Michelle Mueller

Feraferia

FERAFERI TIMELINE

1928 (Kaum Ib Hlis 2): Frederick “Fred” McLaren Adams yug.

1935: Svetlana Butyrin yug.

1956: Tau cuv npe ua ib tug tub ntxhais kawm tiav hauv Los Angeles State College, Fred tau ntsib ib qho kev tshwm sim paub tsis meej uas ua rau nws muaj kev ntseeg ntev ntev tias Vajtswv yog poj niam.

1957: Fred thiab ib pawg phooj ywg tau tsim Hesperian Kev Sib Koom Tes. Fred tau sau "Hesperian Life and the Mother Way" (tom qab luam tawm li "Hesperian Life and The Maiden Way").

1967 (Lub Yim Hli 2): Feraferia tau koom ua ib lub tsev teev ntuj 501(c)3 hauv California. Cov teeb meem ntxov tshaj plaws ntawm Feraferia tsab ntawv xov xwm, Korythalia, tau luam tawm. Fred luam tawm Nine Royal Passions of the Year.

1989: Jo Carson pib ua yeeb yaj kiab kev xam phaj thiab taug kev mus rau qhov chaw dawb huv nrog Fred rau txoj haujlwm uas tau los ua Dancing Nrog Gaia.

Xyoo 1990: Fred thiab Svetlana tau tsiv mus rau Nevada City, California kom nyob ze Svetlana cov menyuam yaus.

1998: Peter "Phaedrus" Tromp ua phooj ywg nrog Fred thiab pib ib pab pawg Feraferia hauv Amsterdam, ua rau Feraferia ritual scripts muaj nyob rau hauv Dutch.

2008: Thaum nws tuag, Fred tau txais txiaj ntsig nrog Feraferia Lub Ntiaj Teb Kev Pib (ib qho kev lom zem uas Fred nws tus kheej tau sau thaum nws lub neej).

2009: Jo Carson's Dancing Nrog Gaia premiered ntawm Fairfax Documentary Film Festival.

2010 (Tsib Hlis 6): Svetlana tuag tom qab rov qab los ntawm mob ntsws.

2011: Jo Carson tau txais txoj hauj lwm ntawm Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm Pawg Thawj Coj thiab Tus Pov Thawj Hlob ntawm Feraferia. Nws thiab nws tus txiv, John Reed, tau tsim ib lub website repository rau Feraferia lore.

2012: Ib nplooj ntawv Feraferia Facebook tau tshaj tawm uas tseem yog qhov chaw nquag rau cov ntaub ntawv thiab tshaj tawm.

2014: Jo Carson luam tawm Ua kev zoo siab rau Wildness: Khawv koob, Mirth thiab Kev Hlub ntawm Feraferia Txoj Kev.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Feraferia kev lig kev cai ntawm Neo-Paganism tau tsim nyob rau xyoo 1960 los ntawm Frederick "Fred" McLaren Adams (1928-2008), nrog cov tswv yim tseem ceeb los ntawm nws tus khub Svetlana "Lady Svetlana" Butyrin (1935-2010). Nws cov tswv cuab hais tias nws lub npe txhais tau tias "kev ua koob tsheej ntawm wildness" los ntawm Latin fera (tsiaj qus) thiab feria (festival).

Fred yog ib tug menyuam kawm ntawv nyob rau lub neej uas kawm mythology thiab esoterism txij thaum nws tseem hluas thiab, thaum nws laus, tau kawm qib siab hauv kev puas siab puas ntsws, kev ua yeeb yaj kiab, kev ua yeeb yaj kiab, thiab kos duab. Nws yog ib tug tub ntxhais kawm tiav hauv Los Angeles State College, kawm txog anthropology thiab kev ua yeeb yam zoo, thaum nws muaj kev zoo siab thiab pom tau tias Vajtswv yog poj niam, uas coj nws mus rau kev tsim ntawm Feraferia hauv nws nees nkaum xyoo. Xyoo 1957, Fred thiab ib pawg phooj ywg tau tsim Hesperian Kev Sib Koom Tes. Fred tau sau "Hesperian Life and the Mother Way" (tom qab luam tawm li "Hesperian Life and The Maiden Way"). Cov kev lig kev cai tau hloov zuj zus mus rau hauv Feraferia thiab tau koom ua ib lub tsev teev ntuj 501(c)3 hauv California xyoo 1967. Lub koom haum tau tsim ib tsab ntawv xov xwm, hu ua Korythalia, ob peb qhov teeb meem uas tau khaws cia hauv Graduate Theological Union's New Religious Movements collection.

