Azịza ya na Jenesis

AZERSZA N’OGE GENESIS

1951: A mụrụ Ken Ham na Cairns, Australia.

1980: Mgbe ha kụziri ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze, Ham na nwunye ya, Mally, kpebiri ije ozi oge niile ma hiwe Creation Science Foundation (CSF).

1980: Dr. Carl Wieland nyeferefee akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, Ihe okike, ka CSF. Ham jikọtara Wieland's Creation Science Association na Creation Science Foundation.

1987: Ham na nwunye ya kwagara United States ma nọrọ na Institute for Creation Research (ICR) na San Diego iji nyere Creation Science Foundation aka inwekwu mmetụta mba ụwa.

1993: Ken na Mally Ham kwenyere na oge eruola ịmalite ozi ọhụrụ US wee kwụsị ọrụ na ICR (Mark Looy na Mike Zovath gbasoro, na-enyere aka ịchọta "Creation Science Ministri."

1994: Azịza nye Jenesis (AIG) tọrọ ntọala na Florence, Kentucky.

1994: AIG ogbako mbu nke mbu emere na Denver, Colorado, ya na ndi ruru 6,000. E zigara ozi ala mbụ nke ozi

1996: Boon County Fiscal Court gọnahụrụ atụmatụ AIG iji wuo Museumlọ Ọrụ Okike iji jee ozi dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ maka ozi AIG.

2000: AIG zụrụ acres iri ise n'akụkụ Interstate 275 na Petersburg, Kentucky maka ebe ngosi nka.

2001: Ewu ewu na Museum Creation malitere.

2005: AIG-US na AIG-Australia kewapụrụ n'ihi nsogbu ndị isi.

2007 (May 28): E mepere ihe ngosi ihe okike.

2010 (Disemba 1): AIG kwuputara owuwu nke Ark Encounter LLC.

2016: A ga-agwụcha Ọrụ Projectlọ Nzukọ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Esemokwu dịteworo aka n’etiti akụkọ sayensị na nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ akwanyewo n’akụkọ ihe mere eme oge ọ bụla ọganiihu n’ọzụzụ sayensị dị iche iche ewelitela ajuju gbasara nkwado ziri ezi nke ihe ndekọ Akwụkwọ Nsọ banyere okike. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, mmepe nke Geology dị ka ịdọ aka ná ntị, na nchọpụta ya na waswa dị nnọọ ogologo oge karịa akụkọ nke Jenesis na-atụ aro ya, dugara nkwado dị ukwuu maka Theory Gap and the Day-Age Theory as echiche ndi ozo maka ihe di iche netiti akuko ihe omuma na akwukwo nso. Nkọwapụta nke Gap na-egosi na enwere ogologo oge dị n'etiti ụbọchị abụọ mbụ nke okike dị ka edepụtara na Jenesis ebe ụbọchị-Age Theory na-atụ aro na ụbọchị okike e depụtara na Jenesis bụ ogologo oge (puku ma ọ bụ ọbụna ọtụtụ nde afọ) . N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, ihe okike nke evolushọn, nke na-akọwa na Chineke kere ndụ na mmadụ mgbe evolushọn bụ nkọwa maka etu ndụ si mezuo (Saletan 2014).

Malite na 1960s, ndị otu Kristi na-achọghị mgbanwe nke ụdị dị iche iche na-emegide mmegide nke ozizi evolushọn ya na okike, n'otu uzo n'ihi mgba nke otutu okwu (dika, sayensi sayensị, mmuta banyere nwoke na nwanyi, ekpere n'ulo akwukwo) n'ulo akwukwo ulo akwukwo. Otu njedebe nke mgba ndị a bụ mmalite nke ọtụtụ ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie, ụlọ ọrụ nyocha, na ntọala na-agbachitere akụkọ okike nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ (Ọnụ Ọgụgụ 2006; Duncan 2009). A na-ahụkarị ụlọ ihe mgbe ochie Creationist na United States, mana enwere ebe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie dị otú ahụ gburugburu ụwa (Simitopoulou and Xirotitis 2010). Ihe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie e kere eke na US bụ nke Answers na Jenesis guzobere.

