David G. Bromley Caitlin St Clair

Bikram Yoga

BIKRAM YOGA TIMELINE

1944 ma ọ bụ 1946 (February 10): Bikram Choudhury mụrụ na Kolcata (Calcutta), India.

1951: Choudhury malitere ịmụ Hatha Yoga na Bishnu Ghosh.

1959-1962: Choudhury meriri National India Yoga Championship afọ atọ.

1963: Choudhury nwere nnukwu mmerụ ikpere nke ndị dọkịta kwenyere na ọ ga-egbochi ya ịgagharị.

1964: Ọnwa isii ka ọ merụsịrị ahụ, ikpere Choudhury gwọrọ nke ọma.

1970 (February): Choudhury mepere ụlọ akwụkwọ na Japan wee mepụta usoro iri abụọ na isii ya.

N'ihe dị ka afọ 1970: Choudhury kwagara United States.

1974: Choudhury mepere Yoga College nke India na Beverly Hills.

1977 (Jenụwarị 1): Akwụkwọ mbụ nke Choudhury, Klas Yoga bidoro Bikram, e bipụtara.

1979 (Jenụwarị 1): Choudhury nyefere ikike nwebisiinka ederede niile Klas Yoga bidoro Bikram .

1984: Bikram na Rajashree Chakrabarti lụrụ.

1994: Choudhury nyere ọzụzụ nke nkuzi nkuzi.

1998: Celebrity Madonna pụtara na mmemme telivishọn Oprah ma kwalite omume yoga.

2002 (October 24): Choudhury gbara akwụkwọ ikike nwebisiinka ọzọ maka usoro iri abụọ na isii ya.

2012 (June): Copylọ Ọrụ Nchịkwa Iwu nke US kpebiri na usoro nke poses erughị eru maka ikike nwebisiinka.

2013-2015: A gbara akwụkwọ ikpe mkpagbu isii na Choudhury.

2016: Bikram na Rajashree Choudhury gbara alụkwaghịm mgbe afọ iri atọ na abụọ lụrụ.

 

 

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Yoga ama ama oke ewu ewu na United States. A 2017 Yoga Journal nnyocha e mere atụmatụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị yogis na yoginis ejirila 20,000,000, karịa 4,000,000 kemgbe ọmụmụ 2012 gara aga. (YJ Editọ 2017). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Dị ka isi iyi a si kwuo, ihe karịrị pasent iri asatọ nke ndị na-arụ ọrụ bụ ụmụ nwanyị; ihe karịrị ụzọ iri isii dị n’agbata iri na asatọ na iri anọ na anọ. Otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ndị na-eme ihe na-eme ihe dịka afọ atọ ma ọ bụ obere. Njikọ Yoga na mmega ahụ na mmega ahụ dị ugbu a gosipụtara na nchọta na ahụike, nkwonkwo, ahụike, na enyemaka nrụgide ka akpọrọ dị ka mkpali nke ihe karịrị ọkara ndị ọkachamara nyochara.

Hot Yoga, (nke na-ezo aka na yoga nke a na-eme na mbara igwe ọkụ), bụ ihe okike nke Bikram Choudhury. Ọ malitere ịnwale ihe ghọrọ Hot Yoga mgbe ọ na-akụzi na Japan na 1970, jiri nwayọ na-abawanye ọkụ na ụlọ ọrụ yoga ka ọ dị ogo ogo Celsius iri anọ (104 Celsius Fahrenheit) ma mepụta njikọ ya kpọmkwem nke iri abụọ na isii asanas na Hatha Yoga ọdịnala. N'ezie, enwere ọtụtụ ihe atụ nke iji gburugburu kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ maka ọgwụgwọ na mgbanwe onwe onye, ​​site na baths Turkish ruo ebe obibi ndị American Indian sweat. Ihe ohuru nke Choudhury bu ijiko yoga na gburugburu ebe di oku, ya na ihe ndi ozo nke iri abuo na isii na omenala Hatha Yoga (Hall 2019).

