Janet Bennion

Cov Thwj Tim Ib Tug Tub Ceev Xwm

APOSTOLIC UNITED BRETHREN TIMELINE

Xyoo 1843: Yauxej Xamiv tshaj tawm txog kev tshwm sim ntawm kev sib yuav ntau.

Xyoo 1862: Tebchaws Asmeskas Tebchaws Asmeskas tau tshaj tawm Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act.

Xyoo 1882: Tsoomfwv Meskas tau tshaj tawm txoj cai Edmunds Anti-Polygamy Act.

1886: John Taylor tau txais kev tshwm sim txog kev txuas ntxiv kev sib yuav ntau tshaj.

Xyoo 1887: Tsoomfwv Meskas tau tshaj tawm txoj cai Edmunds-Tucker Act.

1890 (Lub Kaum Hli 6): Wilfred Woodruff tshaj tawm ib qho Manifesto txwv tsis pub muaj kev sib yuav ntau yam.

Xyoo 1904-1907: Rooj sib hais tau nyob hauv US Senate ntawm rooj zaum ntawm Reed Smoot ua Senator los ntawm Utah.

1904 (Lub Plaub Hlis 6): Qhov thib ob Manifesto tau tshaj tawm los ntawm Yauxej F. Smith tau hais txog kev ua phem rau cov neeg LDS uas koom nrog kev sib yuav ntau.

Xyoo 1910: LDS lub Koom Txoos tau pib tshaj tawm txoj cai ntawm kev nthuav dav rau kev sib yuav tshiab rau ntau haiv neeg.

Xyoo 1929-1933: Lorin C. Woolley tsim lub “Council of Friends.”

Xyoo 1935 (Lub Cuaj Hli 18): Lorin C. Woolley tuag, thiab Joseph Leslie Broadbent tau ua tus thawj coj ntawm Pawg Pov Thawj Hwj.

Xyoo 1935: Broadbent tuag, thiab John Y. Barlow tau los ua tus thawj coj ntawm Pawg Pov Thawj Hwj.

Xyoo 1935: Utah tsim tsa txoj cai lij choj txhawb kev ua txhaum kev ua txhaum cai los ntawm kev ua txhaum cai mus rau kev ua txhaum cai.

Xyoo 1941: Leroy S. Johnson thiab Marion Hammon tau raug tsa los ntawm John Y. Barlow.

Xyoo 1941: Amas “Dayer” LeBaron tsim Colonia LeBaron hauv Mexico, yog qhov chaw nkaum rau cov neeg uas xav xyaum kev sib yuav ntau yam

Xyoo 1942: Kev Koom Tes Koom Tes Kev Nyab Xeeb tau tsim tsa.

Xyoo 1944 (Lub Peb Hlis 7-8): Kev sib foob ntawm Boyden polygamy tau ua.

Xyoo 1949: Joseph Musser tau mob stroke thiab hu nws tus kws kho mob, Rulon C. Allred, ua nws tus txwj laug thib ob.

Xyoo 1952: Pawg Pov Thawj Hwj Tuav Pov Hwm tau faib ua ob pab: FLDS (Leroy S. Johnson) thiab Thwj Tim Thwj Tim United Brethren (Rulon Allred).

Xyoo 1953 (Lub Xya Hli 26): Kev tawm tsam ntawm cov neeg muaj ntau pab pawg ntawm Short Creek tau ua tiav.

Xyoo 1951-1952: Nrog Joseph Musser txoj kev tuag, Rulon Allred tau los ua tus thawj coj ntawm Pawg Pov Thawj Hwj.

Xyoo 1960: Rulon Allred yuav lub 640 daim av hauv Pinesdale, Montana uas yog thaj chaw muaj polygamist.

1977:  Rulon Allred was killed by a female assassin sent by Ervil LeBaron; Owen Allred took the helm.

Xyoo 2005: Owen Allred tuag thaum nws muaj cuaj caum xyoo, tom qab tsa Lamoine Jensen los ua nws tus sawv cev ntxiv.

2015:  Lamoine Jensen died of intestinal cancer which caused a major split in the group, with some following Lynn Thompson and the others following Morris and Marvin Jessop. The Montana order became known as the “Second Ward.”

