Inga Bårdsen Tøllefsen

Iwu nke Living Foundation

TLỌ NKE OFB F ND F OZI

1956 (May 13): Ravi Shankar mụrụ na Papanasam, Tamil Nadu, India.

1975: Ravi Shankar nwetara akara ugo mmụta sayensị na Mahadum Bangalore.

1982: Ravi Shankar chọpụtara Sudarshan Kriya (omume ahụ na-eme iku ume nkuku) n'oge ịgbachi nkịtị na Shimoga, Karnataka, India. Ọ haziri usoro Art of Living mbụ, wee hiwe Art of Living Foundation na Bangalore, India.

1983: Ravi Shankar nwere Art nke Ndụ mbụ na Switzerland.

1986: Ravi Shankar nwere Art nke Ndụ mbụ na North America.

1993: Akpọrọ Ravi Shankar na Transcendental Meditation

1997: Ravi Shankar guzobere Associationtù Mba Nile Maka Humankpụrụ Mmadụ (IAHV) Na Geneva, Switzerland.

2006: Emere Art of Living nke afọ iri abụọ na ise na Bangalore ashram, na nde mmadụ 2,500,000 bịara

2012: Mgbasa ozi afọ ofufo maka Better India (VFABI) malitere, na-agba ụmụ amaala ume ka ha sonye na mbọ ụlọ.

2013: Mgbasa ozi NONVIO bụ nke òtù Shankar malitere, iji kwalite omume nke ime ihe ike site na mgbasa ozi mmekọrịta, na itinye ụkpụrụ ndị na-adịghị eme ihe ike na ọchịchị, nlekọta ahụike na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi.

2016: Ememme Ememme Worldwa nke ụbọchị atọ mere na mmiri nke osimiri Yamuna nke India, na-adọta ndị ọbịa si mba 155, n'etiti ha ndị egwu 35.000.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Guru / onye ndu / onye nchoputa AoL bụ Ravi Shankar (nke a na-ekwukarị na iji nsọpụrụ abụọ Sri Sri, ndị na-efe ya na-akpọkarị ya Guruji ma ọ bụ Gurudev) mụrụ na May 13, 1956, na Papanasam, Tamil Nadu, South India na nne na nna Vishalakshi na Venkat Ratnam. Ezinụlọ ahụ kwagara Jayanagar na Bangalore mgbe Shankar bụ obere nwa. N'India, Ravi bụ aha nkịtị pụtara “anyanwụ.” Aha Shankar, agbanyeghị, sitere na onye nsọ Hindu Adi Shankara, onye onye Ravi Shankar nwere ụbọchị ọmụmụ.

Ihe ndekọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Shankar bụ nwata kọwara ya n'okwu banyere guru ọ ga-abụ, na n'echiche ahụ, dị ka Stephen Jacobs (2015) si kwuo, ha na-agbaso akụkọ akụkọ dị oke amụma. Ihe ndekọ ndị a na-egosi na ọdịmma ime mmụọ pụtara ìhè na ndụ Ravi Shankar site na nwata. Akụkọ a maara nke ọma n'etiti ndị na-efe ofufe bụ na dị ka nwa ọhụrụ Shankar si Indian guzoro, na-ekokwasị ihe jikọrọ ya n'ala, nke n'agbụ ígwè na-akwado. Kama ịzọpịa Shankar n'ime kredul, agbụ ndị ahụ dapụrụ dị ka a ga - asị na ọ bụ ọrụ ebube nke physics. A na-ekwu na Shankar dị afọ anọ agụwo amaokwu site na Bhagavad Gita: otu n'ime ederede dị nsọ nke okpukpe Hindu. N'otu aka ahụ, a na-ekwukarị akụkọ banyere nnupụisi nwata ya na omume nnabata na ụdị ikpe na-ezighi ezi ndị ọzọ, yana nrafu ya na-enweghị atụ maka omume okpukpe kwa ụbọchị pujas na ọmụmụ Sanskrit. Dị ka hagiographies si dị, Shankar bụ nwa akwụkwọ na onye nwere ọgụgụ isi. Ọ masịrị ide ihe na ịmụ akwụkwọ karịa igwu egwu, a na-ekwukwa na o dere abụ na egwuri egwu na nwata. Sayensị bụkwa ihe mmasị maka nwata Ravi Shankar; ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na St. Joseph's College na Bangalore na nzere bachelọ na physics. Otú ọ dị, maka Shankar, [Foto dị n'aka nri] tọdịmma sayensị ya na ndụ nkịtị dị ka onye ọrụ ụlọ akụ ezughị; ọ ghọkwara onye mmụta na akwụkwọ Sanskrit, ma mesịa họrọ ịgbaso ụzọ nke mmụọ.