Obere ihe amaghi banyere Bikram Choudhury, onye guzobere Bikram Yoga. Amuru ya na abali iri nke abuo na onwa iri na abuo n’afo 10 ma obu 1944 na Kolkata (Calcutta), India. Otutu ozi amachibidoro sitere na Choudhury n'onwe ya. Dika akuko autobiographical na hagiographic a, ebuputara ya na Hatha yoga poses mgbe o di ato. Mgbe ọ dị afọ ise, ọ malitere ịmụ ihe nke ọma n’okpuru Bishnu Ghosh, nwanne nwoke nke Paramahansa Yogananda. Yogananda esi na India gaa US na 1946 wee hibe Onwe-Nghọta Mmekọrịta na 1920. Ọ na-akọ na ọ kụziiri omume ntụgharị uche na Kriya Yoga nye nnukwu ndị na-ege ntị ọdịda anyanwụ ma dee akwụkwọ a na-emetụta. Autobiography nke a Yogi (1998). Ọzụzụ Choudhury gụnyere awa anọ na isii kwa ụbọchị, ọmụmụ siri ike na omume nke Hatha dị iche iche, ma ọ bụ Asanas. N'okpuru Bishnu Ghosh, Choudhury na-ekwu, ọ malitere ịsọ mpi na National India Yoga Championship wee merie ebe mbụ maka afọ atọ na-esote na-amalite na 1959. Mgbe mmeri nke atọ ya gasịrị, ọ na-azọrọ na ọ lara ezumike nká dịka "India-Yoga Onye Ọchịchị Na-enweghị Obi ptọ" na soro Ghosh gaa n'ihu, na-eme ka ngosipụta na-ebuli elu. Agbanyeghị, a manyere ya ịkwụsị njem ya mgbe, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asaa, ọ tara nnukwu mmerụ ikpere n'ihi ihe ọghọm ibuli ibu. Choudhury chọtara ndị dọkịta kacha mma na Europe; ọ na-akọ na ha gwara ya na ọ gaghị enwe ike ịga ije ọzọ, ma ya fọdụkwa ibuli ibu. Choudhury jụrụ ịnakwere nchoputa a; kama, ọ chọrọ enyemaka nke onye nkuzi ya, Bishnu Ghosh. Ka ọnwa isii gachara n’ụlọ akwụkwọ Ghosh, ikpere Choudhury gwọchara ya. N'oge na-adịghị anya, Ghosh gbara Choudhury ume ịmalite ụlọ akwụkwọ nke ya na India, na Japan, na-akụzi ụzọ nke Hatha Yoga. Choudhury na-ekwusi ike na ndị na-akwado ya America kwenyesiri ike ịkwaga America ma mepee ụlọ akwụkwọ. Otutu nke akuko ihe omuma a ka emeghariri ma mebie (Lee, Okwu / Nsogbu).

O guzobere na Choudhury bịarutere US na 1973 na guzobere Yoga College nke India na Beverly Hills n'afọ na-eso ya. N'ime afọ ndị mbụ, Choudhury gosipụtara na ọ nwere mmasị na nkuzi Yoga (MacGregor 2002):

Emmy Cleaves, onye bụ nwa akwụkwọ Bikram nke iri na ise na Los Angeles ma bụrụkwa nnukwu onye nkuzi ugbu a na-echeta, "na afọ ndị ahụ ọ nọ na-agba mbọ ịbụ ezigbo yogi." “Ọ rahụrụ n’ala ebe ahụ. Nke ahụ bụ ụdị ihe ọ dị njikere ịchụ. Ọ tinyewo ego dị ukwuu na nke a, maka na onye isi ya gwara ya ka ọ gaa kụzie yoga. Site na echiche ndị India, ọ na-eme ihe kwesịrị ekwesị. ”

N'oge ahụ, Choudhury anaghị alụ nwanyị. Ọ drinkụghị mmanya, ọ naghịkwa a nowụ ya ugbu a. Fọdụ na-echeta na nwa okorobịa Choudhury bụ onye ihere nke na ọ gaghị ahụ ndị mmadụ anya mgbe ọ na-ekwu okwu. Ọ gbara ọsọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ yoga ya dị ka a ga-asị na ọ bụ na Calcutta, kama ịbụ Beverly Hills. “Knownu maara, ụlọ akwụkwọ yoga ọ bụla dị na India bụ n'efu?” Bikram jụrụ. “Mylọ akwụkwọ m anaghị akwụ ụgwọ. Anyị anaghị eche ka anyị na-ana ego. Maka anyị, ụlọ akwụkwọ yoga dị ka ụlọ nsọ. Enwere m obere igbe, ndị mmadụ nwekwara ike itinye ego na ya. Dị ka chọọchị. ”

N'iji ọnọdụ a na Beverly Hills dị ka ntọala nke arụmọrụ ya, Choudhury malitere ịgbasa ihe ghọrọ alaeze ya wee bipụta akwụkwọ mbụ ya, Klas Yoga bidoro Bikram, na 1977. Obere oge ka nke ahụ gasịrị, Choudhury hụrụ klaasị ya ka ọ na-abawanye ụba ma na-ewu ewu. Klas ya nwere ike ịnabata otu narị mmadụ n'otu oge, ọtụtụ karịa klaasị yoga ọdịnala. Ka mmụba maka klaasị na-arịwanye elu, ka a na-achọwanye ụlọ akwụkwọ na ndị nkuzi. Aha ọtụtụ ndị a ma ama (Martin Sheen, Candice Bergen, Raquel Welch, Quincy Jones, Shirley MacLaine, Madonna, Michael Jackson, George Clooney, Tiger Woods), e jikọtara ya na Bikram Yoga (Larsen 2018)Choudhury ekwuola na Onye isi ala Richard Nixon kpọrọ ya na White House maka ndụmọdụ maka otu esi emeso nsogbu phlebitis ya.

Ndụ nke Choudhury gbanwere na 1984 mgbe nwa Bishnu Ghosh nyere aka ịhazi alụmdi na nwunye ya ruo afọ iri na itoolu. Rajashree Chakrabarti. (Foto dị n'aka nri) Chakrabarti meriri National India Yoga Championship. Di na nwunye a nwere nwa nwanyi, Laju, na nwa nwoke, Anurag. Rajashree Choudhury bụ onye na-agwọ yoga ma guzobe US Yoga Federation na International Yoga Sports Federation. Otu ebumnuche ya bụ ị nabata Yoga dịka mmemme Olympic.