Ken Ham, onye guzobere Answers na Jenesis (AIG), nwetara akara ugo mmụta bachelor na sayensị etinyere na Mahadum Queensland nke Teknụzụ na Brisbane, Australia na ogo mmụta na Mahadum nke Queensland. Ọ gara n'ihu bụrụ onye nkuzi sayensị ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị. Ham gbasaa asambodo mmụta ya na Doctorate nsọpụrụ dị nsọ na 1997 site na Temple Baptist College na Cincinnati, Ohio na onye ọzọ na Literature na 2004 si Mahadum Liberty na Lynchburg, Virginia (Azịza na Jenesis nd). Na 1979, Ham hapụrụ nkuzi ka ọ bụrụ onye ozi oge nile ya na nwunye ya, Mally Ham. Na mbu, ha guzobere Creation Science Science, akwụkwọ ozi, na Creation Science Educational Media Services, ozi nkuzi. Ka oge na-aga, ejikọtara atụmatụ abụọ a wee mepụta Creation Science Foundation (CSF), ya na John Mackay guzobere. Ọbụna n'oge a, Ham nwere nrọ nke ịmepụta ebe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie nke na-akụzi akụkọ ihe mere eme dị ka edere ya na Bible.

N’afọ 1986, Ken Ham kwuru na ọ dị ya ka Chukwu ọ kpọrọ ka ọ gaa Amerịka wee gaa n’ihu n’ozi ya n’ebe ahụ. Na Ndị CSF nọ na Australia zigara Ham ka ya na Dr. Henry Morris's Institute for Creation Research (ICR) rụọ ọrụ na 1987 dị ka ọkà okwu; ọ bụ onye isi nke ozi CSF nke Australia ruo 2004. Ham gara n'ihu na-akụzi ọ bụghị naanị na US kamakwa na UK

Mgbe ya na ICR rụkọchara ọrụ afọ asaa, Mally Ham gakwuuru di ya gbasara nkewapụ ya na otu nyocha ahụ ka ha nwebe onwe ha otu “kere eke”. Ham mechara gbaa arụkwaghịm na ICR, ya na ndị ọrụ ibe Mark Looy na Mike Zovath, ma ha wee guzobe Creation Science Ministri (CSM). N'ịbụ ndị onyinye nyere nkwado, CSM nwere ike bụrụ nzukọ kwụụrụ onwe ya, ebe ọ ka na-enwe mmekọrịta nwanne nwanyị na CSF-Australia. CSM malitere afọ mbụ nke ozi ya na 1994 wee gbanwee aha ya na Azịza na Jenesis. Ebubere aha ahụ iji gosipụta mkpa na ikike nke akwụkwọ nsọ niile, ọ bụghị naanị akụkụ metụtara ihe e kere eke. N'oge na-adịghị anya, CSF-Australia gbanwere aha ya ịbụ Answers na Jenesis. N'otu afọ ahụ, ndị ntọala izizi mbụ kwagara ezinụlọ ha na Florence, Kentucky iji guzobe isi ụlọ ọrụ maka nzukọ ahụ. Otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ndị bi na United States bi n'ime 650 kilomita nke Cincinnati, Ohio, nke dị naanị kilomita iri na anọ site na Florence, na-enye nnukwu ohere nke ndị America.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