Art of Living literature na-eme ka ọ pụta ìhè oge dị mma nke ọmụmụ Shankar, aha ya, na ihe nketa Brahmin ya, si otú a na-eme ka akụkọ ihe mere eme mee ka ọ nọrọ "n'okpuru igwe dị mma n'anya ndị kwere ekwe Hindu. Ọzọkwa, dị ka ọtụtụ hagiographies, [biography] na-emesi ike na amụma na ikike dị obere nke Sri Sri Ravi Shankar gosipụtara n'oge ọ bụ nwata ”(Avdeeff 2004: 2). Echiche bụ na Ravi Shankar nọ n'okporo ụzọ nke ịdị nsọ kemgbe ọ bụ nwata, "eziokwu a maara" na o nwetala ihe ọmụma, na ọtụtụ akụkọ ndị ọzọ na-ewuli n'okpuru ịdị nsọ ya, niile dị mkpa n'ime nzukọ ahụ. Alexis Avdeeff na-eme atụmatụ na imirikiti ndị na-efe ofufe kwenyere na nghọta Shankar, ma kwenye na ọ ghọrọ onye nghọta n'oge oge ịgbachi nkịtị ụbọchị iri nke ọ na-azọrọ na ya natara usoro nke Sudarshan Kriya, Usoro iku ume isi nkuku kụziri na AoL. Ravi Shankar n'onwe ya ekwenyeghi ma obu gọnarị "asịrị" nke mmụta ya na mmụọ nsọ Chineke. Kama, ọ na-ekwusi ike n'okwu a, site n'okwu dị omimi dị ka "Ọtụtụ nwere ike ịgafe site na enyemaka nke Onye ahụ gafere" (Avdeeff 2004: 3). Shankar n'onwe ya yiri ka o mere ka ihe a na-eme na ihe omimi a na ihe omuma ya. Ọ na-amasị oge dị ugbu a na onye ọ bụ ugbu a, na-ekwusi ike otu o si debe nwatakịrị ahụ ọ bụbu, yana, na ụdị Peter Pan, na ọ tobeghị n'ezie.

E webatara Ravi Shankar na Maharishi Mahesh Yogi na njem ntụgharị uche ya nke Transcendental na nzukọ na Bangalore mgbe ọ bụ nwa okorobịa (Gautier 2008). Shankar soro Maharishi gaa ashram ya na Rishikesh, nọrọ oge ụfọdụ ebe ahụ, wee jiri nwayọ nwee ntụkwasị obi nke TM guru / onye ndu / onye nchoputa. Mgbe "mụtara ụdọ," e nyere Shankar nke nta nke nta ọrụ n'ime nzukọ. “Ọ bụ ezie na Sri Sri dị obere, Maharishi ghọtara ikike ya wee tinye ya n'ọrụ. E zigara ya n'ọtụtụ ebe iji kwuo okwu na Vedas na sayensị "(Gautier 2008: 36). E zigakwara Ravi Shankar na mba dị iche iche na Europe ka ọ gaa n’ihu na nkuzi ya wee guzobe ebe mmụta. Ọ kwalitere talent ya nhazi ya site na njikwa mmemme n'ime ntụgharị uche Transcendental. Gautier na-ekwu na n'agbanyeghị na ọ bụ ntakịrị ihe amachapụtara banyere oge Shankar nọrọ na nzukọ TM, ọ kwenyere na nke a bụ oge etolite maka Shankar mgbe ọ bụ nwa okorobịa. Site na ya na TM, Shankar yiri ka ọ mụtara nkà ndị dị mkpa iji malite ịmalite ọrụ nke mmụọ ya, nke ọ kpọrọ aha Art of Living Foundation (Hume 2009: 295-96). O yikarịrị ka ọ bụ na Ravi Shankar dabere na aha otu ya na otu n'ime akwụkwọ a kacha mara amara nke Maharishi, Sayensị nke ịbụ na nka obibi (1963).

N'ime afọ niile, nne na nna Shankar nwere ntụkwasị obi siri ike na ntụkwasị obi nke Shankar, na Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Peeth (VVMVP), ma na-agba ọsọ nke Art of Living Ashram na Bangalore, India. Pitaji bụ otu n'ime ezigbo ndị na-eso ụzọ nwa ya nwoke, akpọrọ nnukwu ụlọ ntụgharị uche na Bangalore ashram aha Vishalakshi Mantap maka nne Shankar. Nna Ravi Shankar dị ka, n'etiti ndị ezinụlọ na ndị enyi, ịbụ onye kachasị olu banyere ntozu oke nwa ya, na-ekwupụta na "Ọ bụ nwa m na nna m ukwu."

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Enwere ike ịghọta Art of Living dị ka okpukpe na-akwado ụwa, nke, dị ka Eileen Barke si kwuo, "nakweere ụkpụrụ ụwa na ebumnuche ụwa mgbe ị na-eji ụzọ ndị na-adịghị mma iji mezuo ihe ndị a" (1998: 21). Site na ọtụtụ atụmatụ enyemaka mmadụ, dị ka agụmakwụkwọ ime obodo na ahụike, ndị otu NGO nke nzukọ ahụ na-agbasi mbọ ike ime ka ụwa bụrụ ebe ka mma. Ihe dị mkpa nke ụkpụrụ omume mmadụ n'ime nzukọ AoL kwekọrọ na ọtụtụ ndị Asia NRM ndị ọzọ, nke na-elekwasịkarị anya na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya (Clarke 2006; Warrier 2005). Nke a na-eme ka mmekọrịta ọha na eze dị mma, na-emekwa ka nzukọ nzukọ na-akwado echiche ụwa.

Ọganihu onwe na nke ime mmụọ na-aga n'ihu na ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ọdịmma mmadụ na AoL. Otú ọ dị, Art of Living Foundation bụ isi okpukpe / nzukọ ime mmụọ, ma kwado onwe ya na usoro Hindu nke oge a. Onye guru na-eme emume Hindu mgbe niile (pujas), na ọtụtụ ememme okpukpe ndị Hindu na-eme na Art of Living's Bangalore ashram. Gautier (2009) na Humes (2009) rịba ama na Ravi Shankar tolitere n'okpukpe Hindu, na Shankar n'onwe ya na-ewere ọnọdụ ofufe n'akụkụ mmụọ. Omume Hindu nke bhakti (ntinye) dị mkpa na nkuzi nke Shankar nke Lovehụnanya Chineke. Dị ka o kwesịrị, ịhụnanya enweghị ego, na ịhụnanya a na-enweghị ọdịmma onwe onye kwesịrị ka ndị mmadụ ibe ya, guru na Chineke.