2021 (October 5):  Lynn Thompson died.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Txawm hais tias ntau Mainstream Mormons nrhiav kom deb lawv tus kheej los ntawm qhov kev xyaum, tus poj niam ua ntej sawv hauv Phau Ntawv Maumoos hauv 1831 thaum Yauxej Xamiv Jr., [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tus tsim ntawm Maumoos lub Koom Txoos, hu ua Yexus Khetos lub Koom Txoos ntawm Tsoom Haiv Neeg Ntseeg hauv Hnub Nyoog, hais tias muaj kev tshwm sim uas nws yog nws txoj hauj lwm kom rov qab muaj ntau txoj kev sib yuav rau lub ntiaj teb. Smith, uas tau sib yuav muaj peb caug peb tug poj niam thiab muaj me nyuam muaj kaum peb leeg, tau lees tias nws tau txais txoj cai los ua "kev sib yuav hauv ntuj" los ntawm tib qhov chaw uas tau txib Anplaham coj nws tus ntxhais qhev, Hagar, mus pw los tsim cov noob neeg ncaj ncees thiab zoo kawg nkaus. Smith, zoo li lwm tus neeg ntawm nws lub sijhawm nyob rau sab hnub poob hauv New York, raug ntes nyob rau hauv "American npau suav ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm kev sib raug zoo, ntseeg txog ib qho kev ntseeg uas zoo tshaj plaws ntawm cov kev pab cuam (nrog rau cov poj niam) los ntawm txiv neej thiab tag nrho lub koom txoos ntawm cov ntseeg" (Hluas 1954: 29). Smith tau piav txog nws qhov kev xav ntawm Vajtswv thiab Khetos ua ke nyob hauv ib koog ntoo uas Khetos hais rau nws hais tias nws yuav ua lub hauv paus rau txoj moo zoo qhov tseeb.

Txawm hais tias Smith tau qhia txog lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm Plural Marriage hauv 1843, nws tau siv li ob peb xyoos tom qab ntawd nyob hauv Nauvoo, Illinois. Hauv 1852, Brigham Young, tus thawj coj ntawm lub Koom Txoos Maumoos), qhia txog kev ua neej ntawm ntau tus txij nkawm raws li Maumoos cov lus qhuab qhia. Thaum cov neeg Mormon tau txais kev tshwm sim hais txog cov poj niam, lawv cov neeg txhawb siab sib cav hais tias thaum ib puag ncig ntawm kev sib txuam nrog kev sib deev thiab kev ua niam ua txiv, tus poj niam muaj peev xwm ua tau raws li kev xav tau ntawm kev sib deev sab nraud rau cov txiv neej sab nraum txoj kev sib yuav (Gordon 2001). Cov tub ntxhais hluas, tos ntawm thawj zaug, nws thiaj li kov yeej nws qhov kev ntseeg siab thiab tau sib yuav tsib caug tsib tug poj niam. Nws muaj tsib caug tus menyuam los ntawm kaum ob ntawm cov poj niam nws tau pw nrog. Nyob rau hauv nws qhov chaw nyob hauv Utah thaj av, tab sis, cov poj niam tau siv li ntawm kaum tsib feem pua ​​rau nees nkaum feem pua ​​ntawm cov neeg laus hauv LDS, feem ntau ntawm cov thawj coj (Quinn 1993). Txawm hais tias muaj ntau tus poj niam sib txawv hauv Utah thaj chaw, nws tsis yog txog 1876 hais tias nws tau los ua ib txoj kev ntseeg txog kev ntseeg uas muaj nyob hauv Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus.

Cov kws qhia ntawv hauv Washington tsis tau txais kev pom zoo nov. Nyob rau hauv 1856, lub platform ntawm lub tuam txhab tshiab tsim Republican Party tau cog lus rau tog kom txwv tsis pub cov "twin relics of barbarism"; polygamy thiab kev ua qhev. Hauv 1862, tsoomfwv tsoomfwv tau txwv tsis pub cov menyuam yaus hauv thaj tsam ntawm txoj kev los ntawm Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act. Cov Neeg Maumoos, leej twg feem coob ntawm cov neeg hauv Utah ib ncig, tsis quav ntsej txog txoj cai.