Na 1994, Choudhury kpebiri ime ka usoro nkuzi nke ndị nkuzi megidere. Nke a ga - eme ka ụmụ akwụkwọ raara onwe ha nye soro Choudhury, nwunye ya, na ụfọdụ ndị nkuzi kụrụ elekere iri kwa ụbọchị ruo izu itoolu. Na ngwụcha izu ụka itoolu, ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ gafere nyocha nke onwe Choudhury natara asambodo nkuzi ha ma nwee ike kuzi ihe n'otu ụlọ ọrụ ya ma ọ bụ mepee nke ha. Na 1998, Madonna, onye ghọrọ onye na-eme Bikram Yoga ruo oge ụfọdụ, pụtara na ihe nkiri telivishọn Oprah ma kwalite omume yoga, nke mere ka nlebara anya dị ukwuu na Choudhurh. Dabere na Choudhury, o gbaara ihe karịrị ndị nkuzi 11,000 akwụkwọ. N'ihe gbasara 2011, e nwere ihe karịrị ụlọ ọrụ yoga 500 Bikram n'ụwa niile, ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ na-aga n'ihu na-arịwanye elu n'esepụghị aka.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

E nwere ihe asatọ nke yoga: absorption (samadhi), iku ume (pranayama), ịta ahụhụ (dharana), ntụgharị uche (dhyani), ememe (niyamas), postures (asana), mgbochi (yamas), na iwepụ nke uche (pratyahara). Ihe mgbaru ọsọ kasịnụ bụ iru nnwere onwe ma ọ bụ nghọta. Mmemme Yoga nke gosipụtara asana bụ ndị ama ama n'etiti ndị ọkachamara na Yoga na West. Hatha Yoga, nke sitere na Bikram Yoga, na-ekwusi ike na-eme ka ndị na-emegide onwe ha (dị ka nwoke na nwanyị, ọkụ na oyi, ezi na adịghị mma), na imepụta nguzozi. Ndị asanas na-ezube iji dozie mgbanwe na ike, mee ka ahụ dị ọcha, ma mepee ọwa ahụ ka ike wee nwee ike ịba ụba.

Bikram Yoga bụ otu ụdị nke ihe a bịara mara dị ka "Hot Yoga" ma ọ bụ "Ike Flow Yoga." Dị ka anyị kwuworo, Hot Yoga nwere ike iji kọwaa omume yoga ọ bụla emere na gburugburu ebe iwe dị ọkụ. Ndị na-akwado Hot Yoga na-ekwusi ike na okpomọkụ na ọsụsọ na-eme ka ọ dị ọcha ma na-atọghe akwara. Ndị na-akwado ya na-ahụ ụdị ike dị elu nke Hot Yoga dị ka ndị America. Dị ka otu onye nkuzi yoga si kwuo ya: “N’ogo ụfọdụ, anyị emeela yoga ndị America. Ndị mmadụ na - ebi ezigbo ndụ, sistemụ ụjọ anyị ji ya eme ihe that. ọ bụ naanị ihe ezi uche dị na ya na otu mba nke ọtụtụ mmadụ ga-achọ ịme ọtụtụ ihe n'otu oge: ịrụ ọrụ, ọsụsọ, ịhazi na ịgbatị (Theiss 2013).

Bikram Yoga bụ ụdị ahaziri iche Yoga. Choudhury agbahapụla nkuzi nke otu onye na obere nke nkuzi yoga oge gboo maka klaasị na ụlọ ọrụ sara mbara. Formatdị a emeela ụdị nkuzi ya McYoga. Ekwesiri kapeeti nke ọ bụla, ihe omume ga-ewe nkeji iri iteghete, anaghị anabata egwu n'oge mmemme ahụ, a na-eme ka ụlọ ọrụ na-ekpo ọkụ ruo ogo 90-105, na, nke kachasị mkpa, enwere ọnọdụ iri abụọ na isii a na-arụ mgbe niile na usoro akọwapụtara. A na-ajụkarị Choudhury banyere ọdịdị pụrụ iche nke usoro ya. A jụrụ ya otu ọ ga - esi bụrụ ihe pụrụ iche ma ọ bụrụ na ndị ọzọ na - akụzi Hatha Yoga na - ewe otu ihe ahụ. Bikram kwetara na ọnọdụ onwe ha abụghị ihe pụrụ iche. Kama nke ahụ, ọ na-ekwusi ike, ọ bụ usoro a kapịrị ọnụ nke usoro poses na usoro iku ume na-eme ka usoro ya dị irè.