Fred thiab Svetlana tau ntsib nyob rau hauv nruab nrab-1960s thiab muaj chemistry zoo kawg li. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Lawv yog cov neeg koom nrog lub neej thiab ua tus ncej ntawm kev tsim Feraferia kev lig kev cai. Ua ke, lawv tau sau feem ntau ntawm nws cov rituals.

Fred thiab Svetlana xav zoo li cov phooj ywg, tab sis txhua tus tau muaj lwm tus neeg koom tes thaum lub sijhawm xyoo 1980 thiab 1990s. Tom qab ntawd lawv tau rov qab los ua ke kom txog thaum Fred tuag ntawm daim tawv nqaij mob qog noj ntshav (Lub Yim Hli 9, 2008), thiab Svetlana tuag tsuas yog ob xyoos tom qab rov qab los ntawm mob ntsws (Carson 2009b; nd). Fred tau nco txog hauv Feraferia Lub Ntiaj Teb Lub Ntiaj Teb, ib qho kev ua koob tsheej sau los ntawm Fred nws tus kheej tias "magically dedicates lub cev lub cev ntawm cov neeg tuag tuag rau cov feem ntawm lub ntiaj teb loj dua lub cev" (Carson 2009b) nyob rau lub Cuaj Hli Ntuj 2008 (Poke, 60).

Feraferia tau mus txog qhov siab tshaj plaws hauv xyoo 1970. Txawm hais tias Feraferia tsis yog ib pab pawg loj, kev coj noj coj ua tau txhawb nqa ntau tus thiab tau suav nrog ntau qhov kev sib tham ntawm Paganism tam sim no, qhia nws qhov tseem ceeb yam tsawg kawg rau cov neeg sau keeb kwm (Adler 2006; Ellwood 1971; Clifton 2006). Fred tau muab piv rau William Blake, qee zaum raug hu ua "American William Blake" (CfP Runyon 2011, 59). Piav txog qhov kev zoo nkauj uas tau txhais Feraferia, Margot Adler sau: "Xav txog nws qhov me me hauv qab no los ua tus thawj coj ntawm Neo-Paganism, nws muaj txhua yam zoo thiab qhov tsis zoo uas lo lus 'aristocrat' implies" (Adler 2006, 247). Feraferia qhov liam tias aristocratic aesthetics thiab kev ntseeg yog nws txoj koob hmoov thiab nws txoj kev foom phem; nws thov rau qee tus thiab cuam tshuam lwm tus. Tau txais kev thuam rau nws qhov kev xav tsis zoo, Feraferia teb:

Ntau tus nyeem [ntawm Feraferia tsab ntawv xov xwm Korythalia] tau tsa qhov kev tawm tsam rau "qhov nyuaj" thiab "tsis pom tseeb" cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev xaiv cov qoob loo tawm… ntau zaus. Tshwj tsis yog tias koj tau nyeem qee yam hauv keeb kwm yav dhau los thiab hauv esoteric thiab occult, cov ntsiab lus no yuav nres koj - tab sis tsuas yog ib ntus xwb, peb cia siab. Feem ntau tsuas yog tsis muaj lwm lo lus uas txhais tau tias 'zoo ib yam.' Tej zaum peb thaum kawg tuaj yeem npib qee qhov kev hloov pauv txaus siab. Txog thaum ntawd, khaws phau ntawv txhais lus ntawm tes. Peb tsis nco qab txog qhov kev tawm tsam; tab sis rau tam sim no, cov lus piav qhia yog dhau ntawm peb cov peev txheej ntawm lub sijhawm thiab lub zog. (Leej twg xav tuaj yeem pab dawb ua haujlwm ib leeg?) (RJS [Richard J. Stanewick], hauv Feraferia 1970:4)

Ib tus neeg txhawb nqa rau kev txav mus los, Stanewick tau tiv thaiv nws cov lus tsis meej dua (rau "tsis muaj lwm yam lus") tseem qhia txog kev qhib siab rau kev hloov pauv thiab, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog, qhib kev pab. Tam sim no, Ellwood pom (1971: 137):

Adams qhov kev coj ua ntawm kev coj noj coj ua tau qhia txog cov teeb meem uas tshwm sim hauv txoj haujlwm no. Lub zeem muag yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm nws, thiab nws tau ua nws tus kheej feem ntau ntawm kev sau ntawv, tsim feem ntau ntawm cov kos duab, thiab tsim ntau yam kev cai. Nyob rau hauv ib co txoj kev nws mus txog kev cai dab qhuas ntse, thiab undoubtedly tsis muaj nws ua hauj lwm lub zog yuav tsis muaj nyob…. Txawm li cas los xij, muaj cov neeg uas xav tias nws tus cwj pwm cuam tshuam kev muaj tswv yim ntawm lwm tus hauv kev hloov pauv ntawm Feraferia…. Ib txhia xav tias nws lub zeem muag yog li tus kheej thiab intricate nws tsis sib txuas lus yooj yim li nws yuav tsum.