Cynthia Humes na-ekwu na ofufe guru dị mkpa na AoL:

Shankar […] na-enye ndị ọzọ ohere imeri ya dị ka ndị Hindu na-eme ndị nna ha ukwu - si otú a na-achọta nkuzi ya n'ime usoro iwu Hindu, na-eme ka ọ bụrụ onye a ma ama na guru maka ndị India. Nkwupụta nke ịhụnanya na mgbakwunye na guru bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị na Satsangs kwa izu, "nnọkọ nke ndị nsọ," nke ewepụtara na Sri Sri […] (2009: 384).

Fred Clothey (2006) na-ekwu na n'India, ọdịnala ịchọ ịchọ okpukperechi na ofufe guru nwere ike ịlaghachi n'oge nke Upanishads (nchịkọta ederede nke nwere ụfọdụ echiche nkà ihe ọmụma nke Hindu, nke e dere na Asụsụ Sanskrit ca. 800-200 TOA). Omenala a gbasakwara ndị mmadụ taa. Na Bangalore ashram, mgbe Ravi Shankar na-aga, enwere nnọkọ buru ibu ebe ndị na-efe ofufe na-ezute guru. A na-akpọ ha ndị ọzọ darshan (ebe mmadu huru ma guru ya), or satsang. Steven Jacobs (2015) sụgharịrị satsang dị ka "ezigbo ụlọ ọrụ," oge ndị na-efe ofufe nwere ike iji oge ha na Sri Sri ha hụrụ n'anya na-anọkọ. Ihe omume ndị a na-ewu ewu nke ukwuu, nnukwu ụlọ ekpere / ntụgharị uche na-ejupụta na njedebe kwa abalị. Ikwenye na guru nwere oke mmetụta, ma gosipụta ya ndị bhajan (abụ devotional), yana abụ onye ọ bụla, abụ uri, na akaebe na nnọkọ-emeghe. A na-egosikwa ofufe guru na ọtụtụ omume seva (ọrụ achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye / ọrụ Chukwu) nke a na-eme kwa ụbọchị na ashrams, ebe etiti, na ọrụ enyemaka mmadụ gburugburu ụwa, site n'aka ndị na-efe ofufe na ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo.

Achingkụzi ihe omuma ọdịnala na "amamihe India oge ochie" bụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke ọrụ AoL. Ihe omuma a bu ngwakọ nke amamihe ndi Hindu (dika imaatu site na nkowa banyere ihe omuma ihe omuma nke Hindu) ikwu okwu onwe onye, ​​na ezi uche. Milda Ališauskienė (2009) na-ekwu na

N'ime nkuzi a, nke na-ewere ụdị ozi kwa ụbọchị nye ndị na-eso ụzọ nke emesia bipụtara, Shankar na-ekwuputa echiche sitere na Hindu na ederede Hindu dịka Bhagavad Gita na Ashtavakra Gita, nke na-ewelite ajụjụ banyere mbido echiche ya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na ozi ya banyere iwu nke okike ọ na-akọwa:

“Ike atọ dị n’okike: Brahma shakti, Vishnu shakti na Shiva shakti. Ọ na-abụkarị otu n’ime ike ndị a na-achịkwa. Brahma shakti bụ ike na-emepụta ihe ọhụrụ. Vishnu shakti bụ ike na-akwagide ịdị adị ebe Shiva shakti bụ ike na-agbanwe, na-enye ndụ ma ọ bụ na-ebibi. (Šankaras 2001: 208) ”

Ma n'otu oge ahụ, na ozi ya nye ụmụazụ ya Ravi Shankar na-ejikwa echiche na ihe atụ sitere na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst, si otú ahụ na-eme ka ndị na-ege ntị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ na-ege ntị ozizi ya. (Ališauskienė 2009: 343)

Otu n'ime “usoro mmụta” dị mkpa na AoL bụ ozi ndị guru na-ezigara ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kwa ụbọchị, nke a na-ebipụta na ntanetị ma chịkọta na akwụkwọ A na-akpọ ha Wisdom Quotes, n'ime ha Shankar na-ekwukwa ihe dịka "securitychọta nchekwa n'ime oghere bụ ọnọdụ ime mmụọ."

Ravi Shankar hụrụ izi ezi na ọdịnala okpukpe ọdịnala dịka Hindu, yana ụfọdụ Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst. Agbanyeghị, guru n'onwe ya bụ isi iyi nke ike na amamihe na AoL. Shankar bụ onye na-adọrọ adọrọ, ndị na-efe ya na-ahụkwa onye ya, nkuzi ya na omume ya dị ka eziokwu na eziokwu. Ọzọkwa, site n'ịmụ omume na ịmụ otu esi abụ guru devotee, isonye na AoL na-agụnyekarị ụdị mgbanwe onwe onye. Echiche bụ na ndị mmadụ na-enwe obi ụtọ, ahụike, na mma site na isoro nzukọ a, yana ngbanwe onwe onye nke AoL nwere njikọ chiri anya na echiche nke mmụta, ọgwụgwọ, na ahụmịhe okpukpe. Echiche ndị a abụghị naanị ihe dị mkpa na Hindu, kamakwa n'ọdịbendị nke oge a, ọdịnala ime mmụọ zuru ụwa ọnụ, nke Art of Living bụ akụkụ ya. Ofufe Guru na nkà ihe ọmụma dị mkpa na AoL, mana ọmụmụ (na iku ume, yoga, na ntụgharị uche), ya bụ, mmụta bara uru, bụ etu esi akụzi ma sonye na ndị na-eme ya.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ihe ndi mmadu kwenyere na ndu ha, emume ha na omume ha bu ihe sitere na echiche ndi Hindu, ya mere yoga, ntughari uche, na pranayama (usoro iku ume) bụ isi omume na mmegharị ahụ. Usoro ọmụmụ na usoro nke nzukọ a na-akụzi na-abụkarị otu ebe niile, ndị nkuzi niile na-enwetakwa ọzụzụ yiri ya. Ọ na-abụkarị ndị nkụzi abụọ, otu nwoke na nwanyị, na-akụzi ihe ọmụmụ nke ọ bụla.