Bikram Choudhury kwusiri ike na nkwenye na ike ọgwụgwọ nke Hatha Yoga dabere na ahụmịhe nke ya. Ọ na-ekwu na, mgbe ikpere ya merụrụ ahụ na ndị dọkịta gwara ya na ọ nweghị mmezi, yoga bụ ihe mere ka ọ gbakee ahụike zuru oke. Ọ na-ekwu na ọ bụ ahụmahụ a kpaliri ya ịmalite izi ihe na ịmepụta usoro dị ike nke asanas na pranayamas nke ọ kpọrọ Bikram Yoga. Usoro a dị ike, Choudhury na-ekwu, na ọ nwere ike ịmepụta ọrụ ebube. Ọtụtụ yogis na yoginis bụ ndị chere ọrịa dị iche iche a na-apụghị imeri emeri ihu, site na nkwarụ mberede ụgbọ ala ruo na nkwarụ anụ ahụ siri ike, na-akọ na ha na-agbake zuru oke ma na-eju anya. Ha na-akwado nzaghachi ha maka omume Bikram Yoga.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Oge ọ bụla nke Bikram Yoga nwere ụzọ iku ume abụọ (pranayama) na poses iri abụọ na isii (asanas) sitere na iri asatọ na anọ nke oge gboo yoga na-eme ma na-eme ya n'otu usoro. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mgbe ụmụ akwụkwọ jiri akwa nhicha ha ma saa ákwà bata n'ime ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, oke ikuku ọkụ na-akụ ha ozugbo, ebe a na-echekwa ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na ọnọdụ okpomọkụ sitere na 90 ruo 105 degrees Farenheit. Choudhury kwenyere na nke a na-enye ohere ahụ ike ka ọkụ dịkwuo ọsọ ọsọ, nke, n'aka nke ya, ga-enyere ụmụ akwụkwọ ya aka na ọnọdụ ha.

Choudhury na ndị nkuzi ya niile na-akụzi klaasị ha n'otu ụzọ ahụ, site n'ihu ụlọ ahụ nwere igwe okwu, kama ịnọ n'ala na-egosipụta poses. Choudhury kwenyere na ọ bụrụ na nwa akwụkwọ ma ọ bụrụ na ịge ntị n'ezie, mgbe ahụ ọ ga-enwe ike ịme ihe ziri ezi dịka a gwara ya. Ọ bụrụ na onye a na-amụrụ ihe anaghị eme ihe ziri ezi, onye nkuzi ga-agwa ha ihe ha ga-agbanwe na etu ha ga-esi mee, mana ọ ga-abụ obere oge ka onye nkuzi ga-eji aka ya dozie ya.

Klas na-amalite site na nke izizi iku ume abụọ, nke a na-akpọ Pranayama. Na Pranayama nke mbụ a, ụmụ akwụkwọ ga-eguzo mgbe ha na-akpụgharị ogwe aka ha n'oge ha na iku ume ha iji mejupụta ma mejupụta ngụgụ. Nke a na-esote ọnọdụ iri na abụọ ndị na-adịkarị n'ọtụtụ ọzụzụ Hatha nke yoga. Ọ na-amalite site na Ọkara Ọnwa Pose, nke gụnyere iguzo na ogwe aka gbatịrị elu na ọbụ aka na-agbakọta mgbe ị na-ehulata n'akụkụ niile. Nke a na-agbatị afo na azụ ka ọ na-agbanwewanye mgbanwe. Ngbatị a na ụta kwụ ọtọ bụ naanị ndị nọ na setịpụrụ a na azụ azụ; ndị ọzọ niile na-abụ bends na-aga n'ihu ma ọ bụ na-edozi poses. Ndị na-edozi, dịka Eagle Pose, na-achọsi ike n'ụzọ anụ ahụ, ọtụtụ ndị mbido na-ahụkwa onwe ha n'ime sekọnd. Agbanyeghị, Bikram na-ekwusi ike na ihe ndị a nwere ike ịba uru, ebe ha na-ewulite uche na itinye uche.

Mgbe ha dechara, ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ gafere Corpse Pose, ma ọ bụ Savasana, nke bụ oge dị mkpirikpi, mana ọ dị mkpa, maka ahụ ike ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ. Ihe na-esote na-abịa ọsọ ọsọ ma ọ bụrụ na ị ga-aga n'ihu n'ihu. Usoro a nke Savasana, itukwu-na-atụ gbagọrọ agbagọ ịtinye n'etiti onye ọ bụla nke na-esote ọtụtụ poses. Nke mbu abiala usoro azu azu, Cobra Pose, Half locust, Igurube zuru ezu na Bow Pose. Ihe na-esote bụ mbugharị na-aga n'ihu, Ọkara Mbe bụ, azụ azụ, Kamel Pose wee gbue ikpere n'ala Pranayama. Pranayama a na-egosi njedebe nke usoro ahụ, dịka ahụ na-agbapụta ma jupụta ikuku dị ọcha, dị mma.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Bikram Yoga bu ụzọ eche echiche nke ọma na Japan, mgbe Bikram Choudhury bidoro Hatha Yoga School ebe ahụ na 1970. Mgbe mbụ ọ malitere malitere izi ihe n’oge oyi na Japan, o kwuru na ụlọ ọrụ studio ya jụrụ oyi nke na akwara ya anaghị arụ ọrụ nke ọma. Otú ọ dị, mgbe ọ na-eme ka obere ụlọ ahụ dị ọkụ, ọ chọpụtara na akwara ya nwere ike ịgafe n'enweghị nsogbu. Ka oge na-aga, mgbe ọ na-akụzi na Hawaii, nke na-ekpo ọkụ karịa na Tokyo, ọ chọtara nsonaazụ yiri ya. Igwe ahụ ajụwo oyi nke na akwara ya emeghị ka ọ chọọ otú ọ chọrọ. Ya mere, n'etiti etiti Hawaii na-ekpo ọkụ na anwụ na-acha, Bikram gbanyụrụ AC ma gbanye ọkụ ahụ. Ọzọkwa, "Dị ka uru ọzọ, saunalike okpomọkụ mere ka echiche ha nke euphoria na ịdị ọcha dị elu mgbe arụ ọrụ" (Martin 2011). Mgbanwe mgbanwe a dị mfe bụ akụkụ bụ isi nke ntọala Bikram Yoga.