Ellwood tau tshaj tawm tias qee qhov "sab laug [Feraferia] los tsim lawv tus kheej henges thiab cov ntaub ntawv ntawm neopaganism," thiab peb yuav xav tias qhov tsis meej ntawm Feraferia kev lig kev cai yog ib qho kev txhawb siab tom qab cov offshoots.

Txawm hais tias Feraferia lub "pulse" muaj zog tshaj thaum lub sij hawm Fred thiab Svetlana lub neej, Fred tus thawj rituals yog khaws cia los ntawm ob peb tug thwj tim, xws li Peter "Phaedrus" Tromp, uas coj Feraferia rau Amsterdam thiab txhais cov caij nyoog festivals rau hauv Dutch; Pojniam Selena, tus kws ua yeeb yam hauv plab ua haujlwm tawm ntawm New Mexico, uas tau koom ua ke Feraferia cov hauv paus ntsiab lus thiab kev zoo nkauj hauv nws qhov kev ua las voos tshwm sim; thiab tus kws ua yeeb yaj kiab Jo Carson hauv Northern California. Thaum xyoo 1980s lig, tau tsav los ntawm lawv txoj kev sib koom siab los khaws Fred lub tswv yim thiab kev qhia thiab qhov tseeb ntawm nws txoj kev noj qab haus huv, Jo thiab Fred tau pib ua yeeb yaj kiab nrog cov neeg koom nrog Feraferia kev lig kev cai thiab nrog Pagan cov thawj coj sab nraum Feraferia. Xws li nyob rau hauv lawv filming kuj yog qhov chaw footage los ntawm cov chaw dawb ceev thaum ub. Jo tsim cov footage rau hauv documentary Dancing Nrog Gaia (Carson 2009a). Cov neeg xam phaj suav nrog Fred Adams, Francesca DeGrandis, Monica Sjoo, Joan Marler, thiab Kathy Jones, ntawm lwm cov thawj coj ntawm Pagan / vajtswv poj niam. Cov zaj yeeb yaj kiab tau nthuav tawm ntawm Fairfax Documentary Film Festival xyoo 2009. Jo tau raug xaiv tsa Thawj Tswj Hwm ntawm Pawg Thawj Coj thiab Tus Pov Thawj Hlob ntawm Feraferia xyoo 2011. Niaj hnub no, Jo thiab nws tus txiv John Reed coj kev cai dab qhuas thiab txhawb nqa zej zog los ntawm lawv Fairfax, California henge thiab lub tuam tsev. Lawv kuj tswj hwm lub vev xaib rau Feraferia.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Michael Strmiska (2005) piav txog ob tug ncej uas txhais tau tias feem ntau Paganism niaj hnub no: kev tsim kho dua tshiab thiab eclecticism. Reconstructionist pawg, xws li cov los ntawm Asatru, Druidry, Hellenism, thiab Khemeticism, feem ntau ua raws li kev tsim kho ntawm ib qho tshwj xeeb pre-Christian pagan, polytheistic thiab / los yog shamanistic, kab lis kev cai kev ntseeg, nrog rau nws cov rituals. Tus neeg sawv cev ntawm tus ncej eclectic ntawm niaj hnub Paganism, Wicca, nyob rau hauv sib piv, yog ib qho kev sib xyaw ntawm kev ntseeg thiab kev coj noj coj ua feem ntau los ntawm cov teb chaws Europe, tab sis nws tsis yog kev ua si ntawm ib qho tshwj xeeb haiv neeg pagan kab lis kev cai. Feraferia yog qhov tshwj xeeb hauv qhov no, tsaws qhov chaw nruab nrab ntawm tus ncej ntawm kev tsim kho thiab eclectic.

