Masato Kato

Tenrikyō

TENRIKYŌ MGBE

1798 (daybọchị 18 nke ọnwa nke anọ, kalenda ọnwa): A mụrụ Miki n'ezinụlọ Maegawa na Sanmaiden Village, Yamabe County, Yamato Province (Nara Prefecture nke oge a).

1810: Miki lụrụ Nakayama Zenbei nke Obodo Shoyashiki.

1816: Miki gara usoro ọzụzụ a maara dị ka nnyefe ise (gojū sōna) na Zenpuku Temple nke Jōdo Shin Buddha.

1837: Nwa Miki, Shūji, malitere ịrịa mgbu na ụkwụ ya. Nakano Ichibei, ugwu ugwu (shugenja), mee ememe ekpere (kitō) n'ime ọnwa iri na abụọ sochirinụ.

1838 (ụbọchị nke iri abụọ na atọ nke ọnwa nke iri): incantant (yosekaji) emere maka Shịji na Miki dị ka ọkara. N'oge ihe mgbochi ahụ, Miki banyere na ọhụụ wee nwee mkpughe site na Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto.

1838: (ụbọchị nke 26 nke ọnwa nke iri): Miki biri dịka Shrine nke Tsukihi (tsukihi no yashiro), na-aka akara ntọala nke ozizi okpukpe. Ọ nọrọ na nzuzo maka afọ atọ sochirinụ.

1853: Zenbei nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri isii na isii. Kokan, nwa ada Miki, gara Naniwa (Osaka ugbu a) iji gbasaa aha Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto.

1854: Nwa nwa Miki akara mmalite nke "Onyinye ịmụ nwa na-adịghị ize ndụ" (obiya yurushi).

1864: Iburi Izō nke obodo Ichinomoto bịara ile Miki na nke mbụ ya.

1864: Ewube Ebe maka Ọrụ (tsutome basho) malitere.

1865: Miki gara obodo Harigabessho ka o zute Sukezō, bụ onye kwuru na ikike okpukpe dị n'ọnọdụ Miki.

1866: Miki malitere ịkụzi abụ na mmegharị aka maka ọrụ (tsutome).

1867: Shūji natara ikike ka ọ rụọ ọrụ okpukpe site na Yoshida Nlekọta Ọfịs Shinto (Yoshida jingi kanryō).

1869: Miki malitere ide ya Ofudesaki (Ntuziaka nke ahịhịa ederede).

1874: Miki malitere inye eziokwu nke Sazuke (sazuke no ri) maka ọgwụgwọ anụ ahụ.

1875: njirimara nke Jiba (jiba sadame) wee mee.

1876: Shūji nwetara ikikere iji gbaa mmiri ịsa ahụ na ụlọ obibi dị ka ụzọ iji mee ka ndị na-efe ofufe zukọta.

1880: E guzobere Tenrin-Ō-Kōsha n'usoro iwu nke ụlọ nsọ Jifuku.

1881: Shūji nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri isii na otu.

1882: A na-emechi ịsa ahụ uzuoku na ebe obibi. Thelọ Jifuku chụpụrụ Tenrin-Ō-Kōsha.

1882: Miki dechara ederede nke Ofudesaki.

1885: Thegha iji guzobe ụka (kyōkai setsuritsu undō) malitere na Shinnosuke dị ka onye ndu.

1887 (26 nke ọnwa nke mbụ site na kalenda ọnwa): Miki "wepụrụ ndụ anụ ahụ" (utsushimi wo kakushita) mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu.

1887: Iburi Izō ghọrọ Honseki wee bido nyefe ntuziaka nke Chukwu (osashizu) nakwa inye Sazuke n'aha Miki.

1888: Shintō Tenri Kyōkai guzobere na Tokyo n'okpuru nlekọta Shinto Main Bureau. Emechara ka ọnọdụ ahụ laghachi na Tenri nke oge a.

1888: Ndị Mikagura-uta (The Songs for the Service) bụ Tenri Kyōkai bipụtara ya.

1896: Emume ncheta nke iri nke onye ahụ achọtara.

1896: Homelọ Na-ahụ Maka Homelọ nyere Iwu ya Nke 12 iji mee ka Tenri Kyōkai nwee njikwa siri ike.

1899: Ntughari maka nnwere onwe ịrọ òtù (ippa dokuritsu undō) malitere.

1903:  Tenrikykyōten (Ozizi nke Tenrikyō), nke a makwaara dị ka Meiji kyōten, e bipụtara.

1907: Iburi Izō nwụrụ, na-egosi akara njedebe nke oge nke ntụzi nsọ Chineke.

1908: Tenlọ Seminarị (Ugochukwu okonkwoōkō) na Tenri Junior High School guzobere n'otu n'otu.

1908: Tenrikyō nwetara nnwere onwe ịrọ òtù site n'aka Shinto Main Bureau.

1908: Nakayama Shinnosuke, onye mbụ Shinbashira, ghọrọ onye nlekọta (kanchō) nke Tenrikyō.

1910: Association nke ụmụ nwanyị Tenrikyo (Tenrikyō fujinkai) tọrọ ntọala.

1914: Nakayama Shinnosuke, onye mbụ Shinbashira, nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri anọ na asatọ.

1915: Nakayama Shōzen ghọrọ onye nlekọta nke Tenrikyō mgbe ọ dị afọ itoolu. (Yamazawa Tamezō rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye nlekọta na-arụ ọrụ ruo mgbe Shōzen dị afọ na 1925.)

1918: Association nke Youngmụaka Tenrikyo (Tenrikyō seinenkai) tọrọ ntọala.

1925: Tenri School of Asụsụ Mba Ọzọ (Tenri gaikokugo gakpọ) bụ nke e guzobere yana ihe mechara bụrụ Tenri Central Library (Tenri toshokan). Ọzọkwa, Tenrikyō Printing Office (Tenrikyō kyōchō insatsusho) na Ngalaba Ozizi na Akwụkwọ Akụkọ (Kyōgi oyobi shiryō shūseibu).

1928: Ndị Ofudesaki ka e bipụtara n’ihu ọha.

1938: Nakayama Shōzen kwupụtara mgbanwe ahụ (kakushin) iji mee ihe onye isi steeti choro.

1945 (August 15): Nakayama Shōzen kwupụtara mweghachi (fukugen) nke ozizi.

1946: Ndị Mikagura-uta ebipụta ma nye ya ụka dị iche iche.

1948: Ndị Ofudesaki, tinyere nkọwa, yana mpịakọta nke mbụ nke Osashizu (The Divine Directions) bipụtara ma nyefee ya ụka dị iche iche.

1949: E degharịrị ụlọ akwụkwọ Tenri nke Asụsụ Mba Ọzọ dị ka Mahadum Tenri.

1949:  Tenrikyō kyōten (Ozizi nke Tenrikyō) ka ebipụtara na eze.

1953: Nakayama Shōzen kwupụtara ọkwa nke Oyasato-yakata Building-complex (Oyasato yakata).

1954: E guzobere Tenri City.

1966: riktù Tenmụaka Tenrikyo (Tenrikyō ụlọ ọrụ) e guzobere.

1967: Nakayama Shōzen, nke abụọ Shinbashira, nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri isii na abụọ. Nakayama Zenye ghọrọ Shinbashira nke atọ.

1970: Tenrikyō hapụrụ Sect Shinto Union (Kyōha Shintō rengōkai).

1986: Emume ncheta otu narị afọ nke onye ahụ achọtara.

1998: Nakayama Zenji ghọrọ Shinbashira nke anọ

1998: Tenrikyō nwere "Mkparịta ụka Tenrikyo-Christian" n'etiti Mahadum Tenri na Pontifical Gregorian University na Rome.

2002: Tenrikyō nwere "Tenrikyo-Christian Dialogue II" n'etiti Mahadum Tenri na Pontifical Gregorian University dị na Tenri.

2013: Nakayama Daisuke ghọrọ onye ga-anọchi ọnọdụ Shinbashira.

2014: Nakayama Zenye, nke atọ Shinbashira, nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri asatọ na abụọ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

N'ụbọchị 18 nke ọnwa nke anọ na 4, a mụrụ Miki dị ka nwa nwanyị Maegawa Hanshichi na Sanmaiden Village, Yamabe County, Yamato Province (Nara Prefecture nke oge a). A maara ya na ọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike n'ụlọ ma bụrụ onye na-agbasi mbọ ike n'okpukpe Jōdo Shin kemgbe ọ bụ nwata. Na 1798, ọ lụrụ Nakayama Zenbei nke obodo dị nso mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na atọ wee nyefee ya ọrụ niile nke ezinụlọ Nakayama na 1810. Ọ mụrụ nwa mbụ ya, Shūji, na 1813 wee mụta ụmụ nwanyị ise. nwụrụ n'oge (Tenrikyo Doyusha Publishing Company [TDPC] 1821: 2014-1).