E nwere ike ikewa ndị eke oge a dịka '' ochie ejirila ala ala '' na 'ụmụ okorobịa nke ụwa.' Onye gara aga kwupụtara na mkpakọrịta nwoke na nwanyị dabeere na sayensị nke usoro evolushọn ziri ezi mana na ọ bụ Onye Okike bidoro usoro ahụ n'onwe ya. Nke ikpeazu, ndi di ike ndị na-eme okike, gbalịa imezi mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị na akụkọ banyere ihe okike. Azịza na Jenesis (AIG) nwere ike ịkọwa dị ka ndị na-eto eto-Earth Creationists (YECs). AIG na-ekwu na Bible bụ okwu Chineke na ikike zuru oke n'okwu niile. Kọmitii nke AIG na-akọwa na ihe akaebe ọ bụla n'akụkụ ọ bụla nke knowlege ga-egosi na Akwụkwọ Nsọ ga-adị ire. Dika AIG tinye okwu a, “odighi ihe obula putara, nke achoputara ma obu nke ekwuputara nebe obula, tinyere akuko na akuko nke oge, puru idi ire ma oburu na o megide ihe edere n’akwukwo nso” (Azịza na Jenesis 2012). Ya mere, AIG nabatara Akwụkwọ Nsọ dị ka akụkọ ndekọ ziri ezi banyere okike ụwa nke edere na Jenesis 3: 14-19 (Ross, 2005). Site n'echiche ya, nhazi nke ụwa ebumpụta ụwa "enweghị mgbagwoju anya" ma enwere ike ịhazi ya na mbụ (Petto & Godfrey, 2007).

Na Febụwarị 4, 2014, onye ndu AIG, Ken Ham na-arụ ụka maka onye ọkà mmụta sayensị a ma ama, Bill Nye na ajụjụ bụ “Creation a Viable Model of Origins?” ma nye nkọwa nke echiche AIG na sayensị. AIG na-eme ka ọdịiche dị na sayensị sayensị na sayensị akụkọ ihe mere eme. Mgbe ọ na-ekwu okwu ya, Ham kwuru na “A kụzighịrị ndị mmadụ n’obodo niile ka ha lelee ihe i kwenyere banyere oge gara aga dị iche na ihe ị hụrụ ugbu a. Don't naghị ahụ ihe gara aga ozugbo. Ọbụna mgbe ị na-eche maka akụkọ okike, anyị enweghị ike ịhụ mgbe Chineke na-eke ihe. ” Ham na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kwenyere na sayensị bụ isi abaghị uru n'ihi na ọ nweghị onye gara aga iji hụ ihe omume ọ bụla mere. AIG na-anabata iwu okike nke sayensị sayensị, mana kwenyere na ha sitere na Chineke, nke na-enye ohere maka nkwenye ha na okike ụbọchị isii (Foreman, Ham, and Nye 2014).

Nhazi / onye isi /

Site na ozi na-abawanye ụba na-ekwu okwu, mmemme redio, na mgbasa ozi weebụ, AIG chọrọ ebe ụlọ na mgbago ugwu Kentucky makaihe ngosi nka ha. Mgbalị abụọ e mere iji rezone ala maka ọrụ ahụ nwetara mmegide siri ike site na ndị na-akwado evolushọn na ndị otu mba ọzọ. N'agbanyeghị nguzogide a, ọtụtụ narị ụlọ ọrụ redio malitere usoro mmemme AIG's Answers. Ka ọ na-erule n’afọ 2006, a họpụtara websaịtị AIG, AnswersInGenesis.org n’ime ministri 1,300 iji nweta akara ngosi “Weebụsaịtị nke Afọ” site n’aka ndị Mgbasa Ozi Okpukpe nke Mba. Mkpokọta ahụ agafeela maka ndị ọbịa 25,000 kwa ụbọchị. Magazin AIG, Ihe okike, nke e bipụtara na mbụ n’Australia, na-ekesakwa na United States. Na 2006, agbanyeghị, AIG-US chọpụtara na ihe karịrị ọkara ndị debanyere aha ha edegharịghị aha ha mgbe otu afọ gachara. Nzukọ ahụ ghọtara mkpa ọ dị maka magazin ọhụrụ, azịza , nke ga-egosiputa ihe odide nke Akwukwo Nso na nke sayensi banyere esemokwu si malite ma mesie echiche nke akwukwo nso na ntinye aka. Esemokwu ndị ọzọ dị n'etiti alaka ndị America na Australia mere ka AIG-US kwụsị ikesa Ihe okike ma lekwasị anya na azịza. Mgbe naanị afọ ise rụchara ọrụ, azịza natara "Award nke kacha mma" n'aka ndị Evangelical Press Association (Ham nd).

Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2004, AIG nwetara saịtị ahụ maka Creation Museum, iri ise acres na nso Interstate 275. Ihe ngosi nka mepere na May 28,2007. Ham kere Museum Creation iji gbasaa "sayensị ziri ezi nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ" nye ọha na eze ma gbalịa iweta Creationism n'ime isi. Ọ họọrọ ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na chọọchị n'ihi na a na-anabata ụlọ ngosi ihe nka dị ka ebe agụmakwụkwọ ọha na eze na ngosipụta nchọpụta sayensị. Ọzọkwa, ụlọ ihe ngosi nka bụ ebe na-eme ka ndị mmadụ nwee ike ịkụziri ụmụaka ihe. N'ikpeazụ, ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nwere ike jikọọ na ndị ọbịa na ozi AIG agaghị ewepụ ya site na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ma ọ bụ gọọmentị (Duncan 2009). Dị ka Ham si kwuo, AIG chọrọ nanị ka Creation Museum gwa ndị mmadụ na "Akwụkwọ Nsọ bụ eziokwu na Akwụkwọ Nsọ bụ okwu Chineke, nke ahụ bụ ihe gbasara" (Jacoby, 1998). Lọ ihe ngosi nka nwere mbara ala, Johnson Observatory, SFX aterlọ ihe nkiri, ebe a na-azụ anụ ụlọ, ụlọ ahụhụ, usoro zip-line, fosil dinosaur, na ihe ngosi animatronic. Museumlọ ihe nkiri Creation nwere ihe ịga nke ọma na afọ mbụ ya, na-adọta ndị ọbịa 404,000 mana ọ bịara nhụsianya na-ebelata, yana naanị 280,000 ọbịa na 2012

AIG kwuputara atụmatụ na 2010 maka oru ngo iji wuo ụdị zuru ezu nke ụgbọ Noa na obodo Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Igbe ọgbụgba ndụ, ga-abụemi odude ke 800 acres emi odude ekpere Interstate 75 ke Grant County, Kentucky ndien ke ndondo emi enye edinamde ke ndaeyo 2016 (Ham, nd). A kọwara Igbe ụgbọ mmiri dị ka "ogige 160-acre nwere ụdị ndụ nke ụgbọ Noa wuru iji guzo ụkwụ 500 n'ogologo na 80 ụkwụ elu" (Goodwin 2012). Ebumnuche nke mbido ebigharịrị ruo 2014 n'ihi akụ na ụba na-adịghị ike na ọdịda na nleta na Creation Museum (Goodwin 2012). Dabere na atụmatụ okwu mkparịta ụka n'èzí, AIG atụ anya ndị ọbịa 1,600,000 n'afọ mbụ ya, yana nleta ka mma. Atụmatụ ego nke mbụ nwekwara nchekwube n'ihi ụtụ isi nke steeti Kentucky kwere; ndị a napụrụ mgbe nnukwu esemokwu banyere ụka-nkewa nkewa (Alford 2010; "Kentucky" 2015). AIG mechara kwupụta atụmatụ ịgba Kentucky maka iwepụ (Linshi 2015).

ISSUES / CONTROVERSIES

AIG ezutela ụfọdụ mmegide n'ime ọgbakọ Ndị Kraịst na-achọghị mgbanwe. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na March, 2011, Board of GreatEslọ Akwụkwọ ventionslọ Akwụkwọ, Inc. (GHC) tozuru oke ịkpọ Ken Ham na AIG asị na "mgbakọ niile ga-eme n'ọdịnihu [dịka Ham mere] okwu ndị na-enweghị isi, ndị na-adịghị asọpụrụ Chineke, na okwu pụtara mmụọ nke na-akpata nkewa kachasị mma ma na-emebi aha" (Blackford 2011) ọkà okwu na mgbakọ ahụ. Lọ ọrụ ahụ kwuru na "Nkatọ ndị ọha na eze katọrọ mgbakọ ahụ na ndị ọkà okwu ndị ọzọ na [mgbakọ] ahụ chọrọ ka o nyefee ihe ùgwù ime mmụọ nke ịgwa ndị na-ege ntị n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ" (Blackford 2011). Ham, na blọọgụ ya, kọwara na Peter Enns nke BioLogos Foundation na-akụzi ozi na-eduhie eduhie banyere Jenesis nke na-emebi Jenesis na mgbanwe na ọ bụ "nkà mmụta okpukpe na-emesapụ aka nke na-emebi ikike nke Okwu Chineke kpamkpam" (Azịza na Jenesis Board of Directors 2011 ). Mgbe emechara ebubo ahụ megide Ham ịbụ onye na-abụghị Onye Kraịst na onye mmehie, AIG bidoro nyocha nke ime GHC, mana ọ chọtabeghị mkpebi ọ bụla (Azịza na Jenesis Board of Directors 2011).

