John Paul Healy

Siddha Yog


SIDDHA YOGA TIMELINE

Xyoo 1908: Swami Muktananda (lub npe yug, Krishna), paub rau nws cov thwjtim tsuas yog Baba, yug hauv Karnataka Xeev, Is Nrias teb.

Xyoo 1923: Thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum tsib, Muktananda, tom qab ntawd Krishna, thawj zaug pom nws yav tom ntej Guru Bhagavan Nityananda, thiab tsis ntev tom qab tawm hauv tsev mus nrhiav lub neej sab ntsuj plig.

Xyoo 1947: Muktananda tau txais Shaktipat (pib sab ntsuj plig) los ntawm nws Guru Bhagawan Nityananda. Nyob rau xyoo caum tom ntej Muktananda siv nws lub sijhawm nyob thiab nyob hauv ib lub tsev pheeb suab me me hauv lub zos Yeola, Maharashtra.

Xyoo 1956: Bhagawan Nityananda muab Muktananda ib thaj av me me nyob ntawm ob peb km ntawm nws tus kheej ashram qhov twg Muktananda ua lub tsev pheeb suab me me nrog thiab cog lub vaj zaub.

1961 (Lub Yim Hli 8): Muktananda's Guru, Bhagawan Nityananda, tuag. Kev tuag ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda tshuav ntau tus neeg vam meej, suav nrog Muktananda, mus rau dab tsi tam sim no suav hais tias yog Siddha Yoga caj ces.

Xyoo 1970: Muktananda thawj zaug ncig xyuas lub ntiaj teb. Txog rau thaum xyoo 1970, Muktananda thiab ib pab neeg tsawg tau mus ncig thiab qhia Siddha Yoga hauv Tebchaws Europe, Australia, Singapore thiab Amelikas.

Xyoo 1974-1976: Muktananda thib ob ncig ntiaj teb ncig xyuas. Muktananda rov qab los rau tebchaws Australia, uas tau los ntawm kev tsim tsa ob zaug Ashrams, Tebchaws Europe, thiab tom qab ntawd nws siv sijhawm feem ntau nyob hauv Asmeskas hauv tebchaws Oakland Ashram uas tau tsim tshiab thiab tsim lub koomhaum, Siddha Yoga Dham Associates (SYDA) thiab ncig tebchaws Asmeskas.

Xyoo 1978-1981: Muktananda ncig lub ntiaj teb thib peb thiab zaum kawg. Nws suav nrog kev ncua nyob ntev thiab tsim tshiab tsim Santa Monica Ashram thiab Nityananda Ashram (tom qab Shree Muktananda Ashram) nyob rau sab qab teb Fallsburg, New York, uas tau ua haujlwm ua haujlwm hauv lub tsev hauv paus, thiab tau tsim muaj lub npe nrov thoob ntiaj teb ua ib tus neeg guru.

Xyoo 1981: Thaum lub koob tsheej ntawm South Fallsburg Ashram hauv New York, Muktananda tau npe lub npe hu ua Swami Nityananda uas yog nws tus sawv cev.

Xyoo 1982 (Lub Tsib Hlis): Tom qab pib ntawm Swami Chidvilasananda, cov tub ntxhais hluas Swami Nityananda tus viv ncaus, Muktananda muab lawv lub npe ua ob qho kev ua tiav rau Siddha Yoga caj ces.

Xyoo 1982 (Lub Kaum Hli 2): Swami Muktananda tuag thiab Swami Chidvilasananda (tom qab Gurumayi) thiab Swami Nityananda tau los ua tus phooj ywg ntawm Siddha Yoga lub zog.

Xyoo 1982-1985: Swami Chidvilasananda (tam sim no Gurumayi) thiab Swami Nityananda tau koom nrog Siddha Yoga, tshaj tawm lawv cov lus thoob ntiaj teb tab sis feem ntau mus txawv tebchaws.

Xyoo 1985: Swami Nityananda sawv ua ke co-guru thaum muaj teeb meem tshwm sim. Nityananda tsis ntev dhau los tsim nws tus kheej lub koom haum Shanti Mandir los txuas ntxiv nws cov haujlwm uas ua tiav los ntawm Muktananda.

Xyoo 1985-2020: Gurumayi tau txuas ntxiv ua tus thawj coj thiab Guru ntawm Siddha Yoga thiab tau txuas ntxiv tsim kab lis kev cai. Ntau ntawm Ashram thiab cov chaw tau tsim los ntawm Muktananda tseem niaj hnub ua haujlwm.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Yug hauv xyoo 1908, thiab npe hu ua Krishna, Muktananda [Duab ntawm sab xis] tsis tau hais lus ntau zaus ntawm nws tsev neeg lossis menyuam yaus, txawm hais tias, nws paub tias nws tawm hauv tsev thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum tsib ua raws li lub neej ntawm ascetic thiab tej zaum yuav tuaj los ntawm ib qho chav kawm sab saud rau tsev neeg muaj nyiaj. Nws tau los ua saṃnyāsī raws li tus txiv neej hluas hauv Sārasvatī cov kev coj hauv Da inanāmīs ntawm Siddharudha's āśram hauv Hubli (Brooks 2000; Prakashananda 2007). Rau nws lub neej feem ntau, nws taug kev los ntawm ko taw thoob Is Nrias teb. Muktananda yog tus eclectic yogī; nws khaws kev coj, kev ua si, thiab bhajans los ntawm cov kev ntseeg sib txawv uas nws tau ntsib thaum nws taug kev. Raws li ib tug txiv neej hluas, nws mob siab kawm los ntawm cov neeg ntseeg ntuj ntawm Is Nrias teb. Muktananda kawm los ntawm Muslim, Christian, thiab Hindu zoo ib yam. Hauv nws phau ntawv sau txog tus kheej Kev Ua Si ntawm Saib Kom Zoo: Chitshakti Vilas (Muktananda 1974), nws tau piav qhia txog nws lub sijhawm ntawm kev taug kev thiab cov neeg ntseeg ntawm Is Nrias teb uas nws tau ntsib, ua kom tiav nrog nws withaktipāta kev pib (kev paub ntawm sab ntsuj plig lub zog paub hauv kab ke no li kuṇḍalinī kev tsim tsa los ntawm kev tshav ntuj ntawm guru) los ntawm nws tus kheej guru, Bhagawan Nityananda (1888–1961) ntawm Ganeshpuri. [Duab nyob sab xis]

Tom qab xyoo dhau los ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav, Muktananda thaum kawg daws nrog nws tus guru hauv lub zos Ganeshpuri tsis deb ntawm Mumbai. Txawm li cas los xij, Muktananda thov kom thawj zaug ntsib nws tus yawg ghauj Bhagawan Nityananda luv luv ua ib tus menyuam kawm ntawv, uas tau coj nws txoj hauv kev sab ntsuj plig los kawm ntawm tus tswv no. Tom qab txoj kev tuag ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda, Muktananda pib tsim nws tus kheej āśram los ntawm lub tsev me me peb chav tsev thiab thaj av ib puag ncig uas Bhagawan Nityananda tau muab rau nws. Los ntawm txoj kev pib txo qis hauv lub zos ntawm Ganeshpuri, yim caum mais tawm ntawm Mumbai, Muktananda tus kheej txoj cai guru – thwj tim kev lig kev cai tau yug los, thiab Siddha Yoga ("yoga ntawm siddhas"), tau qhia rau lub ntiaj teb.