Na 1837, Shūji nwere ihe mgbu n'ụkwụ ya, ezinụlọ Nakayama nwekwara Nakano Ichibei, a shugenja (onye na-eme emume metụtara na otu okpukpe okpukpe ugwu), mee emume ekpere (kitō) maka ya n’ime ọnwa iri na abụọ sochirinụ. N'ụbọchị nke iri abụọ na atọ nke ọnwa nke iri, ihe na-atọ anyị ụtọ (yosekaji) emere maka Shūji na Miki na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-ajụ mmụọ, n'oge nke Chineke rịdatara n'ime ahụ Miki wee kwuo na ọ ga-ewere Miki dị ka "Shrine of God" (kami no yashiro). Mgbe ụbọchị atọ nke mkparịta ụka kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ n'etiti Chineke na ndị otu ezinụlọ Nakayama, a kwenyere Miki dị ka rinelọ Nsọ nke Chineke na ụbọchị 26 nke ọnwa nke iri na nkwenye nke di ya, si otú a na-egosipụta ntọala nke nkuzi (TDPC 10: 2014 -28). Na echiche nke ugbu a banyere Tenrikyō, a na-akpọ ndụ Miki maka afọ iri ise na-esote dị ka Modelkpụrụ Chineke (hinagata), a kwenyere na uche ya zuru oke dika uche Chineke si di. N'ụzọ dị iche, Shimazono (1998) kwusiri ike na echiche okpukpe Miki mepụtara site na usoro nwayọ nwayọ nke ịjụ onwe ya kama ọ bụ n'ihi mkpughe mberede.

N'ime afọ atọ sochirinụ, Miki zọrọ onwe ya n'ụlọ nkwakọba ihe ma mesịa malite inyefe ngwongwo ya na nke ezinụlọ ya ruo n'ókè nke imebisị ụlọ ahụ. Omume a na-adịghị ahụkebe nke Miki mere ka enweghị ntụkwasị obi sitere n'aka ndị ikwu ya na ndị obodo ya wee mee ka ezinụlọ daa ogbenye. Na 1854, ọ malitere ihe a maara ugbu a dịka Onyinye Nchebe ịmụ nwa (obiya yurushi), nke ezubere iji jide n'aka na a ga-amụ nwa ma ọ bụrụ na ị hụghị ọdịnala ọdịnala na taboo metụtara mmerụ ụmụ nwanyị (kegare) (TDPC 2014: 40-70). Na mgbakwunye na mkpa nke imebi ihe gbasara nwoke na nwanyị, Miki nwere ike iji omume a mee ka ndị gbara ya gburugburu ghọta echiche na nduzi Chineke pụtara ìhè n'ahụ nwanyị nke dị ime, nke na-egosipụta ọdịdị mmadụ na-enweghị isi. ahụ (Watanabe 2015: 27). Tinyere ịgafe ókè nke omenala, a sịrị na Miki sooro ndị mmadụ na-achọ ọgwụgwọ gụnyere ndị nke ebe ndị a na-adịghị ahụ anya ()buraku). Mmebi nke taboos a mere ka nkewapụ ya na ndị ọzọ nọ n'obodo ya (Ikeda 2006: 82-124). Ọzọkwa, ndị dọkịta na ndị na-anụ ugwu na-ekwukarị Miki, na-eme ihe ike mgbe ụfọdụ, ebe ọ na-enwetara ndị na-akwado okpukpe ndị ahụ (TDPC 2014: 90-96). Nke a metụtara eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọnụnọ Miki dị ka onye ndú okpukpe nwanyị na-ama ikike nwoke na nwanyị na-achịkwa okpukpe ugwu (Hardacre 1994). Dịka ụzọ isi zere esemokwu ndị a, ndị na-eso Miki (n'agbanyeghị na ọ chọghị) chọrọ ịnata ikike sitere n'aka Yoshida Administrative Office of Shintō (Yoshida jiji kanryō) na Kioto ka ha nwee ike inwe nnọkọ n’ebe obibi ha. Enyere ikike ikike a na 1867 mana emesịrị mebie mgbe ụlọ ọrụ Shintō kwụsịrị na 1870 (TDPC 2014: 99-106).

Mgbe mkpochapu nke isi ụlọ, Miki malitere iwu nke tsutome basho (Ebe a na-arụ ọrụ okpukpe) na 1864 na atumatu nke ndị na-eso ụzọ oge mbụ ọkachasị Iburi Izō, onye bụ ọkwá nkà site na ọrụ (TDPC 2014: 71-89) Na 1866, Miki malitere ịkụzi ụdị ọrụ (tsutome) a kwesiri iji ya mee ihe. Ọrụ a gụnyere egwu na mmegharị aka na egwu aka ndị a na-eji abụ olu ụtọ nke egwu egwu itoolu. (Lee akụkụ Ritual maka nkọwa ndị ọzọ.) A ga-eme emume a na Jiba, saịtị nke Miki mara na 1875 na ogige nke ebe obibi Nakayama iji gosi ebe ebe echiche mmadụ dị (TDPC 2014: 107-18) ). Na mgbakwunye na ime ndokwa maka ememe ahụ, Miki malitere ide ihe ga-emecha kpọọ Ofudesaki (Ntuziaka nke ahịhịa ederede). Edere site na 1869 ruo 1882, ederede a nwere ngụkọta nke amaokwu 1,711 na akụkụ iri na asaa edere na ụgbọ ụdị uri (TDPC 2014: 119-23). Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Miki malitere ịkọwa onwe ya dịka thelọ Nsọ nke Chineke site na iji akwa uhie (akaki) na 1874, na n'otu afọ ahụ ọ malitere inyefe n'ụdị dị iche iche eziokwu nke Sazuke (Onyinye Chukwu), nke mere ka ndị na-eso ụzọ ya duzie ekpere ọgwụgwọ maka ndị na-arịa ọrịa (TDPC 2014: 145-46). Na 1881, Miki malitere iwu nke Kanrodai (Nguzo maka Igwe Igwe), nguzo nke oke abụọ nke nkume iri na atọ nke na-akọwa Jiba. Ihe Ibro Izō emebuola osisi nke Kanrodai ka o bido na 1873 wee tinye ya na Jiba na 1875, n’otu afọ ahụ Miki mara Jiba. Owuwu nke Kanrodai mere okwute wee kwụsị na 1882, agbanyeghị, mgbe ndị uwe ojii napụrụ ndị Miki ụlọ (TDPC 2014: 221-32). Site n'ihe dịka 1880-1881, Miki bidoro ịgwa ndị na-eso ụzọ ya akụkọ dị iche iche nwere ihe ọ na-akụzi, a na-akpọ ndekọ akụkọ ndị ụmụazụ ya dere dịka. kōki (Ihe ndekọ Chineke) (TDPC 2014: 233-42).

Na njedebe nke Meiji Mweghachi (1868), Miki na ndị otu ya hụrụ nyocha na ikpe site n'aka ndị ọchịchị dịka otu òtù okpukpe na-enweghị ikike. E jidere ya ugboro iri na asatọ n'etiti 1875 na 1886. Iji belata esemokwu ahụ, Shūji nwetara ikikere iji gbaa ụgbọ mmiri na ebe obibi iji mee ka ndị na-eso Miki zukọta n'ụlọ ahụ. Ọzọkwa, o jisiri ike nweta ikike site na iflọ Nzukọ Jifuku nke Kongōsan wee guzobe Tenrin-ō-Kōsha dị ka nzukọ kwesịrị ekwesị nke iflọ Nzukọ Jifuku na 1880, ọ bụ ezie na K besha ga-ekpochapụ afọ abụọ mgbe e mesịrị yana bath na inn (TDPC) 2014: 206-77). Dị ka ọ dị na ikike sitere n'aka Yoshida Shintō, Miki na-emegide mgbe ọ bụla ịkwado ndị isi n'ụzọ nwere ike imebi ozizi ya. N'ọnọdụ ndị dị otú ahụ, Nakayama Shinnosuke, nwa nwa Miki onye ghọrọ onyeisi ezinụlọ Nakayama, malitere ịmalite ntọala ụka kwụụrụ onwe ya (kyōkai setsuritsu undō) na 1882. E nyere ya ikike iguzobe ụka n'okpuru nlekọta Shinto Main Bureau ()Nwuoō honkyoku) na 1885, mana ikike gọọmentị sitere n'aka gọọmentị ka emebeghị. Enwere esemokwu dị n'etiti Miki, onye gbara ndị na-eso ụzọ ya ume ka ha rụọ ọrụ ahụ, na Shinnosuke na ụmụazụ ndị ọzọ, bụ ndị chọrọ inweta ikike gọọmentị iji gbochie mkpochapụ Miki ọ bụla. Edozi esemokwu a na ụbọchị kalenda nke ọnwa mbụ nke 26th, 1887 (February 18 na kalenda Gregorian), mgbe ndị na-eso ụzọ rụrụ ọrụ ahụ iji rube isi na arịrịọ Miki. N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe ọrụ ahụ kwụsịrị, Miki nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu. Na Tenrikyō, a kwenyere na Miki hapụrụ ndụ nkịtị (utsushimi wo kakushita) ma ka di ndu (zonmei) ilekọta mmegharị ahụ yana ịrụ ọrụ maka nzọpụta nke ụmụ mmadụ (TDPC 2014: 278-319). Dị ka ụzọ isi gosipụta echiche nkwenkwe a, a na-ekwu na a na-enye ya nri ugboro atọ n'ụbọchị ma saa ya ga-asa ahụ, yana ihe ndị ọzọ, na Isi mmalite 'Sanctuary nke Tenrikyo Church Headquarters (nchọpụta ọrụ). Ihe ọzọ metụtara echiche a bụ na isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka emebeghị ka foto ya pụta n'ihu ọha, nke a na-abụkwa ụzọ iji chebe ịdị nsọ nke Miki dị ka Shrine of God (Nagaoka 2016).