Ebu amụma, AIG enwetawo nkatọ siri ike site n'aka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na-anọchite anya ụdị ọzụzụ dị iche iche na-ele Creation Museum anya dị ka "ihe ncheta nke amaghị akwụkwọ na sayensị" (Kennerly 2009). Dabere na Jerry Lipps, prọfesọ nke geology, paleontology, na evolushọn na Mahadum California, Berkeley, ọbụna ọtụtụ ndị isi ụka ekwenyeghị na nkọwa AIG na akụkọ ihe mere eme ụwa. Lisa Park, prọfesọ nke paleontology na onye na-eso ụzọ Kraịst siri ike na-ele Creationism anya ka ọ na-elekwasị anya "na ụjọ… [na] aghụghọ ọjọọ nke ọha na eze" (Kennerly 2009). Daryl Domning, prọfesọ mmewere na Mahadum Howard na-ekwu na ọ na-eme ka ndị ọbịa gaa na ebe ngosi ihe nka ka ha kwenyere na "nnukwu ngaghari na ịgha ụgha nke Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst dị ka nke sayensị" (Kennerly 2009).

Ya mere, ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya na atụmatụ mbụ nke Ham iji chọta ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na-esote Big Bone Lick State Park, nke bụ ebe a mụrụ site na paleontology vertebrate na North America, nwetara mmegide siri ike site n'aka ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị (Goodwin 2012). Site na ndị ọkammụta sayensị, ọnọdụ a gosiri na gọọmentị ime obodo na-akwado otu okpukperechi ịrọ òtù. E mechara jụ nkwenye Ham mgbe ọtụtụ esemokwu mpaghara na usoro iwu gasịrị, wee kpebie ịkwaga ụlọ ngosi ihe nka dị nso na ọdụ ụgbọ elu International nke Cincinnati.

Esemokwu kachasị n'etiti Ham na onye ọkà mmụta sayensị na-emegide emee na February 4, 2014 na arụmụka ọha na eze n'etiti Bill Nye na Ken Ham na Creation Museum. Nye rụrụ ụka na post YouTube na “Creationism adịghị adabara ụmụaka.” O kwuru na “Ọ bụrụ na anyị zụlite ọgbọ nke ụmụ akwụkwọ ndị na-ekwenyeghị na usoro sayensị, ndị na-eche na ihe niile anyị mụtara banyere okike na mbara igwe nwere ike iwepụ ahịrịokwu ole na ole atụgharịrị gaa Bekee site na ụfọdụ oge ochie ederede, ị gaghị anọgide na-achọpụta ihe "(Lovan 2012). N'akụkụ nke ya, Ham nwara igosipụta ụdị YEC nke mmalite ụwa. O kwughachiri na Chineke kere ụwa ihe dịka afọ 6,000 gara aga na dinosaurs na ụmụ mmadụ na-ebikọ ọnụ, dịka akọwapụtara ya na Jenesis. Nye choro ịgbagha ebubo Ham site na ịkọpụta ihe ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị kwadoro na ụwa dị ihe dịka ijeri afọ 4.5. Ham zara na "Ekwenyere m na sayensị ejiriwo ndị secularists hijacked… nakwa na e nwere ọdịiche dị n'etiti sayensị akụkọ ihe mere eme na sayensị nyocha" ("Bill Nye arụmụka Ken Ham" 2014). Nye kwuru na usoro dị iche iche (mkpakọrịta nwoke na nwanyị, data akpụrụ mmiri, na ìhè sitere na kpakpando ndị dị anya) na-akwado ọnọdụ na iswa tọrọ afọ 6,000 (Lovan 2012). Mgbe Ham zoro aka na akụkọ banyere ide mmiri nke Jenesis na Igbe Noa, Nye kwuru na Igbe ahụ dịka akọwara n’akwụkwọ Jenesis agaghị ese n’elu mmiri. Nye gosikwara na, iji ngụkọta nke Nye, igbe nwere ụdị anụmanụ dị 7,000 ga-achọ ka ihe ruru iri na otu ụdị ọhụụ ga-adị adị kwa ụbọchị maka ụwa ịnwe ụdị anụmanụ niile amaara ama (O'Neil 2014). Ọ bụ ezie na Ham apụtaghị na ọ meriela ọtụtụ ndị na-ege ntị, o yiri ka enweghị nchegbu. Site n'echiche ya, mgbasa ozi nke esemokwu ahụ kpatara bụ isi iyi nke nchịkọta ego maka ewu AIG maka ogige isiokwu Ark Encounter (Chowdhury 2014).