Muktananda tau mob siab rau nws tus kheej āśram rau nws tus yawg thiab muab nws lub npe hu ua Shree Gurudev Ashram, thiab tom qab ntawd, Gurudev Siddha Peeth. Los tsim nws tus kheej hauv kab keeb kwm ntawm sab ntsuj plig, Muktananda tshaj tawm nws tus kheej ib tus neeg ua tiav rau nws tus yawg; txawm li cas los xij, ntawm cov ntseeg ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda, kev ua tiav tsis tau pom meej meej. Nyob rau hauv sib piv rau ib tus tib neeg succession, muaj ib tug paub ntawm devotees ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda ntawm ntau lub peev xwm cov neeg tau ua tiav, suav nrog Janananda Swami, Muktananda, [Duab ntawm sab xis] Shaligram Swami, Shankar Teerth Swami, Sadananda Swami, Tulsiamma, thiab Gopalmama (Kodikal and Kodikal 2005). Janananda Swami yog qhov tseeb lub taub hau ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda Ashram hauv Kerala thaum lub sijhawm thiab tom qab kev tuag ntawm Nityananda, uas yuav ua rau nws ua tus neeg tuaj yeem ua tiav. Txawm li cas los xij, Muktananda tus kheej phau ntawv sau txog lub neej (1974) tau hais tias nws yog tus sawv cev ntxiv rau qhov uas nws xav tias yog caj ces ntawm lub siddhas (vajtswv-paub cov tsiaj txhu), yog li lub npe Siddha Yoga. Cov neeg vam meej ntawm caj ces yog, txawm li cas los xij, cov kev xav sib cav tau xav tias Bhagawan Nityananda tsis muaj nws tus kheej guru; yog li ntawd, qhov kev thov rau cov caj ces yog tsis tau thov kom muaj caj ces ntawm lub cev tab sis rau cov caj ces ntawm siddhas. Hauv Siddha Yoga āśrams thoob ntiaj teb, muaj duab ntawm ntau yam siddhas uas Muktananda suav tias yog ib feem ntawm nws tus kheej li caj ces.

Thoob plaws hauv 1960, Shree Gurudev Ashram nyiam cov neeg Qhab thiab coob tus neeg mob sab hnub poob coob zuj zus. Nws tsis yog, txawm li cas los xij, txog xyoo 1970 uas Swami Muktananda's Siddha Yoga tau qhia rau Sab Hnub Poob ua ib feem ntawm nws thawj cov haujlwm sab nraud ntawm Is Nrias teb (Thursby 1991; Dawb 1974). Ntau cov tub rog Indian nyob rau lub sijhawm no tau taug kev mus rau sab hnub poob thiab tau txais cov lej loj. Muktananda thawj ncig ua si tau ua tiav nrog kev txhawb nqa ntawm nws txoj kev loj hlob ntawm Indian thiab ib pab neeg ntawm Western coob. Swami Rudrananda (Albert Rudolph) thiab Baba Ramdas (Richard Alpert) kuj tseem ceeb rau Muktananda thawj lub ntiaj teb ncig saib. Swami Rudrananda, feem ntau hu ua Rudi, yog ib tus neeg ntawm Sab Hnub Poob los ntsib Muktananda tus neeg guru, Bhagawan Nityananda. Txij lub sijhawm xyoo 1950 mus, Rudi pib taug kev mus rau Is Nrias teb sau cov khoom cuav tuaj muag rau hauv nws lub khw New York Manhattan. Rudi tau los ua ib tug devotee ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda, thiab thaum lub sijhawm nws nrog Nityananda nws tau ntsib Muktananda.

Tom qab txoj kev tuag ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda xyoo 1961, Rudi tau tsim nws tus kheej ua tus kws qhia ntawv sab ntsuj plig hauv New York City thiab thaum kawg nws tsim lub āśram hauv lub nroog ntawm Big Indian hauv upstate New York, nyiam nws cov neeg nws cov neeg. Lub āśram, uas nws hu ua Big Indian, yog thawj tus āśram tau mob siab rau Bhagawan Nityananda nyob rau sab hnub poob. (Shanti Mandir muaj txog 2020, peb Ashrams hauv Is Nrias teb thiab ib qho hauv Walden New York.)

Rudi txuas ntxiv mus rau Is Nrias teb tom qab kev tuag ntawm Bhagawan Nityananda thiab feem ntau mus xyuas Muktananda. Nws yog Muktananda uas tau muab Rudi lub npe Swami Rudrananda. Thaum Muktananda ncig xyuas thawj zaug, Rudi tau caw Muktananda rau Big Indian, uas nws tau qhia Muktananda rau nws cov thwjtim. Muktananda nyob hauv Rudi qhua ntawm Loj Indian thiab hauv Rudi New York lub tsev. Qee tus Rudi cov thwjtim los ua neeg mob siab rau Muktananda, suav nrog Franklin Jones, tseem paub Adi Da Samraj, leej twg tsis ntev tom qab ntsib Muktananda tsim nws tus kheej lub koob npe nrov ua tus kws qhia ntawv zoo thiab muaj kev sib cav. Nws yog thawj zaug los ntawm kev pab los ntawm Rudrananda thiab Baba Ramdas tias Muktananda tau tuaj yeem mus rau Tebchaws Asmeskas.

Baba Ramdas, tus kws qhia ntawv yav dhau los hauv tsev kawm qib siab thiab tshawb fawb txog tshuaj yeeb-yaj yeeb nrog Timothy leary thiab Aldous Huxley, yog phooj ywg ntawm Swami Rudrananda. Rudi caw Ramdas ntsib Muktananda ntawm Big Indian. Thaum nws lub sijhawm ntawm Big Indian, ib tus ntawm Muktananda cov thwjtim tau nug Ramdas yog tias nws tuaj yeem coj Muktananda ncig Amelikas. [Duab nyob sab xis] Lub sijhawm no, Ramdas yog tus thawj coj ntawm sab hnub tuaj mysticism, ncig xyuas thiab qhia txog nws kev paub nrog nws tus kheej guru Neem Karoli Baba. Lub sijhawm Muktananda nyob Big Indian, Ramdas muaj lub zeem muag ntawm nws guru Neem Karoli Baba, uas hais kom nws "pab tus txiv neej no," lub ntsiab lus Muktananda (Coroneos 2005). Ramdas mam li nrog Muktananda hla America mus txog Melbourne, Australia, thiab tom qab ntawd rau Is Nrias teb, qhia Muktananda txog kev ua neeg suav zoo nyob rau lub sijhawm ntawd. Nws yog rau qee yam kev pab txhawb ntawm Baba Ramdas [Duab ntawm sab xis] thiab Swami Rudrananda thaum pib pab txhim kho Muktananda qhov lees paub raws li guru mus rau sab hnub poob thiab pib thaj chaw rau nws tus kheej Siddha Yoga xyaum.