Mgbe Miki nwụsịrị, Iburi Izō ghọrọ Honseki (oche bụ isi; yabụ onye na-enye Sazuke n'aha Miki) ebe Shinnosuke rụrụ ọrụ nke Shinbashira (ogidi etiti; yabụ, onye ndu ime mmụọ na nke nhazi nke ngagharị) . Na 1888, òtù okpukpe nwetara ikike dị ka Shintō Tenri Kyōkai n'okpuru nlekọta nke Shinto Main Bureau na 1888. Nke a mere ka e nwee ọtụtụ chọọchị n'okpuru Tenri Kyōkai, nke ruru ụfọdụ ụka 1,300 site na 1896. Nakwa na 1888, Tenri Kyōkai bipụtara Mikagura-uta (Abụ maka Ọrụ), nke bụ mkpokọta abụ ndị Miki kuziri. Otutu oganihu okpukpe di iche-iche ma gbado anya ya n’okwukwe okwukwe, n’agbanyeghi n’aka ya, akpochara nkato nke ndi obodo, okachasi ndi oru nta akuko nke kporo otu a dika “ojo ojoo” (inshi jakyō) na-ekwu na òtù okpukpe ahụ kwusiri ike na nkwenkwe ụgha na ịgwọ ọrịa anwansi banyere ọgwụgwọ ọgbara ọhụrụ. A dọrọ ndị na-ekpe okpukpe ọhụrụ ndị ọzọ aka dịka Renmonkymon. Esemokwu a metụtara mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ruo n'ókè nke na Mịnịstrị na-ahụ maka ime obodo nyere Iwu nke 12 na 1896, nke na-akwado njikwa na nyocha nke usoro okpukpe. Dị ka ụzọ isi zaghachi nyocha na ọha na eze, Tenri Kyōkai malitere ịgba mbọ maka nnwere onwe ịrọ òtù (ippa dokuritsu undō) na 1899. Iji mezuo njirisi gọọmentị maka nzukọ okpukpe ziri ezi, otu a mepụtara nzukọ okpukpe ahaziri ahazi yana nkuzi ahaziri ahazi nke a maara dị ka nsụgharị Meiji nke Tenrikyzọa (Ozizi nke Tenrikyō), nke gbasoro iwu gọọmentị nke chọrọ ka ozizi okpukpe kwekọọ na nke Shinto State (kokka Shintō). Na 1908, e nyere ikike ka ha ghọọ òtù okpukpe kwụụrụ onwe ya dị ka otu n'ime okpukpe ndị a ma ama na òtù okpukpe Shinto iri na atọ (kyōha shintō jūsanpa) (Astley 2006: 100; Nagaoka 2015: 75-77; TOMD 1998: 56-65).

Mgbe ha nwetasịrị nnwere onwe ịrọ òtù, ndị otu okpukpe, nke nwere aha ugbu a bụ Tenrikyō, nwere oge udo dị nwayọ n'ihe gbasara nrụgide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya n'okpuru nduzi nke Nakayama Shinnosuke, onye bụ Shinbashira yana onye nlekọta (kanchō) nke Tenrikyō. Site na nkwado iwu, Tenrikyō weghachiri mbọ mbọ mgbasa ya n'afọ ndị sochirinụ, ọkachasị site na ịhazi okwu ihu ọha na ebe ndị dị ka ụlọ ọrụ na mba ahụ. Nke a metụtara echiche gọọmentị nke kokumin kyōka (mmezu mba) nke e bu n'uche mara nke bu ụzọ mara sankyō kaidō (nzukọ okpukpe atọ) na 1912, nke mere ka ndị nnọchi anya okpukpe Shinto, Buddhist, na nke Ndị Kraịst jikọtara ọnụ maka nzube nke iwusi usoro mmekọrịta mmadụ na Japan ike. N'ihi mgbalị mgbasa, Tenrikyō nwetara ọganihu ngwa ngwa n'afọ ndị na - eduga na 1920, ọkachasị na mpaghara ndị mepere emepe nke nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị elu n'ihi mmụba nke ndị mmadụ si n'ime ime obodo. Ka ọ dịgodị, Nakayama Shōzen ghọrọ onye nlekọta nke Tenrikyō na 1915 mgbe ọnwụ Shinnosuke nwụsịrị n'afọ gara aga (Lee 1994: 39-44; 1996ya 59: 72-1998; TOMD 65: 75-XNUMX).

N'afọ ndị sochirinụ, Tenrikyō mepụtara ọzọ wee hiwe ngalaba dị iche iche. Na 1925, e guzobere Tenri School of Asụsụ Mba Ọzọ (Tenri Gaikokugo Gakkō) yana ihe mechara bụrụ Tenri Central Library (Tenri toshokan). Ezubere ụlọ akwụkwọ asụsụ ahụ iji kwado ndị na-eso ụzọ na-aga mba ofesi maka ọrụ ozi ala ọzọ, nke bidoro na ngwụsị afọ 1890 na mba ndị agbata obi Japan na mpaghara dịka Korea, Manchuria, na Taiwan yana mpaghara ndị si mba ọzọ gụnyere Hawaiʻi na US Ọdịda Anyanwụ. Tenrikyō guzobere Tenrikyō Printing Office (Tenrikyō kyōchō insatsusho) na Ngalaba Ozizi na Akwụkwọ Akụkọ (Kyōgi oyobi shiryō shūseibu) yana ulo akwukwo dika ulo akwukwo, ulo akwukwo, na ulo akwukwo elementrị. Na Osashizu (Ntuziaka Chineke; nchịkọta nke ozi Chukwu nke enyere n'aka Iburi Izō) na Ofudesaki malitere ibipụta na 1927 na 1928, n'otu n'otu. Na 1933 na 1934, owuwu nke ebe obibi nke ebe a (Kyōsoden) na Ebe Ndịda Ofufe nke Ebe Nsọ ()Shinden), Emechara, na Kagura Service rụrụ gburugburu ihe nlereanya Kanrodai. Otú ọ dị, usoro a maara dị ka mgbanwe gbanwere ozizi na ememe okpukpe a.kakushin) na 1939, nke biara na iwu nke National Mobilization Act (kokka sịdịin hō). Iji mezuo ihe steeti ahụ chọrọ n'agbanyeghị ọgụ agha, Tenrikyō mere mgbanwe dịgasị iche iche gụnyere iwepụ amaokwu ụfọdụ na Mikagura-uta yana weghachite na Ofudesaki na Osashizu site na mgbasa (TOMD 1998: 71-75). Ọ bụ ezie na okwu gọọmentị Tenriky claims na-ekwu na òtù okpukpe ahụ kwadoro steeti ahụ n'elu, Nagaoka (2015) egosiputala etu esi edozi ozizi na omume Tenrikyō site na mmekọrịta ya na steeti mgbe ọnwụ Miki gasịrị. (Lee Okwu / llema Aka dị n'okpuru maka mkparịta ụka metụtara ya.)