References

Alford, Roger. 2010). “Licdị'sgbọ Noa juru eju na Kentucky.” USA Today, December 3. Kwadoro sihttp://usatoday30.usatoday.com/travel/destinations/2010-12-05-noahs-ark-kentucky-creation-museum_N.htm on 27 February 2015.

Azịza na Board Board of Directors. 2011. “A chụpụrụ nzukọ abụọ nke ụlọ akwụkwọ.” azịza, June 10. Nweta site na https://answersingenesis.org/ministry-news/core-ministry/kicked-out-of-two-homeschool-conferences/ na 31 January 2015.

Azịza ya na Jenesis. 2012. "Nkwupụta nke Okwukwe." Nweta site na https://answersingenesis.org/about/faith/ na 6 January 2015.

Azịza ya na Jenesis. nd “Ken Ham.” Nweta site na http://creation.com/ken-ham na 7 January 2015.

Blackford, Linda B. 2011. "Onye guzobere Creation Museum Banyere na Mgbakọ." - ka m mara, March 24. Nweta site nahttp://www.kentucky.com/2011/03/24/1682122_founder-of-creation-museum-banned.html?rh=1 na 31 January 2015.

Chowdhury, Sudeshna. 2014. "Bill Nye vesos Ken Ham: Wonnye Ndi?" The Christian Science Monitor, February 5. Nweta site nahttp://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-357806905.html na 26 January 2015.

Duncan, Julie A. 2009. Okwukwe gosipụtara dị ka sayensị: Ọrụ nke Museum Creation na Modern Creationist Movement . Akwụkwọ edemede nsọpụrụ, Ngalaba nke History of Science. Cambridge: Mahadum Harvard.

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Linshi, Jack. 2015.'stù Na-ahụ Maka Noahgbọ Mmiri nke Noa gbara Kentucky karịrị Overkwụsị Taxtụ Isi. ” TIME, February 3. Nweta site nahttp://time.com/3694802/ken-ham-genesis-kentucky-lawsuit/ na 27 February 2015.

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Saletan, William. 2014. "Ihe okike maka okike." Nweta site na http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/human_nature/2014/12/evolutionary_creationism_jeff_hardin_reconciles_
ozioma_agha Kraịst.html
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Simitopoulou, Kally na Nikolaos Xirotitis. 2010. "Revival of Creationism in Contemporary Societies: A Short Survey." Mkpuchi. Bulletin der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie 16: 79-86.

Wieland, Carl. 2005. “Rusgba Ọsọ — N’ebe Ọ Bụla Isi Nwee Isi.” azịzaenesis.org, April 12. Nweta site nahttp://web.archive.org/web/20080307123315/http://www.answersingenesis.org/docs2005/0412zimmer.asp na 14 January 2015.

Authors:
David G. Bromley
Merin Duke
Simren Bhatt

Ụbọchị Post:
27 February 2015

AZERSZA N’ GMURU GENESIS VIDEO

 

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