Tom qab Muktananda thawj lub ntiaj teb ncig xyuas, cov neeg thaj av tshiab tau pib tsim Siddha Yoga chaw hauv lawv tus kheej lub tebchaws. Zoo li lwm yam Indian guru-based tsiv, xws li ISKCON or Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh /Osho, Siddha Yoga yuav pom tau tias yog ib qho kev coj ua tshiab hauv cov lus uas tau thov los ntawm Melton (1993), vim tias thaum nws nkag mus rau sab hnub poob, nws tau txais kev hloov siab los ntawm tus tswv cuab lub tebchaws. Txawm hais tias guru cov thwj tim kab lis kev cai tau paub zoo thiab tau tsim hauv tebchaws Is Nrias teb rau ntau pua xyoo, thaum xyoo 1960s thiab 1970s, cov pab pawg no tau muab rau sab hnub poob kom muaj kev ntseeg sab ntsuj plig rau cov ntseeg qhov tseem ceeb. Hauv nws lub neej, Swami Muktananda tau ua peb txoj kev ncig sab hnub poob, dhau ntawm kev qhia ntawm nws tus yawg Bhagawan Nityananda hauv qhov uas nws xav tias yog caj ces ntawm siddhas, lossis tus zoo tiav qib masters (Brooks 2000; Foster 2002).

Muktananda txoj kev ncig xyuas zaum ob, xyoo 1974, tau ua tiav nrog kev txhawb nqa ntawm Werner Erhard ntawm Erhard Seminars Training (est). Werner Erhard tau tsim kho nws tus kheej hauv Kev Ua Pej Xeem Huab Hwm hauv xyoo 1970 thiab muaj ntau txhiab tus neeg ua raws nws txoj haujlwm (Graham 2001; Prakashananda 2007). Nws tau them nyiaj rau Muktananda thiab nws tus tswvcuab me mus ncig tawm ntawm Is Nrias teb, thiab zoo li Ramdas thiab Rudi tau ua xyoo 1970, tau qhia Muktananda rau nws cov neeg tuaj saib (Brooks 2000). Werner Erhard qhia Muktananda rau nws cov kev kawm ua haujlwm rau tus kheej muaj zog. Cov kev sib tham no zoo nkaus li tau muaj qee yam cuam tshuam rau Muktananda uas tom qab ntawd pib coj nws tus kheej ob hnub txoj kev npaj qhia ntau ntxiv ntawm kev qhia rau Siddha Yoga; cov Intensives no tau los ua qhov tsis txaus ntawm Siddha Yoga śaktipāta pib rau cov neeg tuaj tshiab. Txog rau xyoo 1975, Muktananda tau tsim muaj qhov muaj txiaj ntsig qab raws li nws tus kheej thiab tau ua tiav cov hnub so ua ntu zus thiab cov kab satsaṅg (hauv qab) thoob plaws Meskas. Txawm hais tias Werner Erhard tsis koom nrog Muktananda tom qab lub sijhawm no (tsis yog Baba Ramdas), nws tau mus ntsib Muktananda hauv Is Nrias teb ua ntej Muktananda tuag xyoo 1982 (Graham 2001). [Duab nyob sab xis]

Rau qhov kev ncig xyuas zaum ob no, xyoo 1974, lub tsev me me ntawm Webster Street, San Francisco, tau hloov mus rau thawj āśram sab nraud ntawm Is Nrias teb nplooj siab rau Muktananda Siddha Yoga xyaum. Āśram raug tswj hwm los ntawm Ed Oliver uas, thaum lub caij Muktananda thib ob ncig ntawm Asmeskas, scouted ua ntej nrog cov pab pawg tsawg, nrog rau qee tus neeg tau hais los saum toj no, mus rau ntau lub nroog Asmeskas hauv nroog thiaj li npaj tau rau Muktananda txoj kev mus xyuas (Siddha Path 1982a) Cov. Xyoo 1975, Muktananda ncig tebchaws Asmeskas thaum kawg tau tsim lub tebchaws Oakland-tshiab tsim, uas tom qab ntawd dhau los ua lub chaw rau kev txhim kho kev txhim kho ntawm kev tsim qauv rau Siddha Yoga Sab Hnub Poob. Nws tau tshaj tawm tias Muktananda, ntawm ib qho ntawm nws taug kev ncig Oakland, tau dhau los ntawm lub tsev so qub hauv Stanford thiab xav tias nws yuav ua ib qho zoo āśram thiab lub hauv paus rau kev tsim kho ntxiv Siddha Yoga chaw lwm qhov chaw (saib "Qhov Chaw No Muaj Txhua Yam" 1982b). Tsis ntev, devotees los ntawm Australia, raug kev tshoov siab los ntsib Muktananda, tsim āśrams hauv Melbourne thiab Sydney. Qhov no ua rau Australia thib ob satsaṅg sab nraud ntawm Is Nrias teb (Brooks 2000: 83).

Kev ncig xyuas zaum thib peb, xyoo 1978, tau tsim tsa Muktananda Siddha Yoga chaw lwm qhov thiab Shree Muktananda Ashram, thaj chaw m2 hauv South Fallsburg, upstate New York, raws li Western cov hauv paus tswj hwm hauv paus. Nws yog qhov nthuav tias lub ntsiab Siddha Yoga āśram hauv Asmeskas tau tsim tsis deb ntawm Rudrananda's Big Indian Ashram, nyob rau hauv uas Muktananda tau nyob ntawm nws thawj ncig ncig.

Los ntawm lub sijhawm Muktananda tuag nyob hauv nws Indian Khab nyob rau xyoo 1982, Siddha Yoga tau loj hlob mus rau qhov kev tawm tsam thoob ntiaj teb nrog āśrams thiab cov chaw thoob ntiaj teb thiab nyob ib puag ncig ntawm ib lab tus raws (Graham 2001: 13). Rau lub zej zog Siddha Yoga, kev tuag ntawm lawv tus tswv yog maj mam thiab loj heev; rau nws cov thwjtim, Muktananda yog Siddha Yoga.

Ua ntej Muktananda tuag, nws tau teeb tsa ob ntawm nws qhov kev mob siab coj los coj pab pawg ua ke ntawm tus kwv tij (Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Thursby 1991). Thaum lub caij gurupūrṇimā kev ua koob tsheej xyoo 1981, Muktananda muaj npe raws li nws tus sawv cev Swami Nityananda (1962–); rau lub hlis tom qab, Nityananda tus viv ncaus Swami Chidvilasananda, yav tas los Malti thiab tam sim no lub npe hu ua Gurumayi (1958–), tau muaj npe ua ke nrog kev ua tiav (Brooks 2000: 115). Nityananda thiab Gurumayi yog cov menyuam ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntev ntawm Muktananda thiab tau ntau xyoo nyob thiab taug kev nrog nws. [Duab nyob sab xis] Tus neeg gurus tshiab ntawm Siddha Yoga tau taug kev ntau hauv lawv peb xyoos ua ke ua kev sib koom ua ke txog thaum peb xyoos Muktananda tuag, uas tau muaj nyob ntawm Gurudev Siddha Peeth hauv Ganeshpuri, Is Nrias teb.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM 

Lub charismatic kuaj pom ntawm guru yog muaj peev xwm ntxiv qhov tseem ceeb rau kev coj ua Siddha Yoga tshaj yog tus tib neeg kev coj ua ntawm sab ntsuj plig (Thursby 1995: 206). Kev guru – thwj tus kev sib raug zoo yog qhov tseem ceeb rau tus devotee ntawm sab ntsuj plig awakening. Thaum ib tus neeg qhib siab thiab txais tau los ntsib nrog kev sib raug zoo ntawm txoj kev ua neej nyob, tus ntsuj plig tsis paub tab ntawm tus tib neeg tuaj yeem tshwm sim. Hauv cov nqe vaj lug kub sab hnub tuaj, qhov kev paub txog lossis pib yog paub li śaktipāta. Thaum qhov no tau tshwm sim, tus neeg pib ib txheej txheem ua rau muaj kev sib hloov tag nrho (Siddha-Yoga 1989: 1).

