Aterlọ ihe nkiri nke ọkụ juru na mmadụ: Omume na Ime Mmụọ na Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ. Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

Gilmore, Lee na Mark Van Proyen, ndị ọzọ. 2005. AfterBurn: Ntụgharị uche na Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ. Albuquerque: Mahadum nke New Mexico Press.

Goin, Peter na Paul F. Starrs. 2005. Black Rock. Reno: Mahadum nke Nevada Press.

Grace, Andie. 2012. "Tiketi Mmelite: Radical Nsonye, ​​Izute ndị ọzọ na itoolu." Man Blog na-ere ọkụ , February 9, 2012. Nweta site na http://blog.burningman.com/2012/02/news/ticket-update-radical-inclusion-meet-the-other-nine/ na 30 January 2014.

Griffith, Martin. 2012. "Onye na-ere ọkụ nke afọ 2012 na-anọ nke ọma n'ime okpu." Associated Press , September 2. Nweta site na http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/09/02/burning-man-2012-attendan_n_1851087.html na 30 January 2014.

Harvey, Larry. 1991. Nwoke na-ere ọkụ 1991 (Ihe nkiri).

Harvey, Larry. 1998. “Okwu 1998 Larry Harvey.” Nwoke na-ere oku na weebụsaịtị, Septemba 8. Nweta site na http://www.burningman.com/whatisburningman/1998/98_speech_1.html na 30 January 2014.

"Otú tolanahụ Apọkalips." nd Nweta site na http://www.burningopera.com/home/ na 30 January 2014.

Jones, Steven T. 2011. Agbụrụ nke Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ: Otu esi esi nweta obodo nnwale na Desert na-edozi New American Counterculture. San Francisco: Consortium nke Nzuzu Mkpokọta.

Jones, Steven T. 2012. "Paul Addis, Onye na-egwu egwuregwu na Onye Ọkụ Na-ere Ọkụ, Nwụrụ." San Francisco Bay Guardian, October 29. Nweta site na http://www.sfbg.com/pixel_vision/2012/10/29/paul-addis-playwright-and-burning-man-arsonist-dies na 30 Jenụwarị 2014.

Kreuter, Holly, ed. 2002. Drama n'ime Ọzara: Anya na ụda nke nwoke na-ere ọkụ. San Francisco: Raised Barn Press.

Iwu, John. “Onye bụ John Iwu.” John Iwu weebụsaịtị. Nweta site na http://johnwlaw.com/about/ na 30 January 2014.

“Ahịa.” nd Nweta site na http://marketplace.burningman.com/ na 21 September 2013.

"Ozi Nkwupụta." nd Onye na-ere ọkụ. Nweta site na http://www.burningman.com/whatisburningman/about_burningman/mission.html na 30 January 2014.

Pippi, Ọjọọ. 2012. "Otu esi eme ka oku: Commodifying Burning Man." Man Blog na-ere ọkụ, Mee 16, 2012. Nweta site na http://blog.burningman.com/2012/05/tenprinciples/how-not-to-burn-commodifying-burning-man/ na 30 January 2014.

"Pew Forum na Okpukpe na Ndụ Ọha." 2008. Ọmụmụ ihe gbasara okpukpe okpukpe US. Nweta site na http://religions.pewforum.org na 30 January 2014.

Pike, Sarah. 2001. "Desert Goddesses and Apocalyptic Art: Ime Oghere Dị Nsọ na Ememme Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ." Pp. 155-76 na Chineke na Nkọwa: Okpukpe America na Ọdịbendị Na-ewu ewu, nke EM Mazur na K. McCarthy dezigharịrị. New York: Ntughari.

Pike, Sarah. 2005. "Novenas for the Dead: Ritual Action and Communal Memory na oflọ Nsọ nke Anya mmiri." Pp. 195-213 na Afterburn: Ntụgharị uche na Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ, nke L. Gilmore na M. Van Proyen dere. Albuquerque: Mahadum nke New Mexico Press.

Pike, Sarah. 2010. "riefrụ Uju na Iwu na Iwu na Ememme Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ," Pp. 525-40 na Isi, Arụ Ọrụ, Agency na Ahụmahụ, nke Axel Michaels dezigharịrị, Mpịakọta nke Abụọ na Ihe omimi di omimi na sayensi nke Ritual, nke J. Weinhold na G. Samuel dere. Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz.

Pike, Sarah. 2011. "inggba thelọ Nsọ :lọ Nsọ: Okpukpe na Irony na Black Rock City: Nkwupụta si n'aka Onye Na-ere Ọkụ 2011." Okpukpe Na-egosipụta, September 11. Nweta site na http://www.religiondispatches.org/archive/culture/5082/burning_down_the_temple__religion_and_irony_in_black_rock_city/ na 30 January 2014.

"Mpaghara Network." nd Nweta site na http://regionals.burningman.com na 30 January 2014.

St. John, Graham. 2009. Technomad: Global Post-Rave Counterculture. London: Mbipụta Equinox.

"San Francisco igbu onwe Club." nd Nweta site na http://www.suicideclub.com na 30 January 2014.

Talen, Bill na Savitri D. 2010. Reverend Billy Project: Site na Rehearsal Hall ruo Nnukwu alllọ Ahịa na Chọọchị nke Ndụ Mgbe ppingzụchara. Ann Arbor: Mahadum nke Michigan Press.

Taylor, Onye-isi. 2009. Okpukpe Green Green; Ọdịdị nke ime mmụọ na ọdịnihu ụwa. Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

“Tenkpụrụ Iri.” nd Nweta site na http://www.burningman.com/whatisburningman/about_burningman/principles.html na 30 January 2014.

“Isiokwu Ogige Ndị Dị n'Otu na Obodo Nta.” nd Nweta site na: http://www.burningman.com/themecamps/themecamps.html na 30 January 2014.

Turner, Fred. 2009. "Nwoke Na-ere Ọkụ na Google: Akụrụngwa Cultural for New Media Production." New Media Society 11: 73-94.

York, Michael. 2005. Okpukpe Okpukpe: Okpukpe dị ka Okpukpe Worldwa . New York: New York University Press.

“May nwere ike ịbụworị onye otu!” nd Nweta site na http://www.cacophony.org/sample-page/ 30 January 2014.

Ụbọchị Post:
6 February 2014

Nwoke na-ere ọkụ na njikọ vidiyo

 

Share