Art of Living nwere ọtụtụ ihe jikọrọ ya na nzukọ nne na nna ya Transcendental Meditation. Na mgbakwunye ịbụ mmegharị nke guru-centric, “[…] abụọ na-akụzi usoro nke na-enyere aka belata nrụgide, ha nwere mmalite Hindu ma ha abụọ na-ekwu na ha abụghị okpukpe mana ndị NGO” (Ališauskienė 2009: 3-4).

Otu abụọ ahụ na-akụzi ihe dị mfe mantra ụdị ntụgharị uche. [Foto dị n'aka nri] ofdị ntụgharị uche a kụziri na TM dabeere on mantras site na omenala ndị India (Lowe 2011). Onye nkuzi enyere aka na-enye onye na-atụgharị uche mantra ahụ, a na-ekwukwa ụdị ntụgharị uche nke TM dị ka ihe okike, obi umeala na ihe mgbagwoju anya. Usoro ntụgharị uche a kụziri na AoL dị nnọọ yiri: Sahaj Samadhi Meditation (ma ọ bụ Art nke Ntụgharị uche) bụ ihe nzukọ a na-akpọ "amara, eke na mgbalị na-enweghị" usoro ntụgharị uche.

Ma TM na AoL na-akuzi ihe omuma nke ime hatha yoga. Yoga bụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke nkuzi AoL, mana n'ụdị “dị nro” dabara adaba maka mmadụ niile. A na-akụzi Yoga na nkuzi mmeghe na nke yoga pụrụ iche, a na-ekwu na ọ ga-eme ka ahụ dị jụụ ma zuru ike, ma mee ka ọ dị njikere ịmụ ma na-eme omume ahụ isi nkuku, Sudarshan Kriya iku ume Usoro. Omume yoga a na-ahụkarị na AoL bụ Surya Namaskara (ekele anyanwụ) na ole na ole ndị ọzọ asanas (yoga postures) nke ekwuru na-enye abamuru nke anụ ahụ, nke uche na nke mmụọ. Na mgbakwunye, AoL ewebatala egwuregwu nke aka ha banyere yoga, nke akpọrọ "yoga yoga." Usoro ihe omume a dị nkenke na-arụ kwa ụbọchị ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị nọ n'obodo ndị dị na India na-arụ, dị ka "iji broomstick zaa," "egweri ọka wit na nkume ntụ ọka," "ịsa aka na aka" na "ịdọpụta bọket mmiri site na olulu mmiri." Ebumnuche dị n'azụ yoga obodo bụ, nke kachasị, uru anụ ahụ. Ọrụ ahụ siri ike ma na-emega ahụ, ọbụlagodi ma ọ bụrụ na ọ na-eme naanị dị ka mmega yoga. Agbanyeghị, enwere ike ịkọwa yoga yoga dị ka ụzọ isi nye onyinye maka ọrụ a na-arụ n'ime obodo ndị India kwa ụbọchị. Ikekwe ọ bụkwa nkatọ nke ibi ndụ nke obodo mepere emepe nke a hụrụ dị ka ihe na-ekwekọghị n'okike ma e jiri ya tụnyere "mmekọrịta ịhụnanya dị mfe" nke ndụ ime obodo. A na-akụziri (ndị ọkachasị) ndị mepere emepe, ndị nọ n'ọkwa, usoro ndị a, na nkọwa na "ndị mmadụ nọ n'obodo ahụ na-eme yoga ka ọ bụrụ akụkụ nke ọrụ ha kwa ụbọchị [nke] na-esetị aka na n'úkwù ka ha na-eku ume n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na ụda. N'ime obodo, ndị mmadụ na-ebi ndụ ka mma ma nwee obi ụtọ. ”

Isi nkuku nke usoro ihe eji eme ihe bu usoro iku ume a na-akpo Sudarshan Kriya (SKY), nke a na-asụgharị sụgharịrị ịbụ “ume na-agwọ ọrịa.” Shankar n'onwe ya na-ekwu na "n'oge ịgbachi nkịtị, ndị Sudarshan Kriya bịara dị ka mmụọ nsọ. Nature mara ihe inye na mgbe inye. Mgbe m pụtara jụụ, amalitere m ịkụzi ihe ọ bụla m maara na ndị mmadụ nwere nnukwu ahụmịhe. ” Na-ezi ihe Sudarshan Kriya bụ ihe kpatara Shankar ji guzobere Art of Living Foundation, wee rue taa, a na-akụzi usoro a na usoro ọ bụla nke Art of Living.

A na-ahụkwa ọdịdị AoL na-ekwenye ụwa na usoro ya. A naghị ahụ “nzọpụta” mgbe a nwụsịrị, kama n'ime a ndụ. “[…] Ebumnuche kachasị elu [nke SKY] bụ ịgbanwe ụwa na ndị mmadụ, iji mee ka ndị mmadụ nwekwuo obi ụtọ ma mee ka ha dịrị ndụ na-enweghị nrụgide […]. Mwepu nke nrụgide metụtara ndụ kacha mma nke ọha mmadụ dịka ọ dị ugbu a, mana n'ikpeazụ ọ na-ewetara ndị mmadụ ịdị adị dị iche iche. (Ališauskienė 2009: 343).