Isi ihe ọzọ dị na mmepe Bikram's Beginner Yoga klaasị bụ usoro o mepụtara maka Asana na Pranayama. Mgbe o merụrụ ahụ, Bikram malitere ịchọta ihe zuru oke nke ga-enyere ya aka ịgwọ. Mgbe ahụ ọ bịara ya n'uche na enwere ike ịnwe ụdị poses nke na-aza ọrịa ndị ọha na eze na-arịakarị. Ya mere, na Japan, ọ malitere ịmepụta na ịgbanwe ndepụta nke poses na, mgbe emere ya n'otu usoro, nyere oke ịgbatị na ike kwere omume. Ozugbo usoro a mechara, ụfọdụ ụmụ akwụkwọ ama ama ama ama gbara ya ume iweta usoro a na America. Na America, ọtụtụ ndị ama ama Hollywood họpụtara usoro nkuzi a ọfụma ma rụọ ọrụ nke ọma iji gbasie ike yana nke na-ewu ewu.

Ọganihu dị na ewu ewu nke "Hot Yoga" pụtara nnukwu ọchịchọ maka ndị nkuzi ọzọ. [Foto dị na t Bikram jiri ohere a gbasaa alaeze ya site na allowiụmụ akwụkwọ ng

iji bụrụ ndị akaebe ka ha bụrụ ndị nkuzi. Mgbe ha gụchara ọzụzụ siri ike ma dị oke ọnụ, ndị nkuzi a nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ maka ya n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ya ma ọ bụ mepee aha nke aka ha nke ga-akwụ ya ikike. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Bikram na-enweta ihe ka ukwuu n'ime ego ya, ọ bụghị site na aka ya n'onwe ya, kama kama site na asambodo ndị nkuzi, nke Bikram na-azọrọ na-eweta ego kachasị.

Na 1973, enwere ebe Bikram Yoga dị na US (Honolulu, San Francisco, na Beverly Hills). Studiolọ ihe nkiri izizi na BeverlyUgwu nta dị na okpuru ulo nke ụlọ ụlọ akụ na mbụ. Ka ọ na-erule 2002, e nwere ụlọ ihe nkiri 500 Bikram Yoga. Ọ bụghị kpamkpam doro anya ihe mepụtara ịrị elu na ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụlọ ọrụ Bikram Yoga. Bikram n'onwe ya ekwuola na "Ọ dị otu a ọtụtụ afọ," ka Choudhury na-ekwu, na-adọta eriri dị larịị site na ikuku. “Mgbe afọ gara aga, ọ malitere, dị ka nke a! Dị ka rọketi! ”Factorsfọdụ ihe. Mmasị ndị America nwere na ndị nkuzi ime mmụọ Eshia, mmasi ahụ ike nke metụtara America, ọnọdụ dị na mbụ na California, na ndị ama ama nke Bikram dọtara mmadụ niile nwere ike iso mee.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Choudhury na Bikram Yoga ya enweela esemokwu na mmegide n'ọtụtụ ihu: azụmahịa ya nke Yoga, ndị asọmpi n'ahịa "yoga dị ọkụ", na ebubo nke enweghị mmekọahụ, yana mbibi metụtara ụlọ ọrụ yoga na-ejigide mmekọrịta ọ bụla anya na Bikram aha.

Choudhury chere ihu na nyocha na-arịwanye elu dị ka esemokwu mụbara na omume ya. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịtụbeghị, ma bụrụkwa nke a maara banyere oge ọ bụ nwata, akụkọ ndekọ ihe okike nke o kere na nke na-adịgide n'ebe ọtụtụ weebụsaịtị Bikram na-akwado ka emebiwo nke ukwuu (Armstrong 2018

E nwere mmegide siri ike na azụmahịa nke n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị ọkachamara na ndị otu Bikram Yoga bụ isi na-ere ire omume ime mmụọ mgbe otu n'ime ụkpụrụ Yoga na-akụda anyaukwu. Dị ka otu onye na-ekiri ihe na-emenụ si kwuo: “Yoga buru ibu na enweghị ngwụcha. Ihe edere bụ akụkụ anụ ahụ nke omume ahụ. Nweghị ike ịkọwa akụkụ ime mmụọ. Yoga abụghị hamburgers. ” Dr. Aseem Shulkla, onye nchoputa nke Hindu American Foundation rụtụrụ aka karị: “Kpọọ ya mmega ahụ. Kpọọ ya ezigbo mgbatị. Kpọọ ya ihe masịrị gị, ”….” Ma akpọla ya yoga. Ọ bụ nkwenye na-atụ egwu nke Hindu ”(Martin 2011). Enweela nzaghachi yiri nke ahụ na ntinye aha nke Choudhury (MacGregor 2002):

"Anyị anụtụbeghị banyere nke a," ka Deborah Willoughby, onye nhazi nchịkọta akụkọ nke Yoga International, magazin Pennsylvania nke na-elekwasị anya na akụkụ ime mmụọ nke yoga. “Ọtụtụ ebe nwere ebe alaka, dị ka Shivananda, ma ọ bụ Himlọ Ọrụ Himalayan, ebe ụmụ akwụkwọ ga-emepe etiti ma rụọ ọrụ n'okpuru nduzi nke onye nduzi ime mmụọ. Mana ọ dịghị ka ọ nwere nke, ma ọ bụ nyere ya ikikere. Ọ bụ naanị ọchịchọ ịgbasa ozizi nke mmụọ.