Feraferia qhia meej meej nrog Greek/Hellenic paganism. Nws lub npe deity tsis tu ncua muab los ntawm Greek vajtswv thiab vajtswv poj niam, thiab nws cov kev ua koob tsheej raws caij nyoog ua raws li cov kev cai qub Greek tsis paub meej. Txawm li cas los xij, nws cov tsim los ntawm qhov pib tau txais kev tsim thiab kev tshoov siab tshiab hauv kev tsim Feraferia txoj kev coj noj coj ua thiab kev coj ua. Fred nyeem dav dav, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog los ntawm Greco-Roman classics ntawm antiquity. Nws xav txog Eleusinian Tsis Paub Txog los ntawm Greek thaum ub los ua "rootstock" ntawm Feraferia (Carson nd). Nws suav tias yog Carl Kerenyi's Eleusis: Archetypical Duab ntawm Niam thiab Ntxhais los ua cov ntaub ntawv pov thawj tshaj plaws ntawm Eleusinian Mysteries thaum ub thiab muab qhov hnyav ntau rau Kerenyi cov lus txhais.

Fred tau raug cuam tshuam los ntawm Wicca thiab lwm yam ntawm Neo-Paganism txhim kho nyob ib puag ncig nws hauv California ib yam nkaus, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog muaj pov thawj hauv Feraferia cov festivals txuam nrog Wiccan Sabbats. Fred koom tes nrog Tim "Oberon" Zell (tseem hu ua Oberon Zell-Ravenheart), uas tau tsim lub Lub Koom Txoos ntawm Tag Nrho ntiaj teb, thiab Feraferia tsab ntawv xov xwm Korythalia nquag taw tes rau lub Koom Txoos ntawm Txhua Lub Ntiaj Teb' magazine Lub qe ntsuab ua ib qho kev pab ntxiv. Fred tau nqis peev ntau rau hauv ntiaj teb faerie lore. Jo Carson ntseeg tias Fred cuam tshuam rau Max Freedom Long ntawm qhov tseem ceeb ntawm tus vajtswv poj niam. Ntev, nyob rau hauv lem, tau muaj kev cuam tshuam rau Victor Anderson (co-founder ntawm Feri Kev lig kev cai).

Feraferia feem ntau nrog ib nrab xyoo pua nees nkaum Gardnerian Wicca, tab sis nrog rau qhov tshwj xeeb yog Hellenistic zoo nkauj rau nws cov mythology thiab kev coj noj coj ua. Cov kev lig kev cai hais txog kev sib koom ua ke hauv kev sib koom ua txiv neej-poj niam, nrog rau qhov tseem ceeb ntawm txoj cai ntawm poj niam los saum ntuj los. Ntawd yog, vajtswv poj niam muaj qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev coj noj coj ua, tab sis qhov kev hloov pauv ntawm poj niam thiab txiv neej tau hais meej nyob rau hauv lub caij ua koob tsheej. Hauv qhov no, Feraferia zoo ib yam li Gerald Gardner's Wicca thiab Janet thiab Stewart Farrar's (Alexandrian) Wicca (Gardner 1954:19; Farrar thiab Farrar 1987; kuj saib Adler 2006:258–62); tseem Feraferia muaj nws tus kheej style thiab zoo nkauj ywj siab ntawm Wicca.

Ntxiv rau Feraferia txoj kev sib koom ua ke ntawm kev tsim kho dua tshiab thiab eclecticism, Feraferia txoj kev ntseeg yog ciam teb ntawm kev nyuaj polytheism thiab monism. Monism hais txog txoj kev ntseeg uas yog polytheistic nyob rau saum npoo tab sis thaum kawg embraces lub zoo tagnrho ntawm kev sib sau ntawm cov deities raws li "kev tshwm sim" ntawm tus zoo divine. Cov Pagans niaj hnub no tau siv cov lus "nyuaj polytheism" thiab "mos polytheism" los tham txog cov qauv ntawm radical polytheism thiab ib hom kev ntseeg ntawm lawv cov kev lig kev cai (saib Lewis 1999: 123). Ib lo lus nrov los ntawm esotericist Dion Fortune, "Tag nrho cov vajtswv poj niam yog ib tug vajtswv poj niam" (Fortune 1938: 291), yog ib qho piv txwv tseem ceeb rau kev tsim "mos polytheism," los yog dab tsi cov kws tshawb fawb yuav hu ua ib daim ntawv ntawm monism, hauv Paganism niaj hnub. Rau qhov kev sib tham no, Jo Carson hais ntxiv: "Feeraferia tsis xav txog txhua tus vajtswv poj niam los ua ib yam ntawm ib tug vajtswv poj niam ... Nyob rau ib lub sij hawm peb yuav tsum lees tias peb tsis paub meej tias qhov kev sib raug zoo ntawm Vajtswv; Nws yog ib feem ntawm Qhov Tsis Paub” (Carson tus kheej sib txuas lus).