Dị ka Ravi Shankar si kwuo, ụda ume nke iku ume doro anya. O kwekọrọ na mmetụta uche na ahụ mmadụ, yana ụda nke ụwa na okike. Maka ebum n’uche di iche-iche, a na-enwekarị ụda egwu ndị a, ma ọ bụ ebumnuche nke Sudarshan Kriya ime ka ha laghachi n’udo. Usoro a n'onwe ya bụ okirikiri nke ume ume ume, ebe onye ọrụ ahụ nọ na ikpere ya, na ọnọdụ yoga a maara dị ka vajrasana. Ahụ dị jụụ, onye na-eme ume ahụ na-eku ume imi. Mgbe Kriya , onye na-eme ihe na-atụrụ ndụ, wee banye n'ọnọdụ ntụgharị uche ebe uche na ahụ maara ma zuru ike. A na-akụzi usoro ahụ n'ụdị abụọ. Ogologo Kriya a na-eduzi ya, mgbe mgbe site na teepu na ntụziaka Ravi Shankar edere, a na-eme ya otu ugboro n'izu n'otu nhazi. E nwekwara ndị dị mkpirikpi, “kwa ụbọchị” Kriya, nke kwesiri ka eme ya kwa ubochi. Site na ịchịkwa ụda ume, Art of Living ozizi na-ekwu na ndị mmadụ nwekwara ike ịchịkwa mmetụta uche ha, ahụ ha na uche ha. Nzukọ ahụ na-enye ihe atụ: mgbe mmadụ nwere mwute, iku ume na-abịa n'ụzọ dị ogologo na miri emi. N'otu aka ahụ, mgbe mmadụ na-ewe iwe, ume ahụ na-adị mkpụmkpụ ma dịkwa ngwa. N'ihi na ume ahụ kwekọrọ na mmetụta uche, nzukọ ahụ na-akụzi na mmadụ nwere ike iji ume ahụ gbanwee mmetụta uche. “Ọ ( Sudarshan Kriya ) wepu iwe, nchekasị na nchegbu; na-eme ka uche zuru ike ma nwee ume. ”

Otu n'ime njirimara bụ isi nke ọtụtụ agụmakwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ nke Art of Living Foundation na-enye bụ ebumnuche iji nye ndị sonyere usoro, nka na ihe ọmụma ha ga-eji nweta ndụ ka mma. Stephen Jacobs (2015) na-ahụ usoro AoL dịka ihe ọ kpọrọ "ntụgharị ọgwụgwọ," metụtara ahụike na ahụike ọ bụla. A kụziiri ndị ọkachamara ụzọ isi nagide nrụgide uche na nke anụ ahụ, na otu esi emeghachi omume na ọnọdụ nrụgide nke na-ebilite na ọrụ dị iche iche na mkpa na ndụ kwa ụbọchị. Usoro ndị a, nke gụnyere usoro iku ume, ntụgharị uche na mmega ahụ yoga na-ekwe nkwa ịkwalite ahụike na ahụike.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

N'ime afọ kemgbe Ravi Shankar guzobere Art nke Living, ọ toro n'ime nnukwu okpukpe na mmụọ ime mmụọ zuru ụwa ọnụ, na ashram isi ụlọ ọrụ na Bangalore, India [Image na nri] na Bad Antogast, Germany. Mepụta okpukpe ọhụrụ nwere ike ịbụ atụmatụ aghụghọ amamihe, yana, n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, AoL na-arụ ọrụ dịka ụlọ ọrụ ọ bụla nwere ọtụtụ mba. Nzukọ a nwere ebe na otu dị iche iche n'ụwa niile. Ndị sonyere ya bụkwa ndị ahịa, ndị na-akwụ ụgwọ maka ọmụmụ ihe, mgbapụta, na ngwaahịa metụtara ngwaahịa (dịka akwụkwọ, DVD, ma ọ bụ mgbakwunye ahụike Ayurvedic). AoL ika njikwa bụ ihe ịga nke ọma, nke gosipụtara na ntanetị dị mkpa na ntanetị mgbasa ozi. N'iji azụmaahịa mara ihe, ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na mmegharị dị ka AoL iji "ihe dị iche iche nke ịme ngosipụta na-aga nke ọma [nke] gụnyere ịme ihe eji emepụta ihe ọhụụ, ịmalite mmemme ndị a na-eme n'obodo, na -emepụta akara ngosi amata ngwa ngwa na-egosipụta njikọ, na iji akara ngosi na okwu ihu ọha na iji bulie […] onye isi ka ọ dị nso na akụkọ ifo ”(Hammer 2009: 197). Onye guru nwere ike ịgafe ugbu a n'ụzọ zuru oke gburugburu ụwa na-anụ ụtọ mkpụrụ nke ọrụ ya dị ka onye ọchụnta ego n'okpukpe (Bainbridge na Stark 1985). Ọ bụ ezie na AoL anaghị ebuso mmegide asọmpi agha, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe nwere ma ọ bụ nwee njikọ na gurus na mmegharị ndị ọzọ, a mara Shankar na-akatọ ndị isi okpukpe ma ọ bụ ndị isi ala ọzọ mgbe ohere dapụtara (Tøllefsen 2012).

Dika ndi guru, Art of Living is centralized and quite bureaucratic (Finke and Scheitle 2009) Mpaghara ma obu ndi otu di iche iche nwere ikike ndi ozo, ma ndi isi ochichi na-enye ofufe- na ihe ndi ozo, aha ahia na "akuko" nke ndi obodo. AoL alaka. Mpaghara mpaghara na otu dị iche iche gburugburu ụwa na-enye ụfọdụ ndị isi nzaghachi akụ na ụba, mana nguzo ike n'ụzọ doro anya na-akwado isi ụlọ ọrụ. Usoro nhazi a pụtakwara na ọ ga-abụ na mmegharị ahụ agaghị enwe schism.