Ntughari a bu ihe omuma nke ndi American na omenala Yoga. Dị ka onye na-ekiri ihe na-eme Paul Keegan si tinye okwu a, "America na-agbanwe yoga I .Ọ na-atụgharị site na ịdọ aka ná ntị ime mmụọ ka ọ bụrụ usoro mmega ahụ na ngwa ahịa nwere ike ịbụ." E wezụga America America nke Yoga, ọkwa dị elu nke egwuregwu na mgbatị ahụ chọrọ nwere ike inwe nsonaazụ na-emebi emebi. Theis (2013) na-akọ na “US Consumer Product Safety Commission, nke na-enyocha mmerụ yoga, achọpụtala na ihe dị ka mmadụ iri na abụọ akọpụtara na mba niile na 2000, na 7,369 na 2010, afọ kachasị nso a gụrụ. Ndị a gụnyere akaị, hamstring, diski, na mmerụ ahụ mgbu azụ. Ma, enwere esemokwu ma usoro yoga a nke na-eme ka calorie dịkwuo ọkụ karịa usoro yoga (Askell 2013).

Bikram Yoga enwewokwa ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ndị asọmpi na-anabata akụkụ ụfọdụ nke omume Bikram. Otu ihe ịga nke ọma onye asọmpi bụ Modo Yoga, nke onye bụbu onye ọrụ Bikram guzobere ka ọ gbanwee ọtụtụ iwu na omume Bikram (Rubin 2013):

A ga-enwe postures 40 na klaasị dịgasị iche iche na usoro a kụziri na enweghị ederede, yana ọnọdụ okpomọkụ edobere n'okpuru 100 ogo karịa Bikram nke "ụlọ mmekpa ahụ" (nkọwa nke Mr. Choudhury). Aremụ akwụkwọ na-agba ume ị drinkụ mmiri; Bikram na-atụ aro ijide ka o kwere mee. Studlọ ọrụ ga-abụ nke akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ si n’elu ruo n’ala. Aha ahọrọ bụ Moksha, nke bụ Sanskrit maka nnwere onwe ma ọ bụ nnwere onwe.

Otu a na-ekwu ihe karịrị ụlọ iri isii, ebe a na-echekwa ụlọ ọrụ ọzọ. Onye ọzọ na-asọ mpi na-ejikwa ụlọ ndị na-ekpo ọkụ, bụ Core Power Yoga, na-akọ na ọ na-eto ngwa ngwa na US Choudhury azaghachila ndị na-asọmpi site na ịkọ ndị ọzọ na-enye Hatha Yoga dị ka "ndị ọgbọ egwuregwu circus" na ịgba akwụkwọ ikpe ebe ọ chere na ọ bụ mmebi iwu ya nke Yoga (MacGregor 2002; Wright, Newman, and Effron 2009; Azụ 2006). Choudhury enweela ihe ịga nke ọma n'ahịa nke ụdị omume Yoga ya na ọtụtụ ngwaahịa ndị metụtara ya mana ọ bụghị na nwebisiinka usoro nke postures ndị dị n'etiti Bikram Yoga n'ihi na ọ bụ nkwupụta nke eziokwu na echiche abụghị eziokwu na echiche onwe ha na-echebe iwu (Bennett 2013). N'otu aka na nzaghachi nke Bikram Yoga iji nwebisiinka omume ya, gọọmentị nke India bidoro mmemme ịchụpụ atụmatụ ndị a (Gowan 2014): “Ruo ihe karịrị afọ iri, ha arụọla nnukwu ngwakọta nke ọgwụ ochie na omume, Omenala Ihe Ọmụma Digital Library, nke dị ugbu a na ụlọ ọrụ patent n'ụwa niile. Ha na-edekọ ihe nkiri 1,500, ụfọdụ site na vidio, nke a ga-agbakwunye n'ịntanetị n'afọ na-abịa iji nyere aka gbochie 'mmejọ' nke yoga site n'aka ụlọ ọrụ azụmaahịa, Archana Sharma, onye ndu nke ọrụ ahụ kwuru.