Txhua lub koob tsheej Feraferia tau ceeb toom los ntawm (feem ntau cuam tshuam nrog kev rov ua haujlwm ntawm) Greek lus dab neeg txog poj niam deity thiab txiv neej deity. Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov deities txawv uas tau txais kev pe hawm txhua xyoo qhia txog qhov nyuaj polytheism. Txawm li cas los, lub overarching qauv ntawm ib tug vajtswv thiab ib tug vajtswv tau txais kev pe hawm ntawm txhua lub caij ua koob tsheej (vajtswv ntuj txais kev pe hawm ntawm Repose) qhia es tsis txhob ib tug mos polytheism, nyob rau hauv txhua tus vajtswv poj niam-thiab-vajtswv khub sawv cev rau ib tug universal tshuav nyiaj li cas.

Raws li kev sib raug zoo nrog Fred qhov tseem ceeb ntawm Eleusinian Mysteries, Goddess Kore yog qhov chaw ntawm txhua yam Feraferia. [Duab ntawm sab xis] Nyob rau hauv ancient Greek paganism, Kore (txhais tias "maiden") yog ib lub npe ntawm tus vajtswv poj niam Persephone. Lub Eleusinian Mysteries yog lub koob tsheej tsis meej uas cuam tshuam nrog kev pe hawm Demeter, uas tshwm sim ntawm Eleusis hauv tebchaws Greece. Cov kab ke ntseeg tau hloov pauv ib puag ncig mythic piav qhia ntawm niam thiab tus ntxhais vajtswv poj niam, Demeter thiab Persephone. Kore (Persephone) tseem hu ua poj huab tais ntawm lub ntiajteb sab hauv, nrog rau kev hwm rau nws lub luag haujlwm raws li Hades tus nkauj nyab, raws li tib yam lus dab neeg. Lub ntiaj teb kev sib hlub ntawm Persephone thiab Hades yog ritualized hauv Feraferia's Samhain ritual.

Feraferia aesthetic yog utopian thiab paradisiacal. Fred thiab Svetlana yog cov neeg tsis noj nqaij, thiab lawv tau tawm tsam cov zaub mov qus thiab kev noj zaub mov ntau dua cov txheej txheem ua liaj ua teb. Jo Carson piav qhia tias, “raws li [nrog rau lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb] ntawm kev txhawb lub vaj kaj siab uas tseem yog cov edenic ntau,” tam sim no cov pab pawg tau txhawb nqa horticulture thiab aboriculture “vim cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo thiab txiv ntoo muab kev noj qab haus huv zoo nrog cov haujlwm me me. '” (Carson tus kheej kev sib txuas lus).

Rituals / kev xyaum

Daim ntawv qhia hnub Feraferia feem ntau ua raws li Wiccan Log ntawm Lub Xyoo, nrog rau qee qhov kev zam. Hauv Feraferia, muaj cuaj lub koob tsheej, sib piv nrog yim Wiccan Sabbats. Rau tus qauv yim, Feraferia ntxiv rau cuaj lub koob tsheej: Repose thiab Cosmos (los yog yooj yim, "Repose"), uas yog xya-lub lim tiam ntawm Samhain thiab Yule thiab uas koom ua ke rau lwm tus (nws cov kab ke tau pom nyob nruab nrab ntawm Samhain thiab Yule. ). Ntxiv rau tus qauv Wiccan Sabbats, Repose yog conceptualized li Center of the Wheel of the Year.