Onye ndu nke nzukọ AoL nwere njikọ chiri anya yana akụkọ ndụ guru / onye ndu / onye nchoputa, onye nwere ikike n'ọtụtụ ọkwa na nzukọ ahụ. Otu ụzọ nghọta Ravi Shankar abụghị naanị dị ka guru kamakwa dị ka onye ọchụnta ego siri ike nke mepụtara usoro okpukpe nke n'ọtụtụ ụzọ dị ka ụlọ ọrụ ọ bụla nwere ọtụtụ mba.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Dị ka ọtụtụ mmegharị okpukpe ọhụrụ, AoL echewo nsogbu ụfọdụ, nsogbu na esemokwu n'oge ya. Otu n'ime ihe kachasị mkpa bụ nkwụsị n'etiti Art of Living and Transcendental Meditation, na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi na mmekọrịta ọha na eze, na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Okwu esitere na esemokwu ọha na eze dị n'etiti AoL na ntụgharị uche Transcendental. Ná mmalite 1990s, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi chụpụrụ ọtụtụ ndị na-eto eto, ndị na-adọrọ adọrọ, na ndị nọ n'ọkwá dị elu nke TM. Ravi Shankar na ndị ọrụ ibe ya, Deepak Chopra na Robin Carlsen, amụtala otu esi esi n'aka guru ha na-eduzi nzukọ ime mmụọ, wee bido ịmalite ịsọ mpi ime mmụọ ha (Tøllefsen 2014; Humes 2009). Site n'oge Ravi Shankar hiwere Art nke Ibi na 1982, AoL na Transcendental Meditation na-adị n'otu ma nye ndị na-ege ntị yiri ya. Ravi Shankar bụ onye nkụzi na TM, ma were Maharishi Mahesh Yogi guru ya. Humes (2009) na-ekwu na Ravi Shankar gwara ndị na-efe ofufe na US ka ha sonyere nzukọ Maharishi, ọ gbakwara ha ume ka ha jiri ya Sudarshan Kriya Usoro dị ka ekele maka ntụgharị uche TM ha. Maharishi kwadokwara nkuzi Shankar, dịka "e nyere ndị nkuzi TM na mbụ ka ha were usoro [Ravi Shankar] wee gaa ọmụmụ ihe ya" (Humes 2009: 296). Ravi Shankar gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ n'ime TM mgbe ọ na-edozi ashram ya na Bangalore ma na-eduzi usoro ọmụmụ ya na usoro iku ume ọhụrụ ya. Agbanyeghị, esemokwu dị n'etiti ngagharị ndị guru abụọ ahụ rutere na mmalite 1990s, ebe TM malitere ịmalite omume ọjọọ megide nzukọ Shankar. "Ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ TM na United States mere ihe omume doro anya megide mmemme Shankar ruo 1993" (Humes 2009: 296). N'oge a, ndị na-efe ofufe ndị na-eme ihe Sudarshan Kriya yana TM malitere ihu iwu, na mgbe ulo akwukwo AoL malitere ikwuputa TM na ewu ewu na US, "ekwusiwo ike [Maha] maka Maharishi" (Humes 2009: 302). Maharishi chere ezigbo ihe ọghọm ihu na ndị na-efe ofufe ga-ahapụ njem ya ma mefuo ego na mmemme dị ọnụ ala nke Ravi Shankar na Deepak Chopra na-arụ (onye ọzọ TM na-efe ofufe na "onye ndu India na-ama ya aka" bụ onye ghọrọ onye ọchụnta ego n'okpukpe nke aka ya) . Shankar na Chopra ghọrọ ihe iyi egwu doro anya na nzukọ TM, na mwepu ha na-anọchite anya nchebe nke nzukọ dabere na asọmpi maka ndị na-akwado ya na mkpa ọ dị ịchekwa iche iche nhazi.

A tụpụrụ Deepak Chopra n'ụzọ nkịtị na nzukọ TM. Otú ọ dị, nkwụsịtụ dị n'etiti Maharishi na Ravi Shankar bụ obere ihe a na-atụghị anya ya na obere ihe dị egwu. Ravi Shankar yiri ka ọ na-akwanyere onye nkụzi ochie ya ùgwù. Humes (2009) na-ekwu na:

Nkwusi ike siri ike banyere nsọpụrụ guru na ọdịnala Hindu emeela ka Shankar ghara ịkatọ ma ọ bụ kwuo okwu megide nna ya ukwu Maharishi. Ma ihunanya yiri ka ha abụọ: naanị mgbe Art nke Ndụ ulo oru ulo oru choro ibu ndi amara karie ugwo oru TM ka Maharishi mere ihe megide Sri Sri na North America.

Ebe a na-ese okwu maka mmegharị okpukpe ọhụrụ bụkarị mmekọrịta ọha na eze, ma n'ihe metụtara mgbasa ozi na ọha na eze. Agbanyeghị, AoL abụghị nnukwu esemokwu. Nkà ihe omumu ya na omume ya di “nro,” buru kwa ndi nke ime obodo. Agbanyeghi na ekwughi Art of Living otutu mgbe na ntaneti ma obu na akwukwo edere edere, otutu isi okwu di nma. Ebe kachasị dị mma maka AoL PR bụ ezigbo webpages nke nzukọ ahụ, ebe ndekọ akụkọ mgbasa ozi ha laghachiri afọ ole na ole. Isi okwu a wulitere n'okpuru onyinyo Ravi Shankar dị ka onye nnọchi anya udo: "Onye na-ahụ maka enyemaka mmadụ na mmụọ na onye ndu ime mmụọ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Embarks na Peace Mission to Pakistan" na "ndị ọka iwu Karnataka na-agbagha ụlọ ikpe; Guru ime mmụọ Sri Sri na-enye dị ka onye ogbugbo. ” Mgbasa ozi AoL anaghị ekwupụta na nzukọ a na-emegide ọha mmadụ. Kama nke ahụ, akụkọ akụkọ ekpuchiela AoL na Shankar n'oge na-adịbeghị anya na-abanye ebe esemokwu n'etiti ọha mmadụ (ma mba ma mba ụwa) iji gbasaa ozi udo, ma kwado okwu ihu ọha na nkwukọrịta. Na afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, agbanyeghị, ọha mmadụ nke AoL agbanweela, ma ebipụtaghị akụkọ ndị na-adịchaghị mma. Nzukọ ahụ echewo nkatọ sitere n'aka ndị na-ede blọgụ na ndị na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ abụọ.