Muab qhov tseem ceeb ntawm guru, qhov xav ua rau xav tuaj yeem xav txog guru lub cev daim ntawv dua li siv mantra. Hauv kev xyaum Siddha Yoga, nws ntseeg tias pib los ntawm tus guru, lossis śaktipāta, txhawb qhov kev cia siab rau kev xyaum ntawm sab ntsuj plig, thiab yog li ntawd kev xav thiab mantra rov ua dua thib ob xwm. Śaktipāta tseem hu ua "kuṇḍalinī awakening" lossis "awakening ntawm kuṇḍalinī" (Muktananda 1990; Dawb 1974). Los ntawm qhov kev xav ntawm Siddha Yoga, qhov kev paub txog no yog qhov pib ntawm tus neeg koom nrog lub neej sab ntsuj plig lossis sādhana, uas nyob rau hauv guru – thwj tim kev coj ua ntawm Is Nrias teb yog kev coj ua ntawm kev qhuab qhia ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiaj li yuav ua rau vajtswv paub tseeb (Sharma 2002; Uban 1977). Lub tswv yim ntawm śaktipāta hauv Siddha Yoga feem ntau yog los ntawm lub tswv yim kev ntseeg ntawm Kashmir Śaivism (Brooks 2000; Shankarananda 2003). Ib ntawm thawj phau ntawv ntawm kab lis kev cai no yog tus Ivasūtra, cov ntawv tshaj tawm uas hais txog tus neeg sau ntawv yog toiva, uas qhia nws rau Vasugupta (Chatterji 2004; Singh 1990). Kashmir Śaivism sim piav qhia txoj hauv kev kom pom tseeb lossis paub txog qhov tseeb lossis zoo tshaj tus kheej, lossis Śiva (Shankarananda 2003: 53). Lub Śaiva-Śakta kev ntseeg yog ib qho kev ntseeg tshaj plaws hauv lub ntiaj teb; ua ntej Vasugupta, nws yog qhov ncauj kev coj ua (Singh 1990: 3).

Shankarananda (2003: 57) tshaj tawm Śaivism raws li kev ntseeg lub neej uas lees paub tias txhua yam uas tus neeg pom thiab kev paub yog vajtswv. Tsis pub dhau Siddha Yoga xyaum, txhua tus yog vajtswv, thiab cov ntseeg lub siab xav ua ib tug nrog Vajtswv. Los ntawm qhov pom ntawm lub Śivasūtra, thaum yogī kawg nws ua tiav lub xeev siab tshaj plaws, nws lossis nws dhau los ua Śiva, lossis tus vajtswv (Singh 1982: 186). Thaum lub xeev no tiav lawm, tus guru lossis satguru (zoo tshaj plaws guru) dhau los ua cov twj paj nruag ntawm kev paub, thiab lub ntiaj teb puv nrog nws lub zog lossis lub zog (Singh 1982: 197–197). Lub xeev ntawm Śiva, lossis tus vajtswv, yog qhov kev lees paub txog kev ntseeg sab ntsuj plig ntawm cov guru tsis pub dhau Muktananda Siddha Yoga kev coj ua (Foster: 2002; Uban 1977). Txawm li cas los xij, Muktananda tus txiv neej yawg Bhagawan, Nityananda tau hais hauv qab no: “Nws tsis raug cai tias 'Kuv yog Brahman [vajtswv].' Ib qho yuav tsum tau hais tias 'Koj yog Txhua Tus, tag nrho lub ntiaj teb yog koj tus kheej "' (Kodikal and Kodikal 2005: 168).

Nyob rau hauv kev coj ua ntawm Kashmir Śaivism, kev ywj pheej ntawm tus kheej tsis yog "ua tiav los ntawm kev txawj ntse tsuas yog los ntawm kev txawj ntse, nws los ntawm saktipat [sic] (qhovntsej thiaj tsis mob Divine Sakti) lossis ... Divine kev tshav ntuj" (Singh 1990: 26). Yog li no, tus guru tau pom tias yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm Siddha Yoga xyaum, raws li txoj kev tshav ntuj pub rau lub zog ntawm Śiva lossis vajtswv. Tus Gurugītā, zaj nkauj 182-nqe los ntawm Phau Ntawv Maumoos Skandapurāṇa, uas txij hnub thib rau mus txog yim pua ​​pua CE (Chapple 2005: 15), muab ib qho qauv rau kev sib raug zoo ntawm tus guru thiab tus raws rau kev mob siab ntawm Siddha Yoga, thiab nws tau chanted txhua hnub hauv Siddha Yoga āśrams. Raws li cov Gurugītā, “Tsis muaj ib yam dab tsi siab dua li Guru” (Lub Nectar ntawm Chanting 1990: 28). Muktananda tseem tau sau ntau phau ntawv hais txog tus neeg guru, siv ua piv txwv nws kev sib raug zoo nrog nws tus kheej guru, uas hais txog lub tswvyim ntawm guru li vajtswv. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum Bhagawan Nityananda tau hais tias "Tus guru yog Vajtswv," nws tau ua raws li qhov no nrog "Vajtswv yog tus guru" (Kodikal and Kodikal 2005: 61) thiab "Tus guru tiag tiag tsis muaj khau khiab ntawm nws ko taw, tsis muaj tus rosary hauv tes" ( Kodikal thiab Kodikal 2005: 161).

Tus guru hauv kev coj ua Siddha Yoga yog suav tias yog lub ntsiab ntawm tus kheej lossis vajtswv thiab kev tawm sab nraud ntawm sab hauv ntawm tus kheej hauv txhua qhov. Tias tus guru yog vaj tswv zoo li muaj kev thov loj heev; txawm li cas los xij, qhov no tau txiav txim siab los ntawm kev xav tias txhua tus neeg puav leej yog vaj tswv, txawm hais tias lawv yuav tsis tau lees paub qhov no tam sim no. Cov aspirant yuav thaum kawg sib koom ua ke nrog vajtswv lossis tus guru thiab yog li ntawd dhau los ua tus guru. Ib qho ntawm cov lus qhia tseem ceeb ntawm Siddha Yoga yog tias "Vajtswv nyob hauv koj ib yam li koj." Muktananda feem ntau hais cov hauv qab no: "Hwm koj tus kheej, pe hawm koj tus kheej, Xav txog koj tus kheej, Vajtswv nyob nrog koj ib yam li koj" (Graham 2004: 71).