Symmetry thiab sib npaug zoo li Feraferia ritual daim ntawv qhia hnub. [Duab ntawm sab xis] Tom qab Repose, txhua qhov kev ua koob tsheej yog txuam nrog kev coj ua (Fred Adams nd). Ib zaug ntxiv nrog rau kev zam ntawm Repose, txhua qhov kev ua koob tsheej nyob ib puag ncig tus poj niam-thiab-tus vajtswv khub. Qee qhov kev sib koom ua ke tau tsim muaj kev paub zoo ntawm Greek mythology (xws li Hera thiab Zeus, Psyche thiab Eros, thiab Aphrodite thiab Adonis); Lwm qhov kev sib koom ua ke, xws li Artemis thiab Dionysos ntawm Pomona, tsis tshua paub tab sis pom muaj nyob rau hauv cov ntawv qub qub nrog rau cov kev txhais lus niaj hnub ntawm Greek mythology. Yule, txuam nrog North, nyob ib ncig ntawm Hera thiab Zeus. Oimelc, txuam nrog Northeast, nyob ib ncig ntawm Amphitrit thiab Poseidon. Ostara, txuam nrog East, nyob ib ncig ntawm Hebe thiab Ganymede. Beltane, cuam tshuam nrog Sab Hnub Tuaj, nyob ib puag ncig Psyche thiab Eros. Hymenaea (uas sib haum nrog Wiccan Litha), cuam tshuam nrog South, nyob ib ncig ntawm Selene thiab Helios. Lugnasad los yog Lammas, txuam nrog Southwest, nyob ib ncig ntawm Aphrodite thiab Adonis. Pomona (uas sib haum nrog Wiccan Mabon), txuam nrog West, nyob ib ncig ntawm Artemis thiab Dionysos. (Pomona yog lub npe ntawm Roman vajtswv poj niam txuam nrog txiv hmab txiv ntoo thiab orchards, uas tsis paub txog Greek tus khub.) Samhain, txuam nrog Northwest, nyob ib ncig ntawm Persephone thiab Aidoneus (Hades). Repose, txawm li cas los xij, tau mob siab rau Kore li Arretos Koura (“Nameless Maiden” [(Frederick Adams 1970)]), “lub creatrix ntawm ntug thiab divinities” (Fred Adams nd) (Duab ntawm sab xis). Txawm hais tias dyadic poj niam-txiv neej khub ua cim lub caij ua koob tsheej, Feraferia xav txog poj niam raws li lub ntsej muag tseem ceeb ntawm Vajtswv. Tus vajtswv poj niam lub npe tshwm ua ntej tus vajtswv nyob rau hauv Feraferia cov lus piav qhia ntawm cov festivals, thiab Repose, lub hauv paus ntawm lub xyoo liturgical, hais txog poj niam los saum ntuj yuav luag tshwj xeeb. Fred's 1956 epiphany ntawm Vajtswv li poj niam tseem nyob twj ywm nyob rau hauv kev lig kev cai. Fred txoj kev txhais ntawm cuaj lub koob tsheej yog memorialized visually nyob rau hauv nws luam tawm sau ntawm paintings, Nine Royal Passions of the Year.

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

Ib yam li lwm pab pawg tsim los ntawm cov thawj coj charismatic, Feraferia yog ze li ntawm nws tus tsim Fred Adams. Cov neeg nyob ze qhia tias Fred thiab Svetlana tau coj lub koom haum ua ke, thiab ntau yam kev cai dab qhuas tau sau los ntawm Svetlana.

Hais txog lub koom haum thiab kev coj noj coj ua ntawm lub caij nyoog rituals, "Priestess" thiab "Pestest" yog liturgical luag hauj lwm. Emblematic ntawm lub primacy ntawm tus vajtswv poj niam (Kore) nyob rau hauv Feraferia, Priestesses yuav tsum tau ntau tshaj li cov pov thawj, tsawg kawg yog raws li cov ritual scripts luam tawm nyob rau hauv Phaedrus lub online sau (Frederick Adams, Butyrin, thiab Phaedrus nd). Cov pov thawj raug hu tsuas yog qee lub sijhawm ("Lub Evocation ntawm Zenith, Nadir thiab Center" ntawm Lugnasad), thiab tsis yog poj niam txiv neej tshwj xeeb Celebrants thiab Pov Thawj / ess suav nrog hauv Pomona tsab ntawv. Txawm li cas los xij, txhua qhov kev ua yeeb yam hauv kev sau yuav tsum muaj Tus Pov Thawj.

Raws li nrog ntau lwm cov kev cai Pagan niaj hnub, pib muaj nyob hauv Feraferia. Ellwood tau piav txog plaub yam ntawm Feraferia pib ritual (uas tseem nyob rau hauv tus txheej txheem ntawm kev tsim thaum lub sij hawm ntawm Ellwood kev soj ntsuam) lub evocation ntawm nees nkaum-ob "biomes ntawm lub ntiaj teb" nrog rau "archetypal toj roob hauv pes" (xws li "ntoo, arctic, swamps. ”) thiab “lub hauv paus ntsiab lus astronomical lub cev”; qhov kev thov ntawm tib lub ntsiab lus "mus rau qhov chaw ntawm lub henge, qhov chaw uas lawv mystically tsim lub cev ntawm Magic Maiden"; lub initiand daim ntawv qhia ntawm ib tus kheej lub cev mus rau tib lub ntsiab; thiab ecstatic seev cev thiab ib qho kev xaiv cog lus rau Kore (Ellwood 1971: 136).