Ozugbo Agha IIwa nke Abụọ gasịrị na August 15, 1945, Nakayama Shōzen kwupụtara mweghachi ahụ (fukugen) nke nkuzi Tenrikyō n'ime nke onye nkụzi ahụ ziri. O weghachiri Kagura Service n’otu afọ ahụ, n’ime afọ ndị sochirinụ, o bipụtara akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ atọ, ya bụ Ofudesaki (1948), nke Mikagura-uta (1946), na Osashizu (1949), ndị gọọmentị machibidoro ha niile n'oge agha ahụ. N’afọ 1949, o bipụtara Tenrikyō kyōten dabere na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ atọ iji dochie nsụgharị Meiji nke ozizi ahụ. Dị ka akụkọ ndụ nke onye nwe ụlọ, ọ bipụtara Kōhon Tenrikyō kyōsoden (mbipụta odide nke Life of Oyasama, Onye guzobere Tenrikyo) na 1956. Na 1953, Shōzen kwuputara na a ga-ewu Oyasato-yakata Building-complex (Oyasato yakata) nke ga-agba ebe nsọ ahụ gburugburu iji gosipụta ihe nlereanya nke ụwa Joyous Life. N'ịga n'ihu n'ịgbasa mgbasa nke Tenrikyō, Shōzen kwupụtara ọkwa ọkwa nke nkwalite nke ozi esenidụt na 1961, na-achọ ịgbasa aha okpukpe n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke ụwa (TOMD 1998: 76-80)

Site na ọnwụ nke Shinbashira nke abụọ na 1967, Nakayama Zenye, nwa Shōzen, ghọrọ Shinbashira nke atọ. N'okpuru nduzi ya, Tenrikyo malitere itinye uche na agụmakwụkwọ okpukpe nke ndị ụka. Mgbe ọ na-agbaso nzọụkwụ nke onye bu ya ụzọ bụ onye meghere ụzọ sara mbara maka mmepe nke ọdịnala n'ọtụtụ ebe, Shinbashira nke atọ lekwasịrị anya n'ịkwalite ogo nke ụka ọ bụla site na nzukọ ọmụmụ banyere nkuzi yana ọrụ ọrụ. Ka ọ dịgodị, Tenrikyō hapụrụ Sect Shintō Union (Kyōha Shintō rengōkai) na 1970 wee mesịa kagbuo ụfọdụ ihe ndị metụtara Shintō dịka himorogi (ma ọ bụ karịa kpọmkwem) masakaki, otu alaka osisi dị nsọ bụ́ ndị nwere uwe silk nwere àgwà nwere àgwà ise dị ka mma agha, enyo, na magatama chaplet jikọtara) na shimenawa (eriri nke na-egosipụta oghere dị nsọ) na 1976 na 1986, n'otu n'otu. Ọ kwụsịkwara ime emume nke tamakushi ọnụ na 1986. Ọzọkwa, e wuchara allslọ Nzukọ Ọwụwa Anyanwụ na Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ nke Ebe Nsọ ahụ na 1984. Na 1998, Nakayama Zenye nyefere nwa ya nwoke, bụ Nakayama Zenji, onye na-eje ozi ugbu a dị ka onye nke anọ Shinbashira. Ka ọ dị ugbua, Tenrikyō mere emume abụọ nke "Mkparịta ụka Tenrikyo-Christian" n'etiti Mahadum Tenri na Pontifical Gregorian University, nke mbụ na Rome na 1998 na nke abụọ na Tenri na 2002. Ihe omume abụọ ahụ metụtara nke ọ bụla metụtara ọgbakọ mkparịta ụka nke mere ka ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ zukọta ma ha abụọ mahadum tinyere ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta dị na mpụga iji gbanwere echiche mmụta okpukpe / nkuzi na isiokwu ndị metụtara okwu metụtara mkpughe, nzọpụta, ezinụlọ, na agụmakwụkwọ. Na 2013, Nakayama Daisuke, nwa nwoke Zenji, ghọrọ onye ga-anọchi ọnọdụ Shinbashira. Na 2014, Nakayama Zenye, nke atọ Shinbashira, nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri asatọ na abụọ (Tenri Daigaku Fuzoku Oyasato Kenkyūsho 1997: 286; Tenrikyō Dōyūsha 2016: 112; 122, 142, 166, 175, 197, 199; Tenrikyō na Kirisutokyō Enweghị Taiwa II Soshiki Iinkai 1998; Tenrikyō na Kirisutokyō enweghị Taiwa II Soshiki Iinkai 2005; TOMD 1998: 80-88).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Edere ụkpụrụ dị na nkuzi izizi nke Tenrikyō ugbu a Tenrikyō kyōten, akwụkwọ mbụ na-esote ozizi nke mbụ bipụtara na 1949 site na ikike nke Shinbashira nke abụọ ma mesịa sụgharịa ya n'asụsụ Bekee Ozizi nke Tenrikyo.

Ozizi ahụ kwuru na Chineke kere mmadụ bụ Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto, kpọkwara ya Chineke Nna (oyagami). Na akụkọ banyere okike mmadụ nke akpọrọ Eziokwu nke Si Nwee (Moto no ri), nke bukwa aha nke otu n’ime isi okwu nke okwu nkuzi, ekwuru na ihe ekere eke diri madu 900,099,999 afọ tupu mmalite nke nkuzi na 1838 (Isi ụlọ ọrụ Tenrikyo Church [TCH] 1993: 20-23). Akụkọ a na-akụzi na Chineke bụ Nna kere ụmụ mmadụ maka ebumnuche nke ịhụ ha ka ha na-eduga Ndụ Ọyoụ (ykiki gurashi), ọnọdụ obi ụtọ, ọnọdụ onwe mmadụ nke ndụ mmadụ ka a ga-enweta n'ụwa ugbu a karịa na ndụ mgbe a nwụsịrị (TCH 1993: 12-19). N'uche a banyere eziokwu salvific, nke na-egosipụta nghazi ụwa a nke bụkwa njirimara nke okpukpe ọhụrụ ndị Japan ọzọ, uche (nje) a kọwara ya dị ka ihe ndabere nke ịdị adị mmadụ ma na-ewere n'ezie dị ka naanị ihe dịịrị ụmụ mmadụ. A na-egosipụta nke a na ahịrịokwu a na-ehotakarị, “naanị uche bụ nke gị” (kokoro hitotsu ga waga no ri) (TCH 1993: 52). A kọwara ahụ mmadụ, nke dị na uche, dị ka "ihe agbazinye, ihe agbaziri" (kashimono karimono) si n'aka Chineke Bụ Nne. Nkọwa nke isi nke okwu a bụ na nduzi Chineke na-edebe ahụ mmadụ dị ndụ (TCH 1993: 50-52). Ntụzị aka nsọ nke Chineke jiri kwado ụmụ mmadụ ka a na-akpọ ya Chineke “Nzube zuru oke” nke Nne na Nna (jūzen no shugo), nke na-akọwapụta akụkụ iri nke ọrụ Chineke metụtara okike na nkwado nke ndụ mmadụ dị ka ọrụ niile nke Chineke na ahụ mmadụ (TCH 1993: 30-32). Mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ahụ mmadụ na Chineke na-agbakwunye n'echiche na ịdị adị nke ihe niile gụnyere ụmụ mmadụ na ụwa nkịtị na-adabere na nduzi nke Chineke (TCH 1993: 32). N'ịkọwa dịka nke a, a na-ele echiche nke Chineke anya dị ka myirịta nke ụwa ịtụnanya n'onwe ya, echiche agbakwunyere na ahịrịokwu ederede, "Eluigwe a bụ ahụ Chukwu" (Ofudesaki III: 40, 135).

N'ihi echiche a dị na mbara igwe, uche mmadụ na-abịa rụọ ọrụ dị mkpa n'okwu soteriological nke Tenrikyō. N'ime usoro iji mezuo Ndụ Ọ Joụ, a na-ahụta uche dị ka mkpebi nke ahụmịhe mmadụ na ọhụụ niile dị n'ụwa. N'echiche a, a kwenyere na Chineke bụ Nna na-enye ụmụ mmadụ ngọzi nsọ, dịka ezi ahụike ma ọ bụ mmekọrịta dị mma na ndị ọzọ, dabere na ụzọ ha si eji uche ha eme ihe. N'ụzọ dị otú a, a kwenyere na uche mmadụ nwere ike imetụta ụzọ esi eweta ngọzi Chineke nye ụmụ mmadụ. Ozizi ahụ na-egosi ọdịiche dị n'etiti ihe dị mkpa dị ka iji uche eme ihe n'ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị na ihe na-abụghị. Ozizi ahụ kwuru na, iji nweta ụwa nke ọyoụ, achọrọ ụmụ mmadụ ka ha wepu onwe ha ihe a na-akpọ "ájá nke uche" (kokoro no hokori), ihe atụ nke na-egosi echiche onwe onye na-echebara onwe ya echiche nke a na-ewere dị ka ihe kpatara nsogbu na-adịghị mma dị ka ọrịa na nsogbu. Uche nke uche a bụ ịjọ njọ, anyaukwu, ịkpọasị, ịhụnanya onwe onye, ​​iwe iwe, iwe, anyaukwu, na mpako, ebe ụgha na ire ụtọ kwesịrị izere (TCH 1993: 53). N'echiche ihe atụ, a kwenyere na ájá ndị a na-agbakọ ma mesịa ghọọ "causality" (N'ime), nke na-emetụta ọnọdụ ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ nke ndụ mmadụ n'ụzọ achọghị na ndụ ugbu a na, mgbe mmadụ gafesịrị maka ịlọ ụwa, na ndụ ọzọ (TCH 1993: 50-57). Ozizi a na-ekwu na agbanyeghị na ajọ ihe ndị a abụghị ntaramahụhụ ọ bụla kama ọ bụ “ntụzịaka Chukwu” (tebiki) nke Chineke nne na nna na-agba ndi mmadu ume ka ha mee ka echiche nke onwe ha dị ọcha (TCH 1993: 45-49).