N'ezie nsogbu kachasị nwere ike ibibi Choudhury chere ihu bụ ebubo nke iyi egwu mmekọahụ na mwakpo. Na 2013, ọ malitere ikpe ikpe isii metụtara iyi egwu mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ ebubo mmeko nwoke, ise malitere na 2013 na otu na 2015 (Koul 2013; Sanchez 2013; Ford 2015). Womenmụ nwanyị a niile na-akọ akụkọ yiri ibe ha. Bikram bịakutere ha na mbụ mgbe ha na-aga klasị. Ọ gwara ha na ya nwere mmetụta pụrụ iche, nke sitere na mbara igwe na ha. Fọdụ nwere obi ụtọ, ndị ọzọ gbalịrị ịtụgharị uche ya na nwunye ya, mana ọ nweghị onye n'ime ha kwadebere maka mmụba nke nlebara anya ha nwetara. Ka oge na-aga, ụmụ nwanyị niile kọọrọ na Choudhury bịara na-achọ oge ha na itinye uche ha, na-ahọrọ ha maka nzukọ naanị ma ọ bụ maka ịhịa aka n'aka ha. E mesịa, mgbe nanị ya na ha nọ, n'ozuzu n'ọnụ ụlọ ya na họtel, ha na-ebo ya ebubo na ọ rụgidere ha iso ya nwee mmekọahụ. Womenmụ nwanyị niile na-akọ na ha jụrụ ọganihu ya, na nkwụsi ike ha nwetara nsonaazụ dị iche. Womenfọdụ ụmụ nwanyị kwuru na a na-asọgharị ma na-akwagide mgbidi tupu ha ekwe ka ha pụọ. Womenfọdụ ụmụ nwanyị kwuru na ha na-ejide onwe ha n'ime ụlọ ma dinaa ha n'ike.

Niile nke ụmụ nwanyị na-akọ na otu ahụhụ ahụ dakwasịrị ha. Ndị nwere ụlọ ọrụ nke aka ha chọpụtara na Choudhury wepụrụ aha ha na weebụsaịtị ya, na-agọnahụ ha azụmaahịa ọ bụla site na mgbakwunye. Ndị ọzọ na-akụzikarị ihe na ụlọ akwụkwọ Bikram Yoga hụrụ onwe ha na ha enweghị ike izi ihe ma mụta na Choudhury n'onwe ya na-agba ndị ọzọ ụlọ ọrụ ume ka ha ghara ịkpọ ha ikuzi ka ha kuziere. Otu nwanyị kwuru ihe karịrị $ 50,000 mgbe Choudhury wepụrụ aha ụlọ akwụkwọ ya na weebụsaịtị ya.

Site na ebubo ahụ, ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị metụtara Bikram Yoga ugbu a ahapụla aha ma ọ bụ klaasị kpamkpam iji zere mkparị nke mkparị ahụ (Healy 2015). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na 2019 ụlọ ọrụ Bikram yoga ikpeazụ fọdụrụ na Vancouver, Canada nwere nrụgide na-arịwanye elu iji wepụ njikọ Bikram n'ihi ebubo mmejọ nke mmekọahụ (Hurst 2019).

 

N'akụkụ nke ya, Choudhury anaghị agọnahụ na ya na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya nwere mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị kama ọ na-ebo ha ebubo na ha na-egwu ya (Martin 2011): "Naanị mgbe ha na-enyeghị m nhọrọ! Ọ bụrụ na ha asị m, 'Ọga, ị ga-ata m ahụhụ ma ọ bụ m ga-egbu onwe m,' mgbe ahụ ana m eme ya! Chee echiche ma ọ bụrụ na anaghị m! Karma! ” Ọ naghị ekwenye okwu n'agbanyeghị ebubo ndị dị otú ahụ. O kwuru na “m karịrị Superman… I nwere bọọlụ dị ka bọmbụ atọm, abụọ n’ime ha, megatọn 100 nke ọ bụla. Ọ dịghị onye na-emejọ m ”(Sussman 2005). N'ihe nyocha nke Netflix, gọnarịrị ebubo ya, onye ọka iwu ya zoro aka na ọdịnaya dị ka "naanị ngwugwu nke ihe eji enwetaghachi ihe" (Hurst 2019).

 

 

Foto
Image #1: Ihu ihu nke Yoga Journal.
Foto # 2: Bikram Choudhury.
Foto # 3: Rajashree Choudhury.
Foto # 4: A "Yourhụnanya Gị Ọsụsọ" Bikram Yoga akwụkwọ mmado.

Foto #: iri abụọ na isii poses (asanas) na Bikram Yoga nke sitere na yoga iri asatọ na anọ yoga yoga.
Foto #: Bikram Choudhury na-eduzi nnọkọ omume yoga.

 

 

References

 

Bikram

Armstrong, Jerome. 2018 Calcutta Yoga: Buddha Bose na ezinụlọ Yoga nke Bishnu Ghosh na Yogananda. NewAndroid.

Hurst, Allison. 2019. "Vancouver hot yoga studio na-eche ịmị ọkụ site n'ịgbasa Bikram Netflix akwụkwọ," November 26. Nweta site na https://bc.ctvnews.ca/vancouver-hot-yoga-studio-feels-blowback-from-scathing-bikram-netflix-documentary-1.4703923 na 27 November 2019.

Lọ, Colin. 2019. "Na-ekpo ọkụ ma mụrụ: Hype, History, na Science nke Hot Yoga." Yoga International. Nweta site na https://yogainternational.com/article/view/hot-and-bothered-the-hype-history-and-science-of-hot-yoga na 11 / 25 / 2019.

Larson, Sarah. 2018. "Bikram" na Fraught, Na-akọ Akụkọ nke Onye Ọchịchị Yoga. "
New Yorker, June 27. Nweta site na https://www.newyorker.com/culture/podcast-dept/bikram-and-the-fraught-telling-tale-of-a-yoga-phenomenon na 11 / 25 / 2019.