Feraferia lub hwj chim tau zoo, tab sis nws cov lej tsawg heev. Xyoo 1971, Robert Ellwood tau tshaj tawm txog kev ua tswv cuab ntawm nees nkaum (Ellwood 1971: 137)).

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Raws li tau hais los ntawm nws cov keeb kwm, qhov kev sib tw loj tshaj plaws ntsib Feraferia yog nws txoj sia nyob. Cov pab pawg tau ua haujlwm nyob rau yav qab teb California hauv xyoo 1960 thiab 1970s thiab rov tshwm sim hauv Nevada City, California (tsuas yog sab nraum Tahoe National Forest) thaum xyoo 1990 thaum Svetlana thiab Fred tsiv mus nyob ze Svetlana'sk cov menyuam loj hlob (Carson, nd 2009b).

Feraferia yog qhov peb yuav hu ua "kev puas tsuaj" Neo-Pagan kev lig kev cai. Cov kev cai dab qhuas tshiab uas tso siab rau cov thawj coj tshwj xeeb thiab uas tsis ncav cuag qee qhov kev koom tes thaum lub sij hawm tus thawj coj lub neej yuav ua rau muaj kev puas tsuaj thiab / lossis kev ploj mus. Robert Ellwood tau kwv yees qhov tshwm sim no rov qab rau xyoo 1971: "Nws [Feraferia] yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm lub voj voog nyob ib puag ncig tus thawj coj charismatic thiab tsis muaj cov qauv tiag tiag. Nws tsis paub meej tias nyob rau lub sijhawm no nws muaj peev xwm ua kom nws muaj sia nyob raws li kev sib raug zoo” (Ellwood 1971: 137). Raws li kev sib piv piv txwv, lub Church of All Worlds (CAW) Nws zoo ib yam los ntawm nws tus tsim Oberon Zell, tseem CAW cov tswv cuab tau mus txog ntau pua xyoo 1990s thiab muaj nyob rau niaj hnub no hauv Tebchaws Meskas, Australia, Lub Tebchaws Yelemees, Switzerland, thiab Austria. Txawm hais tias Zell, tam sim no muaj xya caum cuaj xyoo, tseem yog tus thawj tswj hwm rau CAW, muaj nyob deb ntawm cov tswv cuab, cov thawj coj, thiab cov zes kom txuas ntxiv CAW rau tsawg kawg yog lwm tiam neeg mus tom ntej. Qhov txawv, zoo li, nyob rau hauv kev nthuav dav ntawm lub zog thaum lub sij hawm tus tsim lub neej thiab kev txhawb nqa ntawm lub zog lub hauv paus kom muaj nyob ntawm nws tus kheej ntawm tus tsim.

Txawm hais tias muaj kev sib tw rau Feraferia txoj kev loj hlob nyob rau xyoo tsis ntev los no, kev coj noj coj ua tam sim no muaj kev cia siab thiab ntseeg tias Feraferia tau nce siab. Jo thiab lwm tus tswvcuab ntseeg tias cov lus ntawm Feraferia tej zaum yuav tseem ceeb tshaj tam sim no dua li nws nyob hauv Fred lub neej, tsis pom zoo nrog Ellwood qhov kev kwv yees xyoo 1971 rau Feraferia. Hloov chaw, cov tswv cuab txoj kev ntseeg tam sim no yog ua raws li Fred qhov kev kwv yees, vim nws tau paub hais tias "nws tsis xav tias lub zeem muag yuav pib ua kom pom tau txog thaum nws lub neej" (Adler 2006: 251). Kev nthuav qhia ua ntej, Jo coj ob qho tib si Kev cob qhia txog Feraferia keeb kwm thiab Feraferia rituals ntawm PantheaCon nquag los ntawm ib ncig ntawm 2012. (PantheaCon tshaj tawm 2020 raws li nws lub rooj sib tham zaum kawg.) Nws [Duab ntawm txoj cai] thiab nws tus txiv John kuj tswj hwm lub vev xaib loj (feraferia lub vev xaib 2022) thiab Feraferia Facebook Page, ua kom lub zej zog sib txuas nrog rau kev mus cuag cov tswv cuab tshiab thiab cov pib tshiab. Yog luam tawm Ua kev zoo siab rau Wildness: Khawv koob, Mirth thiab Kev Hlub ntawm Feraferia Txoj Kev nyob rau hauv 2014, thiab tam sim no nws tab tom ua hauj lwm los tsim lub Tarot ntawm Feraferia, raws li Fred's art thiab Enneasphere, Feraferia's "psycho-cosmic-tuning system." Jo thiab lwm tus kuj pom qhov txuas ntxiv ntawm Feraferia los ntawm lawv cov kev sib xyaw ntawm Feraferian cov tswv yim thiab cov tswv yim rau hauv lwm cov kev cai Pagan uas lawv xyaum.