Edere ya na, mgbe aja nke uche dị ọcha kpamkpam, ụmụ mmadụ nwere ike inweta "ezi obi" (makoto shinjitsu), nke nochiri anya onodu uche zuru oke nke Chineke choro ka ndi mmadu biri ndu ha site n’inyere ibe ha aka. N'ime usoro ọcha, mmadụ kwesịrị itinye aka na "hinokishin, ”Nke a kọwara dị ka ihe achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị, ọrụ ekele dabere na uche nke“ nnabata ọyoụ ”(tanno), ọnọdụ uche nke na-achọ ịnakwere ihe omume ọ bụla dị ndụ dị ka ngosipụta nke nduzi Chineke site n'echiche nke ọ joyụ na mmụọ (TCH 1993: 60-83). N'ịbụ ndị enwetala obi nke ezi obi, ụmụ mmadụ nwere ike ịnweta ọnọdụ nke Ọ ofụ Ndụ. N'ụzọ dị otú a, okwu Tenerkyō soteriological na-ekwusi ike na mmadụ nwere ike ịnweta ọ joyụ na ụwa dị ịtụnanya site n'ịghọta ihe dịka ha si pụta. Site na ime ka obi ha dị ọcha, ụmụ mmadụ nwere ike ịhụ ngosipụta nke ngọzi Chineke n'ihe yiri ka ọ bụ ihe omume kwa ụbọchị na, site na mmata ahụ, nwere ike nweta uche nke ọyoụ.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Tenrikyō ewepụtala ọtụtụ usoro mmemme nke metụtara okwu soteriological na nkuzi ya. Ihe kacha mkpa A na-akpọ ememe a na-akpọ ọrụ (tsutome), nke gunyere egwu egwu ihe atumatu na ukwe nke isoro egwu igwe itolu ndi eji egwu egwu gbado na okwu ndi di na ya Mikagura-uta. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Na ọrụ ọnwa ọ bụla na iri abụọ na isii nke ọnwa ọ bụla (nke na-echeta ụbọchị nke ntọala nke nkuzi yana "ịwepụ ahụ" nke onye nwe ntọala) yana na nnukwu ọrụ ndị ọzọ, Isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka na-eduzi ememe a maara dị ka Kagura Service (kagura-zutome), aha nke na - enweta site na egwu egwu Shinto nke a maara dị ka kagura. Na ọrụ Kagura, ndị na-eme ihe nkiri iri na-eme egwu egwu na Kanrodai dị ka etiti mgbe ha na-ekpuchi Kagura masks (ụmụ nwoke kagura) na-egosiputa ihe omuma akuko a kọwara na Eziokwu nke Okike. Ebumnuche nke oru a bu ihe ngosi nke ndu obi uto ya na nduzi nke Chineke nke nne na nna n’oge okike mmadu. Ọrụ Kagura na-esozi Dance na Movements Aka (teodori), nke ụmụ nwoke atọ na ụmụ nwanyị atọ na-eme na ọdọ mmiri nke Ebe Nsọ. A na-eduzi ọrụ a na ọrụ nke ọnwa ọ bụla nke ụka dị iche iche n'ụdị dịtụ iche, ebe ndị na-eme ihe ngosi isii na-agba egwu n'otu egwu egwu itoolu na-enweghị ihe mkpuchi Kagura. N'okwu abụọ ahụ, ndị na-eme ihe ngosi na-egosipụta ma gosipụta akara ngosi mmụọ n'ụzọ ime mmụọ site na iji ahụ ha na Ọrụ ahụ. Ewezuga ọrụ kwa ọnwa na nke nnukwu, enwerekwa ọrụ ụtụtụ na nke mgbede, nke a na-eduzi ma n'isi ụlọ ụka na ụka dị iche iche n'ime afọ ahụ, na-enwe naanị ọrụ ịnọdụ ala (suwari-zutome) a na-eji atọ n'ime ihe egwu itoolu (TOD 2004: 48-57, 2010: 375-382; TOMD 1998: 37-40).

Emume ọzọ a ma ama bụ emume ịgwọ ọrịa akpọrọ Sazuke (Onyinye Chi), nke a na-eme iji kpee ekpere maka mgbake nke onye oria na aru oria. Sazuke gụnyere ịkpọ aha Chineke na mmegharị ahụ aka ya na ya na-eme, na onye na-eme emume a na-apị akụkụ akụkụ ahụ onye ahụ metụtara. Ndi Yozuku (onye malitere), onye natara eziokwu nke Sazuke (bu onye ozo) nwere ike inye ndi Sazukesazuke no ri) site na Onye Nweputa site na Shinbashira mgbe ọ gafesịrị usoro nhazi nke ịga nzukọ a na-akpọ Besseki maka oge itoolu. Okwu nkuzi Besseki na-akọwapụta ụkpụrụ ndị bụ isi nke Tenrikyō, gụnyere Eziokwu nke mmalite, ájá nke uche, ahụ dị ka ihe mgbazinye, ihe agbaziri, ihe nlele nke Chukwu nke Onye Ntọala, mkpa ọrụ a na Sazuke dị, na isiokwu ndị ọzọ. . Site na ịga usoro okwu ihu ọha, nke nwere otu ọdịnaya oge ọ bụla, a na-atụ anya ka onye na-ege ntị zụlite ntụgharị uche nke chọrọ nzọpụta nke ndị ọzọ na ndụ ya niile. E jiri ya tụnyere ọrụ ahụ, nke bụ usoro mmemme nke ụkpụrụ nke nna nna nke nne na nna, Sazuke bụ isi ihe omume mmadụ n'otu n'otu nke na-eme n'etiti mmadụ abụọ. A kwenyere ịdị irè nke ọgwụgwọ ahụ dabere na ezi obi nke onye na-elekọta Sazuke na nke onye natara ya, si otú a kwekọọ na nkwenkwe ozizi na uche bụ ntọala bụ isi nke ahụmịhe mmadụ. N'ihi ọdịdị ya dị ka usoro ọgwụgwọ, ndị ozi ala ọzọ Tenrikyō ji Sazuke gbasaa ozizi okpukpe ha nye ndị na-abụghị ndị na-eso ụzọ (TOMD 1998: 40-43; TOD 2004: 58-59).

Dịka otu mpaghara metụtara Kagura Service na onyinye nke Sazuke si kwuo, Tenrikyō na-ekwusi ike na mkpa Jiba dị ka mmalite nke ndụ mmadụ yana isi iyi nke nzọpụta. Ihe omuma a nke Jiba na ozizi a bu ihe di nkpa na omume okpukpe nke ilaghachi na Jiba (ojiba gaeri). A na-akpọkwa njem njem nke Jiba na ntụgharị bekee, a kọwara omume okpukpe a n'ụzọ dị ka njem iji laghachi n'ụlọ nne na nna (oyasato) nke mmadu nile (TOD 2010: 137-138, 168-171). A kwusiri ike na nke a na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ gọọmentị Japan dị ugbu a nke Tenrikyo Church Headquarters (Tenrikyō kyōkai honbu), ọkachasị ibe weebụ ezubere maka ndị na-abụghị ndị na-eso ụzọ (Personal note).