Rituals / kev xyaum

Siddha Yoga yog rau cov feem ntau guru – thwj tim kev lig kev cai. Cov uas ua raws li kev lig kev cai no yog ib feem ntawm kev txav mus los uas pe hawm tus Vajtswv uas sawv cev los ntawm kab ke ntawm kev ua neej nyob.

Siddha Yoga xyaum suav nrog kev xav, kev ua yeebyam, sevā, Haṭha yoga, kev kawm, kev xav, thiab dakṣiṇā (kev ua lub luag haujlwm pub dawb). "Cov hauv paus pib ntawm Siddha yog Vedanta thiab Kashmir Shaivism, thiab kev coj ua yog ntawm kundalini yoga" (Beit-Hallahmi 1993: 284). Kuj tseem muaj qib sib txawv ntawm Tantra raws li tau tham los ntawm Caldwell (2001) hauv nws tsab xov xwm "Lub plawv ntawm qhov tsis txaus siab: Tus Kheej thiab Tus Kheej Scholarly ntsib nrog Shakta Tantrism hauv Siddha Yoga." Cov tib neeg mob siab mus rau txoj kev xyaum yuav txawv (Healy 2010). Piv txwv li, muaj cov devotees uas yuav tsis xav txog Haṭha Yoga tseem ceeb rau lawv kev coj ua thiab tom qab ntawd lwm tus rau leej twg chanting lossis sevā yog lawv qhov kev coj ua tag nrho. Cov tib neeg yuav haum rau cov kwj deg ntawm kev coj ua uas haum lawv tus kheej kev coj tus kheej thiab cuam tshuam cov ntaub ntawv ntawm Indian tsoos yoga tham hauv Bhagavadgītā, xws li karmayoga, jñānayoga, thiab bhaktiyoga. Karmayogins feem ntau ua cov kev pabcuam sevā thiab siv ntau lub sijhawm ntawm Siddha Yoga ua haujlwm rau lub koomhaum, jñānayogins txaus siab nrhiav kev ua haujlwm ntawm kev txawj ntse ntawm kev kawm thiab kev xav txog ntawm ntau cov ntawv Indian kev cai dab qhuas, thiab bhaktiyogins zoo li txaus siab rau kev xyaum ntawm chanting thiab nqus nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm guru. Cov pawg yog, txawm li cas los xij, tsis tshwj rau hauv kev coj ua, thiab feem ntau cov devotees koom nyob rau hauv txhua ntawm cov kev coj ua ntawm qee yam.

Meditation hauv Siddha Yoga xyaum nyhav yog mantra xav los yog xav txog ntawm guru lub cev daim ntawv. Thawj daim ntawv ntawm kev ua mantra xav qhia txog kev mob siab tshiab yog kev rov ua dua ntawm ṃ nāmaḥ (ivāya (ib qho kev hlub ntawm tus Tswv withiva nrog ntxiv ntawm cov thawj coj ṃ lossis aum). Qhov no tuaj yeem nkag siab zoo li "Kuv tau nyo mus rau Śiva," thiab nws kuj tuaj yeem nkag siab zoo li "Kuv tau khoov rau kuv tus kheej" lossis "Kuv khoov rau kuv sab hauv tus kheej," uas yog Śiva, raws li kev txhais los ntawm ntau tus kws qhia ntawm Siddha Kev xyaum yoga. Thaum Muktananda thawj zaug mus nyob rau sab hnub poob, nws feem ntau muab cov mantra guru oṃ; txawm li cas los xij, hauv Siddha Yoga cov kev pab cuam lossis satsaṅgs, oṃ nāmaḥ śivāya feem ntau tau hais ua ntej sib tham ua ntej xav. Lub mantra hauv kev xav rov qab ua dua nrog txhua tus pa thiab tawm. Ib qho ntxiv mantra uas devotees siv rau kev xav yog soʾham, feem ntau rov ua dua li ham sa. Qhov no mantra yog qhia thaum lub sij hawm muaj kev cob qhia hnub so lossis dab tsi Siddha Yoga piav raws li "kev siv zog", uas hauv śaktipāta pib tshwm sim. Soʾham mantra yog muaj peev xwm ua tau ntau dua ntawm kev ua raws li kev ua pa, xaiv cov kab lus luv luv. Ib ncig ntsuas, nrog nqaij ncej ua pa ntawm sab hauv thiab yog li ua pa tawm, nws to taub txhais tau tias "Kuv yog qhov ntawd." Ua raws li cov pa tawm thiab tawm, mantra dhau los ua "Kuv yog tias kuv yog tias kuv yog," thiab lwm yam. Nrog oṃ nāmaḥ śivāya mantra, muaj kev lees paub tias tus devotee lees paub nws txoj kev sib txuas nrog tus tsis paub kawg, nws tus kheej lossis sab hauv nws tus kheej lossis vajtswv. Lub hom phiaj ntawm soʾham mantra yog tias nws thaum kawg yuav zoo li lub ntuj ua pa nws tus kheej, thiab yog li ntawd mantra repetition dhau los ua qhov kev coj ua. Mantra qhov rov ua dua tseem yog txhawb nqa los ntawm kev siv japamālā. Ib yam li chanting hlaws lossis rosary hlaws, japamālā tau tuav hauv ib qho tes, thiab cov hlaws dai dhau los ntawm ib tus ntiv tes; Mantra tau rov ua ntawm txhua tus ntawm cov hlaws dai. Lub hom phiaj tag nrho ntawm mantra rov ua dua nyob rau hauv kev xav lossis lub neej txhua hnub yog ua kom lub siab ntsiag to kom ib tus neeg thiaj li yuav ua nyob hauv lawv lub siab lossis tus vaj tswv.

Sevā lossis kev pabcuam tus kheej rau tus neeg guru tau ib txwm yog qhov tseem ceeb rau Muktananda's Siddha Yoga xyaum thiab tseem pheej ua rau kev tswj hwm ntawm Gurumayi thiab lwm pab pawg nyob rau Muktananda caj ces. Sevā tau suav tias yog kev coj ua ntawm sab ntsuj plig; nws yog los ntawm kev pabcuam rau tus neeg guru uas cov tib neeg tau txais txiaj ntsig nrog, ntawm lwm yam, hom kev paub mystical, kev paub ntawm kev hlub, thiab kev sib cais (Brookes 2000: 144). Nws kuj tseem ceeb kom lees paub tias yog tsis muaj kev ua haujlwm pab dawb ntawm txoj kev mob siab, cov hom kev tsiv no yuav pom tias nws nyuaj rau qhov muaj, cia nyob ib leeg.

Ib qho tseem ceeb ntxiv rau Gurumayi Siddha Yoga kev ua haujlwm yog qhov chaw nruab nrab ntawm Dakshina, lossis muab rau lub koom haum, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog ntawm "Qhov Kev Npaj Rau." Qhov muab pub yog ib qho kev npaj rau ntawm txoj kev nyiaj txiag nyob rau thaum kawg lub neej kom muaj txiaj ntsig rau lub koom haum (siddhayoga 2020).