DLAWS

Image # 1: Frederick "Fred" McLaren Adams thiab Svetlana Butyrin los ntawm Harold Moss los ntawm https://wildhunt.org/2010/05/pagan-passages-barbara-stacy-and-lady-svetlana.html.
Image # 2: Tus vajtswv poj niam Kore. Copyright los ntawm Jo Carson.
Duab #3: Feraferia ritual calendar. Copyright los ntawm Jo Carson.
Image #4: "Repose." Copyright los ntawm Jo Carson.
Duab #5: Jo Carson. Copyright los ntawm Jo Carson.

ua tim khawv

Adams, Fred. nd "Feferia Seasonal Festivals." Accessed los ntawm http://www.phaedrus.dds.nl/fera2.htm nyob rau 9 Lub Ob Hlis 2021.

Adams, Frederick. 1970. "Eco-Psychic Mandala rau Feraferia." Feraferia. Graduate Theological Union's New Religious Movements Organizations: Vertical Files Collection.

Adams, Frederick, Svetlana Butyrin, thiab Phaedrus. nd "Feraferia Caij Nyoog Rituals." Accessed los ntawm http://www.phaedrus.dds.nl/fera2.htm nyob rau 18 Lub Ob Hlis 2021.

Adler, Margot. 2006. Teeb hauv lub hli: Witches, Druids, Vajtswv poj niam-Cov neeg pe hawm thiab lwm cov Pagans hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas. Hloov kho thiab hloov kho nrog cov ntaub ntawv qhia kev pab tshiab. New York: Phau Ntawv Penguin.

Carson, Yog. 2012. Feraferia's Facebook Page. Tau txais los ntawm https://www.facebook.com/Feraferia/?ref=page_internal nyob rau 18 lub Kaum Hlis 2021.

Carson, Yog. 2009 a. Dancing With Gaia: A Jo Carson Documentary. Ntuj Tso Duab.

Carson, Yog. 2009b. "Fred Adams thiab Feraferia." Accessed los ntawm http://feraferia.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=87:fred-adams-his-life-and-work&catid=65:founders&Itemid=104 nyob rau 18 lub Kaum Hlis 2021.

Carson, Yog. nd Cov hauv paus hniav ntawm Feferia. Tau txais los ntawm http://feraferia.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=63:roots-of-feraferia&catid=67:early-feraferia&Itemid=69 nyob 16 lub Xya hli ntuj 2021.

Carson, Yog. nd "Svetlana Butyrin, Poj Niam Svetlana ntawm Feraferia." Accessed los ntawm http://feraferia.org/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88:svetlana-butyrin-lady-svetlana-of-feraferia&catid=65:founders&Itemid=104 nyob rau 18 lub Kaum Hlis 2021.

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Feraferia lub vev xaib. 2022. Tau txais los ntawm http://feraferia.org/joomla//   nyob rau 5 Lub Ib Hlis 2022.

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Lewis, James R. 1999. Witchcraft Niaj hnub no: Ib Phau Ntawv Qhia ntawm Wiccan thiab Neopagan Kev Cai. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Runyon, Poke. 2011. "Frederick Adams: American William Blake." Pp. 59-60 ib Lub Xya Hli Ntuj, Phau Ntawv Peb, "The Green Ray," los ntawm Lub Koom Txoos ntawm Hermetic Sciences thiab Ordo Templi Astartes, kho los ntawm Caroll "Poke" Runyon. Silverado, CA: Lub Koom Txoos ntawm Hermetic Sciences, Inc.

Strmiska, Michael F. 2005. “Modern Paganism in World Cultures: Comparative Perspectives.” Pp. 1-53 hli Niaj hnub Paganism hauv Ntiaj Teb Kab lis kev cai: Kev Pom Zoo sib piv, kho los ntawm Michael F. Strmiska. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Daim Ntawv Qhia Hnub:
5 Lub ib hlis ntuj 2022

Qhia