Laghachi na Jiba nwere ike ime dị ka njem nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu ma ọ bụ otu ma nwee ike itinye aka na mmemme na mmemme yana ihe kachasị mkpa ịga leta ebe dị nsọ n'onwe ya. N'echiche nke njem uka, ndị na-eso ụzọ Tenrikyō sitere na ụdị ndụ niile si mpaghara dị iche iche na mba na-ezukọ na Jiba dị ka ụmụ Chukwu ibe ha ma na-ekpe ekpere maka mmezu nke Joyous Life n'oge ọrụ (Inoue 2013: 177; cf. Ellwood 1982 ). Ewezuga ọrụ ndị e mere na Jiba, Isi ụlọ ọrụ Tenrikyo Church nwere ọtụtụ usoro ọzụzụ maka ndị na-eso ụzọ gụnyere Mmụọ Mmepe Mmụọ (shūyōka) yana mgbakọ na ihe omume ndị ọzọ nke mkpakọrịta Tenrikyō dị ka ndị otu ụmụ nwoke  (seinenkai), Womenmụ nwanyị Association (fujinkai), na Mmụta Association (gakuseikai), na mkpakọrịta ụmụaka (mgbe ahụ). Ihe ọzọ na-eme ka etiti Jiba sie ike bụ ụlọ ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ na mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke ewuru gburugburu Isi ụlọ ụka, yana usoro zuru oke nke ụlọ ọrụ ọta akara na mahadum yana, dịka ọmụmaatụ, Tenri Yorozu-Sodansho Foundation's Ikoi no Ie Hospital (TOMD 1998: 100 -27). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọzọkwa, nzukọ okpukpe na-eme nnukwu emume ncheta maka nwanyị ahụ (na gburugburu) Jenụwarị 26 kwa afọ iri, nke kachasị ọhụrụ bụ ụbọchị ncheta 130th dị ka a hụrụ na Jenụwarị 26, 2016. Ihe omume a pụrụ iche na-eweta ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu. nke ndị mmadụ na Jiba dị ka oge iji megharịa nkwa ha ịgbaso nkuzi nke onye nwe ụlọ.

Na mgbakwunye na emume ndị a, enwere ụfọdụ usoro a na-ahazi, nke ụbọchị a na-adabere n'ụkpụrụ nkuzi. Otu n’ime ha bụ hinokishin, nke na-ejikarị na-ewere ụdị nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya dị ka mkpofu ahịhịa na ebe ọha, ihicha ụlọ ọrụ ọha na eze, wdg hinokishin A na-ahụta ịbụ ngosipụta nke ekele nye Chukwu maka ngọzi ndị na-eso ụzọ na-enweta kwa ụbọchị ma dị ka ụzọ isi rute ọha mmadụ (nchọpụta ọrụ ubi). Na ọkwa a haziri ahazi, Tenrikyō na-ahazi ihe a maara dị ka Disaster Relief Hinokishin Corps (saigai kyūen hinokishin tai) na mpaghara dị na Japan (na afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya na Taiwan) na nnukwu ọdachi ndị na-emere onwe ha kemgbe mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ, gụnyere Great Hanshin Earthquake (1995) na Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011). (Lee ngalaba Esemokwu / Ihe ịma aka maka mkparịta ụka metụtara ya.)

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

A na-ele Tenrikyō anya dị ka otu n'ime nnukwu okpukpe okpukpe Japan kachasị ukwuu, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị ahụ bịara n'oge ọhụụ nke Japan. Ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-eso ụzọ bụ ihe siri ike nghọta na Tenrikyō, nke na-enweghị usoro ụzọ kwesịrị ekwesị ma e wezụga ịga nzukọ nkuzi nke Besseki, nyocha nyocha nke nzukọ okpukpe bipụtara na akụkọ sitere na ụka dị iche iche na-ekwu na 1,216,137 ndị na-akwado ya na na Japan jikọtara dị ka nke 2008. Ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ dị ntakịrị karịa nke 1986, afọ nke ntọala nke narị afọ, mgbe ọ kara akara ọnụ ọgụgụ kachasị elu na oge agha mgbe 1,687,220 (Tenrikyō Omote Tōryōshitsu Chōsa Jōhōka 2008: 8). Dịka e kwuru na nkenke n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke òtù okpukpe, Tenrikyō enwewo mmụba dị elu na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị na-akwado ya tupu oge agha. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na 1896, ọ rịọrọ na ndị òtù 3,137,113 dabere na ọnụọgụ nke ndị kwụrụ ụgwọ ndị otu (kkin) (Arakitōryō Henshūbu 2002: 38). N'ime oge mmepe ya, Tenrikyō agbasaala n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke Japan site na Hokkaidō ruo Okinawa, yana ndị ụka ụka gbasiri ike na mpaghara ndị dị ka mpaghara Kinki na Setouchi, bụ nke nwetara mmụba ọnụ ọgụgụ ngwa ngwa n'ihi mmepe mmepe ụlọ ọrụ na 1920s (1996ya 71) : 1997; Tsujii XNUMX).

Ewezuga ọnụnọ ya na obodo ya, Tenrikyō amụbaala karịa mba iri atọ na mpaghara mpaghara (TOD 2009), na mbido mbụ na-eme na Korea Peninsula na mbido 1893 (Kaneko K. 2000). A na-ahụ ọtụtụ n'ime ụka ya na-esote na mba na mpaghara nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke ndị kwabatara na Japan, gụnyere Brazil na ihe dịka 20,000 (Yamada 2010); Hawaii, ya na 2,000-2,500 (Takahashi 2014); na oke ala US nke nwere ihe dịka 2,000 (Kato 2011). Enwekwara ọdọ mmiri ndị otu ama ama dị na mba Japan n'oge gara aga, gụnyere South Korea, ihe dịka 270,000 (Lee 2011); na Taiwan, ihe dị ka 20,000-30,000 (Fujii 2006; cf. Huang 2016). A na-eme atụmatụ na ndị si Japan bụ ndị mejupụtara imirikiti ndị na-eso ụzọ na mpaghara ndị si mba ọzọ na mpaghara ndị ọzọ gụnyere Europe, mana ndị na-abụghị ndị Japan mejupụtara ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu ma ọ bụ ndị niile na-eso ụzọ na ụfọdụ n'ime obodo ndị Japan na mbụ nakwa n'ọtụtụ mpaghara ndị ọzọ dịka Republic of the Congo (Fujii 2006; Lee 2011; Mori 2013).

A na-ewere ndị na-eso ụzọ Tenrikyō bi na Japan yana n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ dị ka akụkụ nke nnukwu nzukọ n'okpuru isi ụlọ ọrụ Tenrikyo Church (Tenrikyō kyōkai honbu). Nhazi usoro nke Tenrikyō na-adaberekarị n'ụkpụrụ ntọala nke hiwere isi na ikike okpukpe nke isi ụlọ ọrụ Tenrikyo Church nke dị na Jiba. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Thiskpụrụ a na-agụnye eri abụọ nke usoro nhazi nke dabere na mmekọrịta ime mmụọ na mmekọrịta mpaghara, n'otu n'otu. Nke mbụ metụtara mmekọrịta nne na nna na nne na nna nke nne na nna ime mmụọ (ri no oya) bụ ndị na-enye ndị òtù nduzi ime mmụọ, n'ihe banyere okpukpe, ụmụ ha (ri no ko, “Ụmụ ime mmụọ”). Na nhazi nhazi, mgbagha a na-egosi n'ụdị usoro ọmụmụ (keitō). Isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka nwere ihe dị ka ụlọ ụka 240 na-elekọta anya, ọtụtụ n'ime ha ka a maara dị ka nnukwu ụka (daikyōkai). Chọọchị ndị a na-elekọta anya nke ọ bụla nwere njikọ na Isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka dịka nne na nna ha. Churcheslọ ụka ndị a na-elekọta anya na-enwekwa alaka ụlọ ọrụ ha (ndiegwu), si otú a gụnyere njikọ nke nne na nna na nwatakịrị na usoro usoro ọmụmụ. Site n'echiche nke iwu na nke ego, ụka Tenrikyō bụ ụlọ ọrụ kwụụrụ onwe ya na nke kwụ ọtọ, mana ọ na - ejikọ ya na ụka ndị ọzọ dị elu ma ọ bụ nọ n'okpuru n'ọchịchị ime mmụọ sara mbara (Yamada 2012: 325-28; cf. Morioka 1989: 311 -18). Usoro nhazi nke abụọ metụtara netwọk ụka dị iche iche na mpaghara mpaghara. Na Japan, a kọwara mpaghara ọ bụla dị ka diocese (obia) ọ bụkwa onye isi ụlọ ọrụ nchịkwa nke isi ụlọ ọrụ na-ahụ maka ọrụ diocese na-ahụ maka ya (kyōmu shichō). Na mba ofesi, isi ụlọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi na-arụ ọrụ ọ bụla (dendōchō,, a ozi center (shuchchịsho), ma ọ bụ post ozi (renrakusho), n’otu n’otu, dabere n’otú chọọchị na-eso n’obodo ma ọ bụ mpaghara o metụtara metụtara. Ebumnuche ndị a na-adabere na mpaghara iji kwalite nkwurịta okwu na mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị na-eso ụzọ si n'agbụrụ ụka dị iche iche na mpaghara mpaghara. Otu ụlọ ụka Tenrikyō nwere njikọ n'ụzọ ihe atụ na Isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka n'ihe banyere usoro nhazi abụọ ahụ, yana mmekọrịta ime mmụọ nke ọdịnala bụ isi mmalite njikọ (Yamada 2012: 325-28).