Ọbịbịa nke ịntanetị amịpụtawo ihe dị iche iche maka AoL na otu dị iche iche. N'otu aka, ọhaneze nwere ike ịchọta ozi na AoL ngwa ngwa ma soro ya na ndị na-efe ya kwurịta okwu. Medialọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi na-enyekwa òtù dị iche iche ikike ịchịkwa ihe ha na-eme. Nke a dị ezigbo mkpa maka otu nzukọ dịka AoL, nke na-achọ ịmepụta obodo ime mmụọ na nke ọdịmma mmadụ (Jacobs 2015). Agbanyeghị, AoL na - echekwa nsogbu nkatọ na ịntanetị. N'okwu AoL, ọtụtụ nkatọ sitere na blọọgụ n'ịntanetị nke ndị na-efe ofufe na-ewe iwe. Ndị blọọgụ ahụ na-ebo AoL ebubo ụkọchukwu (n'echiche na-ezighi ezi), yana ịmị ụbụrụ. Na 2010, AoL gbara akwụkwọ abụọ n'ime ndị na-ede blọgụ kachasị emetụta ("Klim" na "Skywalker") maka ịkpọsa ihe nzuzo azụmahịa, nkwutọ, nkwutọ azụmaahịa na mmebi iwu nwebisiinka. Naanị nsogbu nzuzo ahịa nwere ike iji mee ihe na ikpe. Agbanyeghị, ezere ịgba akwụkwọ iwu, na 2012 AoL na ndị na-ede blọgụ ahụ mechara nwee nkwekọrịta nke AoL kwụsịrị ikpe ahụ, kwụọ ụgwọ ndị ọka iwu nke ndị na-ede blọgụ, ma kwenye ịmalite usoro iwu megide ndị na-ede blọgụ ọzọ. E nyere ndị na-ede blọgụ ohere ka ha ghara ịbụ ndị a na-amaghị, na-egbochi blọọgụ ha dị ugbu a, mana anaghị egbochi ha ịmalite blọọgụ ọhụrụ n'otu isiokwu ahụ.

Ikpe a na-ekpe megide ndị na-ede blọgụ abụghị isi okwu na akwụkwọ akụkọ "a na-emebu". Agbanyeghị, akatọla Art of Living Foundation maka nsogbu ndị ọzọ, dịka nbibi nke ala na mpaghara tankị na Mysore, Karnataka. Ndi ochichi obodo choro ka ha choo imebi nzukọ a ma ghasaa ebe ntụgharị uche di na mpaghara. Otú ọ dị, njikọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Ravi Shankar yiri ka ọ nyere aka gbochie nsonaazụ ahụ. Otu akụkọ sitere n'aka Oneindia (2011) na-ekwu na "Agbanyeghị na Onye Isi Mịnịsta na-ahụ maka ọdịnala oge ahụ tinyere aka, BS Yeddyurappa kọrọ na ọ zọpụtara Sri Sri na Art of Living Foundation ka ha ghara inwe nsogbu ọ bụla gbasara iwu."

N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ndị ọrụ nchekwa gburugburu ebe obibi na ụmụ amaala nwere nchegbu katọrọ AoL nke ukwuu banyere mmebi gburugburu ebe obibi nke emere na ide mmiri ide mmiri Yamuna n'oge mmemme nke World Culture Festival na Machị 2016. [Foto dị n'aka nri] The Huffington Post kọrọ ọtụtụ mmebi nke mmiri na ahịhịa na ebe ememme 1,000-acre, na kọmitii National Green Tribunal tụrụ aro ịkwụ ụgwọ nke 120 crore rupees (ihe dị ka $ 28,000,000). E mebiri ego ahụ ka ọ bụrụ 50,000,000 rupees (obere ihe karịrị $ 750,000). A akụkọ akụkọ na Onye isi obodo akụkọ "Sri Sri na-ekwupụta nkwuwa okwu 'Anyị ga-aga ụlọ mkpọrọ mana anyị agaghị akwụ ụgwọ ahụ. Anyị emeghị ihe ọjọọ ọ bụla '. Emechara okwu ahụ mgbe ọtụtụ nsogbu gasịrị na AOL na-agba obere akụkụ nke iwu enyere. Ememe Omenala Worldwa na njikọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị AoL nwere ike, mepee ụzọ iji nyochakwuo nke nzukọ na ọnọdụ Hindutva.

Hindutva (Hindu-ness) bụ ụdị agbụrụ nke mba [aka nri], ebe a na-akpọ India dị ka ala nna Hindu, na ebe a na-akpọ okpukpe ndị ọzọ (ọkachasị Islam, ma ndị Kristian) dị ka ndị mba ọzọ, ya mere, achọghị . Ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke Hindut kọwara ọdịbendị India site na otu ụkpụrụ "Hindu", ma na-emegide usoro iwu. A nabatala ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Hindutva dị ka echiche bụ isi nke ndị otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ikike mba nke Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), ndị otu Prime Minister nke India Narendra Modi nọ na ya. Prime Minista ahụ bụ ọbịa ọbịa na Art of Living World World Festival, ndị otu ya na-enyekwa ndị agha n'oge nkwadebe ememme. Ọ bụ ezie na Ravi Shankar na-akpachara anya banyere etu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya si abịakwute ọha na eze (na-ahọrọkarị PR na udo na mkparịta ụka okpukpe), nzukọ ya dị ka, dị ka edepụtara n'elu, na-erite uru ozugbo na njikọ aka nri ya.