 

 

Arkell, Harriet, 2013. “Ndo Gwyneth! 'Hot Yoga' nke a na-ewu ewu na ndị a ma ama Adịghị Ekwu Calories, Ebubo Ọmụmụ. ” Daily Mail, August 6. Nweta site na http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2385254/Sorry-Gwyneth-Hot-yoga-popular-celebrities-does-NOT-burn-calories-study-claims.html#ixzz2rcBM6r1r na 1 March 2015.

Bennett, Tamera. 2013. "Echekwara Bikram Yoga site na ụghalaahịa B CopyGH Copy Copyright - Ọ dị ọkụ!" Jenụwarị 12. Nweta site na http://ipandentertainmentlaw.wordpress.com/2013/01/04/bikram-yoga-protected-by-trademark-not-copyright-its-hot/ na 1 March 2015.

Choudhury, Bikram na Bonnie Jones Reynolds. 1977. Klas Yoga bidoro Bikram. New York: Iche.

Ugwu, Loraine 2007. "Nwa Ọjọọ Yoga: Bikram Choudhury." Yoga Journal, August 28. Nweta site na http://www.yogajournal.com/article/lifestyle/yoga-s-bad-boy-bikram-choudhury/ na 1 March 2015.

Azụ, Allison. 2006. "Nkọwapụta na Mgbanwe nke Ihe Ọmụma na Ọnọdụ nke Yoga Transnational Comnational. Akwụkwọ akụkọ International nke Ihe Omenala 13: 189-206.

Ford, Dana. 2015. "Yoga Guru Bikram Choudhury ebubo na Mmekọahụ Mmekọahụ, Mmeko nwoke." CNN, February 26. Nweta site na http://www.cnn.com/2015/02/25/us/bikram-yoga-sex-assault-lawsuits/ na 28 February 2015.

Healy, Jack. 2015. "Schism na-apụta na Bikram Yoga Alaeze Ukwu Amid kwuru." New York Times , February 23. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/us/cracks-show-in-bikram-yoga-empire-amid-claims-of-rape-and-assault.html?_r=2 na 1 March 2015.

Koul, Dvssvhi. 2013. "N'ime Bikram Yoga Scandals: Onye ebubo nke Bikram Choudhury kwuru." Hazlitt, August 13. Nweta site na http://www.randomhouse.ca/hazlitt/feature/inside-bikram-yoga-scandals-bikram-choudhury%E2%80%99s-accuser-speaks

MacGregor, Hilary. 2002. “Nwee McYoga Gị Taa? Ihe Successga nke Ọma. ” Los Angeles Times, July 7. Nweta site na http://articles.latimes.com/2002/jul/07/news/lv-bikram7 na 1 March 2015.

Martin, Clancy. 2011. "Okpukpo Na-ekpo Oké nke Bikram Choudhury." nkọwa.com. Nweta site na
http://www.details.com/culture-trends/critical-eye/201102/yoga-guru-bikram-choudhury na 1 March 2015.

Muller, Judy. nd “Hot Yoga: Formdị Ọhụrụ bụ ịgbanwegharị Omume Ime Mmụọ.” Nweta site na http://www.bikramyoga.com/press/press8.htm na 31 January 2014.

Murphy, Rosalie. 2014. "Ihe mere yoga gị Yoga ji dị ọcha." The Atlantic, July 8. Nweta site na http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2014/07/why-your-yoga-class-is-so-white/374002/ na 1 March 2015.

Paramahansa Yogananda. 1998. Autobiography nke a Yogi. Los Angeles: Mmekọrịta Onwe Onye.

Rubin, Courtney. 2013. "Modo, New Version nke Bikram Hot Yoga, Na-eto Eto Na-ewu ewu." New York Times, December 6. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/08/fashion/Moksha-Modo-a-New-Version-of-Bikram-Hot-Yoga-Is-Growing-Popular.html na 28 February 2015.

Singleton, Akara. 2010. Ahụ Yoga: Origkpụrụ Omume Oge A. New York: Oxford University Press.

Theiss, Evelyn. 2013. "'Hot Yoga' na-enweta ọtụtụ ndị, ma mmerụ ahụ na-arịwanye elu." Plain Dealer, May 6. Nweta site na http://connect.cleveland.com/staff/etheiss/posts.html on 1 March 2015 .

Wright, David, Ben Newman na Lauren Effron. 2012. "Bikram Yoga Guru rutere Ebe obibi na Okike Nwepụinka." ABC News, December 3. Nweta site na http://abcnews.go.com/Business/bikram-yoga-guru-reaches-settlement-copyright-suit/story?id=17869598#.UL1gaOQ0chQ na 1 March 2015.

Sanchez, Raf. 2013. "Yoga guru Bikram Choudhury 'n'ike n'ike ụmụ akwụkwọ na òtù nzuzo-dị ka ọzụzụ'." The Telegraph, December 5. Nweta site na http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/10498946/Yoga-guru-Bikram-Choudhury-raped-students-in-cult-like-training-camps.html na 1 March 2015.

YJ Ndị editọ. "Yoga Journal a na 2012 Yoga na America Market Ọmụmụ." Yoga Journal. Nweta site na https://www.yogajournal.com/press-releases/yoga-journal-releases-2012-yoga-in-america-market-study na 28 November 2019.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
2 March 2015

Njikọ BIKRAM YOGA

 

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