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

Siddha Yoga tau txuas ntxiv nyob rau hauv kev coj noj coj ua ntawm Gurumayi thoob plaws lub sijhawm nyuaj ntawm kev rov kho dua thaum lub sijhawm xyoo 1980 tom qab cov thawj coj tsis sib haum thiab tom qab kev sib tw ntawm cov teeb meem tseem ceeb ntawm cov pab pawg hauv Tus Tshiab Yorker (Harris 1994; Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Brooks 2002; Williamson 2005). Williamson txoj kev tshawb nrhiav (2005: 163) hais txog kev poob qis hauv Siddha Yoga ua tswv cuab thiab sau cia txog qee qhov ntawm pab pawg ua haujlwm. Txawm li cas los xij, vim tias tsis muaj ib tus tswv cuab koom rau hauv Siddha Yoga (Melton 1993: 935), nws yog qhov nyuaj rau kev ntsuam xyuas pab pawg ntawm pawg neeg cov tswv cuab. Muaj kev hloov kab lis kev cai thiab cov lus qhia tshiab thiab hloov tshiab, xws li siv ntau dua ntawm cov thev naus laus zis. Qhov no yog pom tseeb ntawm lawv cov vev xaib. Cov kev siv online thiab kev pab nyiaj pub dawb los ntawm kev xyaum ntawm Dakshina tshwm sim los qhia txog pawg neeg tau cog lus tseg uas tau txheeb xyuas nws qhov tam sim no thiab lub neej yav tom ntej. Txawm li cas los xij, Gurumayi, tsis tuaj ncig xyuas ntau ntau kom tau raws li nws tus neeg mob siab thoob ntiaj teb tsis pom nws tsis ua kom muaj kev cuam tshuam rau pej xeem. Gurumayi cov lus qhia raug nthuav tawm los ntawm nws cov laus svāmīs lossis los ntawm kev nyob thiab sau cov webcasts.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Txij thaum pib xyoo 1980s, ob peb xyoos ua ntej Swami Muktananda txoj kev tuag, muaj cov lus hais txog Muktananda qhov kev sib deev nrog poj niam hluas mus ncig thoob plaws thaj tsam Siddha Yoga. Cov lus xaiv no tau hais meej meej thaum lub sijhawm 1981 hauv tsab ntawv qhib los ntawm Swami Abhayananda (Stan Trout), xa rau txhua tus Siddha Yoga Ashram (Rodarmor 1983). Xyoo 1983, Rodarmor nthuav tawm thawj qhov kev tshaj tawm ntawm kev tsim txom, kev sib deev thiab lwm tus neeg muaj tswv yim liam tawm tsam Muktananda thiab lub koom haum Siddha Yoga. Rodarmor tau xam phaj qee tus poj niam thiab tau txais thawj cov nyiaj ntawm Muktanandas kev tsim txom. Txawm hais tias ob tsab ntawv thiab cov ntawv sau tau muab cov kev thuam, thaum lub sijhawm lawv ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam me ntsis rau kev loj hlob thiab lub koob npe nrov ntawm Swami Muktananda lossis Siddha Yoga. Tsis txog thaum cov tib thiab txuas ntxiv cov nyiaj tau muab los tso rau hauv Tshiab Yorker hauv 1993 los ntawm Liz Harris tau ua nws pib ua kev puas tsuaj rau Siddha Yoga lub koob npe thoob ntiaj teb thiab nws tus Thawj Coj Gurumayi tam sim no. Tsis yog tsab xov xwm no tau piav qhia txog kev sib deev sib deev ntawm cov ntxhais hluas los ntawm Muktananda, tab sis tseem muaj kev ua phem ntawm Gurumayi thiab nws lub koom haum rau nws tus kheej Swami Nityananda, uas raug yuam tawm ntawm kev sib koom tes ntawm kev sib koom tes sib txawv (Harris 1993). Xyoo 2001, Sarah Caldwell tsab xov xwm, tau rov qab los qhia txog qhov kev ua phem ntawm kev sib deev ntawm Muktananda, txawm li cas los xij, nrog kev hloov mus rau Shakta Tantrism kev txhais. Ib qho kev sim ntawm tantric rationalization kuj tau muab los ntawm cov neeg koom hauv Healy kev kawm txog Siddha yoga (Healy 2010) qhov twg ex-Siddha Yoga swami Elizabeth (pseudonym) thiab lwm tus tau ua lub ntsiab lus, tias nyob rau hauv Tantric kev lig kev cai, kev sib deev kev sib deev tuaj yeem yog ib feem ntawm guru cov xyaum.

Nws zoo nkaus li qhov kev iab liam ntawm kev tsim txom nyob ib puag ncig Muktananda zoo sau tseg; txawm li cas los xij, rau ib tus neeg ntseeg, lossis ib tus neeg uas nqis peev pab rau hauv lub tswv yim ntawm kev coj ua ntawm sab ntsuj plig no muaj peev xwm tsis kam "muab tus menyuam tawm nrog dej da." Muktananda Siddha Yoga kab ke mus nrog ntau lub koom haum thiab cov tib neeg muaj kev mob siab rau nws. Cov pab pawg uas xav pom lawv tus kheej hauv caj ces ntawm Swami Muktananda suav nrog tab sis tsis txwv rau: Gurumayi Siddha Yoga; Swami Nityananda's Shanti Mandir; Swami Shankarananda's Shiva Yoga; Master Charles 'Synchronicity; Jivanmukta Swami Ganapati Siddha Shiva Yoga; Acharya Kedar Kev Ua Siab Loj; Mark Griffin Qhov Chaw Teeb Tsa Nruab Nrab ntawm Kev Tsa; Swami Prakashananda; thiab Sally Kempton.

Lub koob tsheej thib peb ntawm Muktananda txoj kev tuag tau ua nyob rau lub Kaum Hlis 1985 thiab nyiam ntau txhiab tus neeg ntawm Western thiab Indian kev ntseeg siab; nws tau pom tias yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev txav, uas tau dhau los ua kev sib koom tes ntau lub tuam txhab (Caldwell 2001: 26). Txawm li cas los xij, nws tseem yog qhov hloov chaw rau kev txav, raws li kev ncaj ncees faib tau pom dhau los ntawm kev mob siab rau ob tus tub hluas gurus. Nityananda rau ib lub sijhawm, nyob rau hauv pem hauv ntej ntawm ntau tus devote, tau tuav Gurumayi txhais tes, tuav nws, thiab hais tias nrog qee qhov kev xav, "Tsis muaj teeb meem koj ua dab tsi, txawm koj xav li cas rau peb, peb yuav tsis cais," uas tshwm rau ua ib qho siv rau kev sib faib ntawm kev ncaj ncees ntawm cov neeg mob siab (Harris 1994: 102). Raws li George Thursby (1995: 206) tau sau tseg, nws yog tus neeg guru tau muaj nyob uas yog qhov tseem ceeb rau Siddha Yoga xyaum, thiab qhov tseeb hais tias qhov kev txav no muaj ob tus txiv neej zoo li ua rau Siddha Yoga guru tuaj yeem nkag mus rau cov devotees thoob ntiaj teb. thaum lub sijhawm Muktananda. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov duality no tseem tsim hauv pem teb rau kev faib, thiab rifts tau loj hlob.