Onye ndú nke ndị isi chọọchị hiwere isi n’ikike okpukpe nke Shinbashira, nke pụtara n’ụzọ nkịtị “ogidi bụ́ isi.” Dị ka onye ndu na onye ndu ime mmụọ nke nzukọ Tenrikyō niile, Shinbashira na-ahụ maka ịhazi emume okpukpe gụnyere Kagura Service yana inye Sazuke maka onye nwe ụlọ (TOMD 1998: 100). E nyere ya iwu na Shinbashira kwesịrị ibu aha ezinụlọ nke Nakayama, na nhọpụta nke onye nọchiri ọnọdụ a na-atụle dabere na usoro ọmụmụ (TOD 2010: 389). Dịka e kwuru na nkọwapụta akụkọ ihe mere eme dị n'elu, ọnọdụ Shinbashira bụ nke ọdịnala nke ụmụ nwoke nwoke ma ọ bụ ezigbo ndị ikwu nwoke nọ na usoro ọmụmụ ahụ. N'okpuru Shinbashira, e nwere ọkwa dị iche iche nke ndị isi ụka gụnyere Director-in-Chief of Administrative Affairs (omote tōryō), Onye isi nduzi na-ahụ maka okwu okpukpe (uchi tōryō), ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ n'isi ụlọ ọrụ (honbu-in, isi ụlọ ọrụ ndị isi nwanyị (honbu fujin), na ndị ọzọ nọ n'ọkwá dị elu na ndị isi (TOD 2010: 139-40). Mmadu puru ihu na otutu n’ime onodu ndi a n’okpuru Shinbashira n’isi ulo uka a bu umu nke ndi n’eso uzo mbu. Nkọwa aha a nke ezinụlọ nke isi ụlọ ọrụ Chọọchị na-enyo enyo na-enyo ihe odide nke nnukwu ụka na ụka ụka (nchọpụta ọrụ).

N'agbanyeghi na ndi isi ochichi nke ndi isi na ndi Jiba, enwere otutu uzo nke ndi ozo karia mgbe onye nwuru anwu. A na-akpọkarị ndị jụrụ okwukwe (itan) site na Isi Churchlọ Ọrụ Chọọchị, ndị otu a pụta na mpaghara ụfọdụ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke mmepe Tenrikyō nwere nkwupụta pụrụ iche nke eziokwu salvific na ememe ndị metụtara ya nke gosipụtara akụkụ ụfọdụ nke nkuzi Nakayama Miki. Ndị isi otu ndị a elela onwe ha anya dị ka ndị ga-anọchi anya onye nwe ụlọ ahụ. Dabere na oge nke otu ndị a malitere, ha kara akara na (1) atụmanya maka onye amụma nke na-agbadata site na usoro mmụọ nke Nakayama Miki na Iburi Izō; (2) atụmanya maka ọdịdị nke onye amụma nke nwere ike ịmetụta mgbanwe mmadụ tupu ọbịbịa nke oge ikpeazụ; na (3) mbilite nke ndị isi okpukpe nwere ike ịgwọ ọrịa ma ọ bụ anwansi. Ekwesiri ighota na nsogbu ndi a sitere na ihe omuma nke ndi mmadu di iche iche nke di na mpaghara nke ulo akwukwo karia karia site na nhazi nke otu ulo uka. Offọdụ n'ime ìgwè ndị a schismatic bụ Honmichi, Tenrin-Ō-Kyōkai, Shūyōdan Hōseikai, Morarojī Kenkyūsho, Seishōdō Kyōdan, Ōkanmichi, n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ (Yumiyama 2005).

N'ebe ndị esenidụt, mmadụ nwere ike ịchọpụta ikpe nke schism nhazi na South Korea mgbe agha bisịrị. N'adịghị ka ihe atụ ndị ahụ e kwuru na mbụ banyere schism na gburugburu ndị Japan, schism Tenrikyō na South Korea bụ isi kpatara ọnọdụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke echiche ndị Japan na-enye na South Korea. N'elu echiche ndị Japan na-emegide ọha na eze yana ọchịchị gọọmentị South Korea na-egbochi okpukpe nke ndị Japan, otu ndị na-eso ụzọ Tenrikyō na South Korea kwupụtara na ha na-agbanwe ihe ha na-efe ofufe site n'ụlọ arụsị gaa na ihe atụ nke Kanrodai na 1985. Nke a emeela ka nkewa nke otu ndị na-eso ụzọ ọzọ na-akwado echiche ọdịnala nke Headlọ Akwụkwọ Isi nke ihe ofufe (Jin 2015, 2016).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N'ime nsogbu na nsogbu niile na-eche ihu na mmegharị ahụ, ise kachasị mkpa ekwuru, ya bụ, ozi esenidụt, nsogbu nwoke na nwanyị, ọrụ Tenrikyō na ọha mmadụ, nyocha nke akụkọ ntolite mbụ, na ịjụ ndị otu.

N'ihe banyere njem nke esenidụt, ụfọdụ n'ime njirimara ndị a na-amata dịka njikọta na ọdịbendị ndị Japan na nkuzi, omume, na usoro ntọala ya na ọdịnala ihe nwere nsonaazụ ambivalent. Mkpakọrịta na Japan na ọdịbendị ndị Japan, dị ka ụlọ nsọ bụ ihe a na-efe ofufe, ka a na-ewere dị ka isi iyi nke isi ike maka ịgbasa nkuzi okpukpe na South Korea, ebe echiche ndị Japan na-emegide (Jin 2015, 2016). N'ebe dị ka Brazil, ụkpụrụ ntọala nke usoro nhazi nke Tenrikyō mgbe ụfọdụ dugara ekele nke Japan na asụsụ ya n'etiti ndị na-eso ụzọ Japanese, na-eme ka Tenrikyō dịkwuo ike dị ka agbụrụ okpukpe agbụrụ (Yamada 2012). Otú ọ dị, n'otu oge ahụ, mkpakọrịta na Japan na omenala ndị Japan abụrụwo ihe enyemaka iji dọta ndị na-abụghị ndị Japan na mpaghara ụfọdụ. Nke a gụnyere Taiwan, ebe ụfọdụ akụkụ nke ndị mmadụ na-ele Japan anya dị ka ihe nlereanya ịgbaso dị iche na nke gọọmentị Nationalist sitere na China (Huang 2016), na Republic of Congo na Nepal, ebe akara akara nke eziokwu okpukpe. nwere onyinyo nke Japan dị ka mba mepere emepe n'etiti ndị otu mpaghara (Mori 2013: 131-34; Marilena Frisone, nkwukọrịta onwe onye). Ihe ọzọ ekwesiri ịkọwa na mkpakọrịta nke Japan bụ na Tenrikyō ejirila akụ na ụba Japanese (dịka, n'ụdị ụlọ akwụkwọ asụsụ Japanese) dịka ụzọ isi bulie ọhụụ nke otu ahụ ma dọta ndị nwere ike ịbanye na mpaghara ndị dị ka France, New York, na Singapore, ebe Tenrikyō guzobere ogige ọdịnala ndị Japan. N'ihe metụtara asụsụ ahụ, ndị Mikagura-uta enwere ike sungbụ naanị Japanese mbụ belụsọ na South Korea, ebe a na-abụ ya na Korean, ihe mere n'ihi ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na mba ahụ na mgbakwunye na ụdị ụtọasụsụ nke asụsụ abụọ a. Iji lebara mmachi asụsụ a anya, enweela ụzọ dị mfe n'etiti afọ ndị na-eso ụzọ nọ na mba ndị na-asụ Bekee iji mepụta "Singable-Danceable Mikagura-uta" (utatte odoreru Mikagura-uta) enwere ike ịbụ abụ ma gbaa egwu na Bekee (nchọpụta ọrụ ubi; lekwa Inoue 2015). Ihe iseokwu ọzọ nwere ike ime n'ihe banyere njem esenidụt bụ na ndị otu kwesịrị ịga Jiba ka ha bụrụ Yoboku ma gaa ụfọdụ nzukọ ọmụmụ na ọmụmụ chọrọ iji nweta ụfọdụ iru eru, nke nwere ike isiri ụfọdụ oge ike maka ndị na-eso ụzọ esenidụt n'ihi oge na ego efu maka njem (nchọpụta ubi).