Ravi Shankar si ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ịhụ mba n'anya nọ n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ nke a na-ahụ anya nke ukwuu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, gbasara Ayodhya esemokwu banyere ụlọ nsọ Ram / Babri Masjid, Meera Nanda (2011) kwuru na Sri Sri

na-ezochi mmasị onye Hindu nke ukwuu n'ihi ọdịdị egwu, ịhụnanya, na ọ joyụ a zụlitere nke ọma. O gosiputala agba ndi Hindutva ugboro ugboro n'ihe banyere Ram mandir na ndi pere mpe. Magazin Britain The Economist kọwara ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya n'ụzọ ziri ezi: 'Art of Living is open to people of all faiths. Ma, n'eziokwu, na-ekwurịta banyere ụlọ nsọ Ram, onye isi ya na-amalite ịda ụda dị ka onye ndu ime mmụọ na dịka onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na-ekwu maka ogologo akụkọ ihe mere eme nke "ịrịọ arịrịọ nke obere obodo" '[…] (2011: 100).

Foto

Image # 1: Foto Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, onye guzobere Art of Living Foundation.

Foto # 2: Onyonyo nke Art of Living Foundation na-etinye uche n'ọnọdụ ntụgharị uche.

Foto # 3: Foto nke Central Art nke Foundation ashram na Bangalore, India.

Image # 4: Foto nke ala dị na Yamuna ide mmiri ebe Art of Living Foundation's World Culture Festival kpatara mbibi gburugburu ebe obibi na 2016.

References

Ališauskienė, Milda. 2009. "Ime mmụọ na okpukpe na Art nke Living Foundation na Lithuania na Denmark: Pụtara, Contexts and Relationships." Pp. 339-64 n'ime Subcultures na Okpukpe Ọhụrụ na Russia na East-Central Europe, Nke George degharịrị M cKay na Christopher Williams. Oxford: Peter Lang.

Avdeeff, Alexis. 2004. "Sri Sri Ravi Shankar na Art nke readgbasa Ọmuma na Worldwa." Akwụkwọ akụkọ Dharma XXIX: 321-35.

Bainbridge, William Sims na Stark, Rodney. 1985. "Usoro Okpukpe: Moddị Atọ Na-ekwekọ." Pp. 171-88 na Ọdịnihu nke Okpukpe . Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

Barker, Eileen. 1998. "Okpukpe Ọhụrụ na Okpukpe Ọhụrụ." Pp. 10-27 n'ime Okpukpe ọhụrụ na okpukpe ọhụrụ, nke Eileen Barker na Margit Warburg deziri. Nnyocha RENNER na Okpukpe Ọhụrụ. Aarhus: Mahadum Aarhus Press.

Clarke, Peter. 2006. Encyclopedia nke mmeghari ohuru nke okpukpe. London na New York: Ntugharị.

Clothey, Fred W. 2006. Okpukpe na India, Okwu mmalite nke akụkọ ihe mere eme. London na New York: Ntugharị.

Finkle, Roger na Christopher P. Scheitle. 2009. "ingghọta Schism: Theoretical Nkọwa maka ha Origins." Pp. 11-34 n'ime Okpukpo di nsọ, otu okpukpe si kee, nke James Lewis na Sarah Lewis dere. Cambridge: Mahadum Cambridge University.

Gautier, François. 2008. Guru nke Joy: Sri Sri Ravi Shankar na Art of Living. Carlsbad, CA: Houselọ Hay.

Oma, Olav. 2009. "Schism na Nkwado: Okwu nke Theosophical Movement." Pp. 196-217 na Okpukpo di nsọ, otu okpukpe si kee, nke James Lewis na Sarah Lewis dere. Cambridge: Mahadum Cambridge University

Hume, Cynthia Ann. 2009. "Schisms n'ime ndi Hindu Guru: ndi Transcendental Meditation Movement na North America." Pp. 372-96, na Okpukpo di nsọ, otu okpukpe si kee, nke James Lewis na Sarah Lewis dere. Cambridge: Mahadum Cambridge University.

Jacobs, Stephen. 2015. The Art of Living Foundation: Ọnọdụ ime mmụọ na ọdịmma na gburugburu ụwa. Ashgate Okpukpe ọhụrụ. Oxford na New York: Ntugharị

Nanda, Meera. 2011. Ahia Chukwu. Otu Ijikọ ụwa ọnụ si eme ka India bụrụ onye Hindu. New York: Nyocha ọnwa kwa ọnwa.

Tøllefsen, Inga Bårdsen. 2014. "Ntughari uche nke ndi mmadu, ihe omuma nke ibi ndu, na mmekorita ndi mmadu: Site na Psychedelic Romanticism na Science na Schism." Pp. 145-59 mu Okpukpe ọhụrụ, nke James Lewis na Jesper Petersen dere. Oxford: Mahadum Oxford University.

Tøllefsen, Inga Bårdsen. 2012. "Ihe edeturu na Proographical Profiles of Art of Living Practitioners in Norway and Abroad." Mgbanwe Ime Mmụọ na Okpukpe 3: 74-101.

Onye agha, Maya. 2005. Ndị Hindu nọ na ụwa nke oge a: Guru okwukwe na Mata Amritanandamayi Mission. London na New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

Ụbọchị Post:
10 June 2016

 

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