Thaum Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 10, 1985, Nityananda tsis tsuas yog nws txoj kev sib koom tes ntawm Siddha Yoga tab sis kuj nws cov lus cog tseg ntawm saīnyāsī tus hauj sam (rau Nityananda tus account ntawm cov xwm txheej no, saib Kottary 1986). Hauv tsab ntawv rau cov devotees, tus thawj coj ntawm Siddha Yoga tau tshaj tawm cov lus hauv qab no: "Koj yuav tsum paub tias SYDA lub hauv paus paub Gurumayi Chidvilasananda ua tus thawj coj ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm Siddha Yoga" (Chidvilasananda 1986). Dab tsi tiag tiag tshwm sim thaum lub sijhawm Siddha Yoga tau raug kev sib cav sib ceg tau ze li peb xyoo lawm. Melton (1993: 935) tau hais txog qhov kev tshwm sim no li Nityananda so haujlwm, thiab Thursby (1991: 177) tau piav qhia nws qhov teebmeem kev coj noj coj ua. Ob qho tib si yuav yog qee qhov tsis raug. Siddha Yoga thawj zaug tau hais rau lawv cov thawj coj tias Muktananda tsuas yog npaj Nityananda tswj hwm pab pawg rau peb xyoos thiab tom qab ntawd nqis los. Tom qab Nityananda tawm ntawm lub zog, nws tau tshaj tawm hauv xov xwm Indian thiab Taug kev duab qhia ntawm Is Nrias teb hais tias nws tau raug yuam kom sawv ua tus thawj coj pab pawg (Harris 1994; Kottary 1986). Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm ntawd, Siddha Yoga tau tshaj tawm tias Nityananda tau liam tias tau poob ntawm nws txoj kev cog lus ntawm kev saib tsis taus los ntawm kev ua haujlwm nrog qee tus poj niam devotees (Chidvilasananda 1986). Cov kev liam no tsis raug tsis lees paub los ntawm Nityananda hauv kev sib tham tom qab rau Tus Tshiab Yorker (Harris 1994).

Tom qab nws tawm ntawm Siddha Yoga, Nityananda rov ua nws tus saṃnyāsī cog lus nyob rau hauv Dashnam kev lig kev cai, nrog kev txhawb nqa ntawm Mahamandaleshwar Swami Brahamanand Giriji Maharaj, thiab rov tsim nws lub luag haujlwm los ua tus tom qab ntawm Muktananda los ntawm tsim nws tus kheej lub koom haum, Shanti Mandir, xyoo 1987 (Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Foster 2002; Melton 1993). Nityananda tom qab ntawd tau tshaj tawm kev ua phem los ntawm cov neeg txhawb Gurumayi rau qhov lawv xav tias Nityananda tsis raug cai thov tus caj ces ntawm Siddha Yoga (rau tag nrho tus lej ntawm lub sijhawm no, saib Harris 1994). Thursby kuj tau sau tseg tias Siddha Yoga paub txog Nityananda qhov rov hais dua ntawm nws txoj kev ua tiav rau Muktananda ua kev hem thawj thiab "txhawm rau tiv thaiv txoj cai rau kev siv cai ntawm cov ntsiab lus, kev coj ua, thiab cov ntaub ntawv siv nyob rau hauv kev tawm tsam tiv thaiv kev cov nyom ... sau npe rau lawv" ( Thursby 1991: 178). Qhov kev tiv thaiv ntawm lub npe ntawm Siddha Yoga zoo nkaus li tseem ceeb rau Siddha Yoga qhov kev lees tias qhov kev xa khoom ntawm Muktananda (Brooks 2000; Williamson 2005). Nityananda yog txhua qhov tab sis lwv los ntawm keeb kwm ntawm Siddha Yoga tsuas yog rau ob peb nplooj ntawv hauv Siddha Yoga Meditation Revolution: Keeb Kwm thiab Kev Ntseeg ntawm Siddha Yoga Zog (Brooks 2000: 131-34).

Txawm hais tias Muktananda Siddha Yoga yog, thiab txuas ntxiv nyob rau hauv kev coj ua ntawm Gurumayi, qhov kev ntseeg tshiab tsis tseem ceeb, piv nrog ISKCON thiab lwm yam kev ntseeg hauv Hindu, nws yog qhov nthuav kom nco ntsoov tias, txij li nws tshwm sim nyob rau sab hnub poob xyoo 1970, nws muaj muab yug rau offshoots thiab schisms (Healy 2010). Muaj ntau pab pawg nyob rau sab hnub poob uas tau los ntawm Muktananda's Siddha Yoga xyaum, suav nrog Swami Nityananda's Shanti Mandir, Swami Shankarananda's Shiva Yoga, Master Charles 'Synchronicity, Jivanmukta Swami Ganapati lub Siddha Shiva Yoga, Acharya Kedar Kev Ua Haujlwm Zoo Tshaj Plaws, Mark Griffin Lub Chaw Nkag Siab Nruab Nrab ntawm Kev Tawm Txhaum, thiab Sally Kempton. Qee tus ntawm cov tib neeg no, nrog kev txhawb nqa ntawm Siddha Yoga devotees (tab sis tsis yog kev coj noj coj ua), tau tsim lawv tus kheej kev txav mus tom qab txav mus deb ntawm Siddha Yoga. Niaj hnub no, cov pawg sib cais no txuas ntxiv txoj kab ke ntawm lawv cov guru thiab hais txog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm guru-thwj tim kev sib raug zoo hauv Muktananda kev coj noj coj ua. Swami Nityananda tus Shanti Mandir, tshwj xeeb, nthuav tawm kev sib tw rau Siddha Yoga ib leeg thov rau Muktananda caj ces, tshwj xeeb yog vim Nityananda yog rau lub sijhawm luv luv tus co-thawj coj ntawm Siddha Yoga (Brooks 2000; Williamson 2005).

Txij li thaum Muktananda tuag, muaj peev xwm txuas ntxiv nws caj ces ntawm Siddha Yoga xyaum los ntawm ntau lub koom haum lossis kev txav mus los tau pom tseeb. Muktananda's Siddha Yoga xyaum txuas ntxiv mus ntxiv tsis tsuas yog los ntawm lub koom haum qub ntawm Siddha Yoga thiab kev coj ntawm Gurumayi tab sis kuj dhau los ntawm ntau lub koom haum uas xav txog lawv tus kheej kev txav mus nyob hauv caj ces ntawm lawv tus yawg, Swami Muktananda.

DLAWS

Duab # 1: Swami Muktananda.
Duab # 2: Cov Hluas Bhagavan Nityananda.
Duab # 3: Muktananda nrog nws tus guru Nityananda.
Duab # 4: Muktananda nrog Ramdas.
Duab # 5: Werner Erhard nrog Swami Muktananda.
Daim duab # 6: Chidvilasananda (tom qab Gurumayi) thiab nws tus nus Nityananda.

ua tim khawv

Beit-Hallahmi, Benjaminami. Xyoo 1993. The Illustrated Encyclopedia ntawm Dhia Tshiab Kev Ntseeg, Kev Ntseeg, thiab CultsCov. New York: Rosen Publishing Pawg.