Dika egosiputara na nkowa nke nhazi, Tenrikyō na egosiputa ambivalence na echiche ya na nkuzi ya banyere nhazi nwoke na nwanyi. N'agbanyeghi na o sitere n'aka onye isi nwanyi, Tenrikyō emepewo ma lekwa anya na nhazi nke nwoke na nwoke, dika imaatu, inwe nani nwanyi honbu-in na akụkọ ihe mere eme ya (Watanabe 2015: 15). Ọ na-ekwusi ike mmekọrịta dị n'etiti di na nwunye dabere n'echiche nke oge a nke nkewa nwoke na nwanyị na ụfọdụ mmetụta fọdụrụnụ nke ezinụlọ ie usoro nke oge a, echiche nke e mepụtara dabere na otu nkọwa nke okwu nke onye nwe ụlọ n'ihe banyere oge Japan n'oge a (Kaneko J. 2003). O doro anya na ọ bụ ezie na Miki kwusiri ike na nzọpụta nke ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị yana ịgbagha ọdịnala ọdịnala banyere ahụ ụmụ nwanyị, ọ gafere oke ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị dịka ndị nna na ụmụ nwanyị dịka nne (Ambros 2013). N'otu oge ahụ, onye ahụ tọrọ ntọala ahụ ewereghị ndụ alụmdi na nwunye dị ka ụzọ dị mma maka ibi ndụ maka mmadụ niile, dịka ọmụmaatụ, na-agba ụmụ nwanyị ume nwere ụfọdụ ọrụ okpukpe dịka Kokan ibi otu ndụ. N'oge ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ọzọ, a sịrị na omume nke ndị nne na nna nkuchi na ụka dị iche iche na-egosi ihe atụ nke omume nke "ezinụlọ ụka" (kyōkai kazoku), nke n'ụzọ ụfọdụ gabigara nhazi nke ezinụlọ nuklia nke oge a (Kaneko J. 2003).

N'ebe o metụtara nsogbu mmekọrịta ọha na eze, Tenrikyō na-arụsi ọrụ ike na ụfọdụ ọrụ ọdịmma mmadụ gụnyere ndị nne na nna nkuziri yana enyemaka enyemaka. hinokishin ihe omume mgbe ọdachi ndị na-emere onwe ha (TOMD 1998: 138-141; leekwa Ambros 2016; Kaneko A. 2002; Kisala 1992). Otú ọ dị, n'otu oge ahụ, egosila na Tenrikyō anaghị ewere ọnọdụ doro anya maka ụfọdụ nsogbu mmekọrịta ọha na eze ma ọ bụ nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, nke kachasị n'ihi mmesi ike na akụkụ mmụọ nke nzọpụta na nkuzi postwar (Hatakama 2013). Enwere ike ikwu na akụkụ nke Tenri Yamato Culture Congress ()Tenri Yamato bunka kaigi) na akwukwo nke ihe omuma ya dika Michi ka shakai (Tenrikyō na Society) na 2004, nke nwere mkparịta ụka nke isiokwu dị iche iche gụnyere bioethics, nsogbu gburugburu ebe obibi, yana nsogbu ezinụlọ dịka ime ihe ike n'ụlọ. Mkparịta ụka dị n'akwụkwọ a gosipụtara ụfọdụ echiche nke ozizi dị ka ụkpụrụ nduzi iji ghọta okwu ndị a site n'echiche nkuzi nke Tenrikyō, ya bụ, n'ihe gbasara mmegharị akụkụ ahụ na-ele ahụ dị ka "ihe binyere, ihe a gbaziri," eluigwe na ala dịka ahụ nke Chineke maka okwu gburugburu, nsogbu na iji uche eme ihe gbasara nsogbu ezinụlọ, ịkpọ aha naanị ole na ole. Mkparịta ụka ahụ na-ezere itinye aka na esemokwu esemokwu, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-egosipụta oke ndapụta megide omume nke ịkpụgharị akụkụ ahụ na-adabere na nkuzi nke ihe binyere, ihe a gbaziri. N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, enwebeghị mgbalị siri ike iji dozie nsogbu ọha na eze site na echiche Tenrikyō, mana a na-atụle okwu ọ bụla n'otu oge n'akwụkwọ ndị otu a gụnyere Michi no tomo magazin, Tenri jihō akwụkwọ akụkọ, na Onyinyechukwu magazine.

Banyere nkọwa nke akụkọ ntolite mbụ, echiche gọọmentị Tenrikyō nwere bụ na ụlọ ọrụ okpukpe kwenyere n'echiche ala nke oge a nke Japan site na imezigharị nkuzi na omume ya na ọkwa dị elu ma na-aga n'ihu na nkuzi na omume izizi dị ka Miki kụziri (Tenrikyō Omote) Tōryōshitsu Tokubetsu Iinkai 1995: 44-46). Otú ọ dị, n'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta agbaghawo ma kọwaa echiche a, nke ha kpọrọ "okwu nke nhazi usoro abụọ" (nijū kōzō ron), site n'itinye usoro akụkọ ihe mere eme nke na-egosi ọkwa dị iche iche nke akụkọ ihe mere eme n'etiti ozizi na omume ndị mbụ na mbụ (lee ihe atụ Hatakama 2006, 2007, 2012; Nagaoka 2015). Ọ bụ ezie na echiche ndị ọkà mmụta a nwere ike ọ gaghị eso ndị nke ndị ọkà mmụta jikọrọ aka na Tenrikyō, n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, a nwalere mkparịta ụka nke ndị ọkà mmụta na nnọkọ pụrụ iche nke isiokwu ya bụ "ingtụleghachi Ọnọdụ Nchọpụta Ugbu A na Tenrikyō: ōzọ Akụkọ Mere Eme"Tenrikyō kenkyū mba genzai: Rekishi kara tou) na 2014 kwa afọ ogbako nke Japanese Association for Study of Religion and Society (“Shezoka shakai ”gakkai) (Nagaoka et al. 2015). N'ime kọmitii a, ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme chọrọ imebi nyocha nke akụkọ ntolite mbụ na okwu nkuzi nke ọchịchị Tenrikyō, nke dị n'otu ụzọ ma ọ bụ ọzọ kesara n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta na-amụ banyere okpukpe ọhụrụ, site na iji usoro sitere na ọmụmụ nke mbibi na ọmụmụ postcolonial. Mkparịta ụka ahụ na ngalaba ahụ gụnyere nzaghachi sitere n'aka ndị ọkà mmụta metụtara okpukpe ọhụrụ gụnyere Tenrikyō na Konkōkyō, si otú a bụrụ okwu na-adịghị ahụkebe nke mkparịta ụka n'etiti ndị otu abụọ na-ekerịta echiche dị iche iche banyere akụkọ mgbe ochie nke okpukpe ọhụrụ (Nagaoka et al. 2015).

Dika edere ya na nkenke, ndi otu a echee ihu na ndi mmadu adighi na ya na nso nso a, na ndi otu ha na-adaba ihe dika 200,000 kwa afo iri n'etiti 1986 na 2006. Na nyocha onu ogugu nke ebiputara na 2008, ndi mmadu na-adighi nma bu ihe kpatara ndị na-eso ụzọ meworo agadi, ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ndị mmadụ na-amalite ịga nkuzi nke Besseki yana ndị natara eziokwu nke Sazuke, na ọnụ ọgụgụ na-agbada agbada nke Yoboku ndị na-esonye na ọrụ ụka (Tenrikyō Omote Tōryōshitsu Chōsa Jōhōka 2008: 8-9, 14 , 26, 29). Iji lebara okwu a anya, Isi ụlọ ọrụ ụka Tenrikyo agbaala mbọ dị iche iche taa. Ndị a gụnyere nkesa akwụkwọ ntuziaka nke akwụkwọ akụkọ kwa izu, Tenri jihō, n'etiti ụmụazụ bi n'otu mpaghara (Michi no Tomo Henshūbu 2009: 10-13) yana ịmalite ọzụzụ ọzụzụ dịka Tenrikyo Basics Course (Tenrikyō kiso kọza) na Usoro Daybọchị atọ (Mikka kōshūkai), nke enyere maka ndị ọhụụ na Tenrikyō na ndị na-eso ụzọ na-enweghị ike iwepụ ogologo ọrụ, n'otu n'otu (Michi no Tomo Henshūbu 2003a, 2003b). Ebumnuche ndị a, n'etiti ndị ọzọ, bụ iji nyere ndị ozi ala ọzọ aka ịdọta ndị otu ọhụrụ ka ha sonyere ụka ahụ iji nyere ndị otu dị ugbu a ume ka ha mụta ma na-eme ihe nkuzi.

Foto

Image # 1: Foto ahụ Ofudesaki (Ndụmọdụ nke ahịhịa ahịhịa)

Image # 2: Foto nke ngwa eji rụọ ọrụ nke tsutome.

Image # 3: Foto nke ememe Sazuke nke Yoboku na-eme.

Image # 4: Foto nke Tenri Yorozu-Sodansho Foundation nke kolọ Ọgwụ Ikoi no Ie.

Image # 5: Foto nke isi ụlọ ọrụ nke Tenrikyō (Tenrikyō kyōkai nsọ).

References

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Ụbọchị Post:
13 March 2017

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