Kwv Txhiaj, Douglas. Xyoo 2000. Meditation Revolution: Lub keeb kwm thiab kev ntseeg ntawm Siddha Yoga KabmobCov. Sab Qab Teb Fallsburg, NY: Motilal Banarsidass.

Caldwell, Sarah. 2001. "Lub plawv ntawm daim card: Ib tus kheej thiab Scholarly ntsib nrog Shakta Tantrism nyob rau hauv Siddha Yoga." Nova Religion 5: 9-51.

Chapple, Christopher. 2005. "Raja Yoga thiab Guru: Gurani Anjali ntawm Yoga Anand Ashram, Amityville, New York." P. 15-35 nyob rau hauv Gurus nyob rau hauv Asmeskas, los ntawm Thomas A. Forsthoefel thiab Cynthia Ann. Hiab. Albany: State University of New York Xovxwm.

Chatterji, Jagadish Chandra. Xyoo 2004. Kashmir SaivismCov. Delhi: Galav.

Chidvilasananda, Swami. 1986. "Cov lus los ntawm Gurumayi rau txhua tus Devotees ntawm Siddha Yoga." Zuj tau muab faib rau Siddha Yoga Ashrams.

Coroneos, John. Xyoo 2005. Lub Xeev Ecstatic: Featuring Ram DasCov. Sydney: Hlub Pab Nyiaj Nco.

Tsib Michelis, Elizabeth. Xyoo 2004. Keeb Kwm Ntawm Niaj Hnub Yoga. London: Txuas ntxiv.

Forsthoefel, Thomas thiab Cynthia Ann. Humes, eds. 2005. Gurus nyob rau hauv Asmeskas. Albany, NY: State University of New York Xovxwm.

Fais menyuam ntsuag, Sarah.2002. MuktanandCov. Gujarat: niam qhuav txiv qhuav.

Graham, Michael. Xyoo 2001. Tus Tsim ntawm Qhov Tseeb Ntawm Qhov TseebCov. Andhra Pradesh: U-tig Xov Xwm.

Harris, Lisa. 1994. "O Guru, Guru, Guru." Tus Tshiab Yorker, Kaum Ib Hlis, 92-109.

Healy, John Paul. Xyoo 2010. Xav Xyoo Tuav Neeg: Pom Yam Kev Ntseeg Tshiab. London: Txoj Kev Lom Zem.

Kodikal, Deepa thiab Kodikal, Raja. 2005. Lub neej ntawm Bhagawan NityanandaCov. Mumbai: Kohinoor

Mumbai Kottary, Sailesh.1986, "Kuv Raug Raug Raug Tsim Txom." Taug kev duab qhia ntawm Is Nrias teb, Peb Hlis 16, 7–13.

Melton, J. Gordon. Xyoo 1993. “Lwm Qhov Saib Ntawm Kev Ntseeg Tshiab.” American Academy of Political thiab Social Science 527: 97-112.

Muktananda, Swami. 1974. Kev Ua Si ntawm Saib Kom Zoo: Chitshakti VilasCov. Sab Qab Teb Fallsburg, NY: Siddha Yoga Tshaj Tawm.

Pechilis, Karen. 2004. Cov Ntxim hlub Guru: Hindu Poj Niam Gurus hauv Is Nrias teb thiab Tebchaws Asmeskas. New York: Oxford University Press.

Muktananda, Swami. 1990. "Muaj Tseeb Qhov Zoo Txaus." P. 151-71 nyob rau hauv Kundalini, Evolution thiab Enlightenment, edited by John White. New York: Paragon Lub Tsev.

Pitchford, Susan, Christopher Bader thiab Rodney Stark. 2001. "Ua Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Tshawb Nrhiav Tej Kev Ntseeg: Cov txheej txheem." Phau ntawv rau kev kawm txog kev ntseeg 40: 379-92.

Possamai, Adam.2001. "Tsis yog Lub Hnub Nyoog Tshiab: Perennism thiab Spiritual Knowledges." Kev Tshuaj Xyuas Txhua Xyoo ntawm Lub Neej Txog Kev Ntseeg 14: 82-96.

Prakashananda, Swami. Xyoo 2007. Baba Muktananda: Ib phau ntawv BiographyCov. Pom Roob, CA: Sarasvati Productions.

Rodarmor, William. 1983. "Lub Neej Tsis Txaus Siab ntawm Swami Muktananda," CoEvolution Peb Lub Hlis 40: 104-11.

Shankarananda, Swami. Xyoo 2003. Nco Qab Ntsoov Txhua YamCov. Australia: Shaktipat Xovxwm.

Sharma, Arvind. Xyoo 2002. Cov Kev Ntseeg Niaj Hnub Nim No: Cov Ntawv Tseem Ceeb. New York: Oxford University Press.

Siddha Yoga Txoj Haujlwm Kev Nkag Mus Qhia: Kev Taw QhiaCov. Xyoo 1989. New York: Siddha Yoga Dham ntawm America.

Siddha Kev. 1982. “Kev sau ntawv.” Ganeshpuri: Gurudev Siddha Peeth, Cuaj Hlis, 1-30.

Singh, Yaj. 1990. Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia Txog Kev Lees Ua Haujlwm: Kev Txhais Lus ntawm Pratyabhijñahrdayam, New York: Xeev University of New York Xovxwm.

Singh, Yaj. 1982. Śiva Sūtras: Lub Yoga Ntawm Qhov Tseem Ceeb Ntawm Yus Tus Kheej. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.

Lub Nectar ntawm ChantingCov. Xyoo 1990. New York: Siddha Yoga Dham ntawm America.

Cib Pheej, Gene. 1991. "Siddha Yoga: Swami Muktananda thiab Lub Rooj Hwjchim." P. 165–81 nyob rau hauv Thaum Cov Yaj Saub Tuag: Postcharismatic Txoj hmoo ntawm Txoj Kev Ntseeg Tshiab, tsa los ntawm Timautes. Miller. Albany, NY: Xeev University of New York Xovxwm.

Thursby, Gene.1995. "Kev Tsa Tes Taw Hindu txij thaum Ib Nrab Xyoo." P. Xyoo 191-214 nyob rau hauv Lub Tebchaws Asmeskas Qhov Kev Ntseeg Lwm Yam, edited by Timothy Miller. Albany, NY: State University of New York Xovxwm.

Uban, Sujan Singh. Xyoo 1977.Gurus ntawm Is Nrias tebCov. New Delhi: Cov Ntawv Tshaj Tawm Sab Hnub Tuaj Hnub Tuaj

Dawb, Charles. SJ 1974. “Swami Muktananda thiab Kev Kaj Siab los ntawm Sakti-pat” Keeb kwm ntawm kev ntseeg 13: 306-22.

Williamson, Lola. 2005. "Zoo Kawg Nkaus Li Cas." P. 147-67 nyob rau hauv Gurus nyob rau hauv Asmeskas, kho los ntawm Thomas A. Forsthoefel thiab Cynthia Ann Humes. Albany: State University of New York Xovxwm.

Ntawv qhia Hnub:
7 Lub kaum hli ntuj 2020

 

 

 

 

 

Qhia