However, prosecutions for polygamy proved difficult because evidence of unregistered plural marriages was scarce. However, in 1887, the Edmunds-Tucker Act made polygamy a felony offense and permitted prosecution based on mere cohabitation. The spouses did not need not to have  gone through any ceremony to be accused of Polygamy without purporting to create a legal marriage. Scores of polygamists, including my own ancestors, Angus Cannon and his brother George Q. Cannon, were each sentenced to six months of in prison in 1889. The final blow to the viability of nineteenth century Mormon polygamy came that same year when Congress dissolved the corporation of the Mormon Church and confiscated most of its property. Within two years, the government also denied the church’s right to be a protected religious body. This policy of removal of church resources meant that polygamous families with limited funding had to abandon these extra wives who had been deemed illegal under the Edmunds Act. This abandonment created a large group of single and impoverished polygamous women who were no longer tied to their husbands religiously or economically. As a result of the pressures brought on by the Edmunds-Tucker Act, the LDS church renounced the practice of polygamy in 1890 with church president Wilford Woodruff’s manifesto. Utah was admitted into the Union in 1896. As a result of anti-polygamy legisla­tion, many advocates of plural marriage began an exodus to Mexico in 1885 to avoid prosecution. There, they created a small handful of colonies, three of which are still intact today.

Qhov tseeb, ntau tus mej zeej hauv lub Koom Txoos hauv LDS, suav nrog kuv tus Cannon thiab Bennion cov poj koob yawm txwv thiab President Woodruff nws tus kheej (Kraut 1989), tau txuas ntxiv mus rau cov poj niam ntev tom qab 1890 manifesto txwv tsis pub nws. Hauv 1904, hais txog kev xyaum sib koom tes ntawm kev sib cog lus rau ntau tus txij nkawm, Joseph F. Smith tau muab ib qho qauv qhia tawm uas tsim los tshem cov poj niam ntau dhau ib zaug thiab rau txhua tus. Fundamentalist Mormons ntseeg hais tias ob qho tib si manifestos tau siv los muab cov kev khi lus dawb huv rau kev kas moos (Willie Jessop, hais hauv Anderson 2010: 40); lawv ntseeg tias Vajtswv tau muab qee lub hwjchim pauv mus ntxiv rau John Taylor (tus yaj saub thib peb hauv pawg ntseeg) los ntawm kev tshwm sim hauv 1886. Qhov kev tshwm sim no yog lub ntsiab lus piav qhia rau cov fundamentalists thiab coj lawv kev sib cais los ntawm cov pawg ntseeg lub ntsiab lus (Driggs 2005). Taylor tau thov tias thaum nws tabtom nkaum hauv John Woolley lub tsev nyob hauv Centreville, Utah, nws tau pw ib hmos nrog Yauxej Xamiv, tus uas tau txib nws mus txuas ntxiv rau kev ua neej ntawm ntau tus poj niam. John Woolley tus tub, Lorin, ib tug tiv thaiv rau tus yaj saub, nyob hauv lub rooj sib txoos hauv Censestine thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 27 hauv tsev neeg Woolley. Nyob rau ntawm lub rooj sib tham no, John Taylor tsa George George Cannon, John W. Woolley, Samuel Bateman, Charles Wilkins, thiab Lorin Woolley ua cov "sub rosa" cov pov thawj thiab muab txoj cai rau lawv ua ntau txoj kev sib yuav. John Woolley tau xub muab cov yuam sij rau tus yawg suab, los yog cov yuam sij pov thawj hwj. Tom qab ntawd, lawv tau tso lawv mus rau Lorin, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] uas tau coj los siv tom lub Koom Txoos LDS vim "qhov phem tshaj plaws."

Thaum pib ntawm lub xyoo pua pua, qhov kev cai lij choj ntawm cov poj niam nyob hauv Utah tseem tsis tseeb. Hauv 1904, US Senate tuav lub rooj sib tham tom qab LDS tus tub txib Reed Smoot tau raug xaiv los ua tus Senator ntawm Utah. Qhov kev tsis sib haum xeeb yog nyob ntawm seb lub koom haum LDS twg tsis lees paub ntau tus txij nkawm. Nyob rau hauv 1905, pawg ntseeg LDS tau qhia tawm ob lub tsho tshaj tawm tias pawg ntseeg txoj kev tshem tawm ntawm kev xyaum, uas tau pab Smoot kom nws lub rooj zaum tom qab. Txawm li cas los xij, lub rooj sib hais txuas ntxiv mus txog 1907, Tsoom Fwv Senate feem ntau tseem xav rau Punishing Smoot rau nws lub koom haum nrog Mormon pawg ntseeg. Los ntawm 1910, Maumoos coj noj coj ua pib tawm tsam cov neeg uas tsim cov kev sib txoos sib txig sib txuam nrog ntau tshaj plaws, uas nrhiav kev ua hauv plural hauv plural mov. Los ntawm 1929 rau 1933, Mormon fundamentalist coj noj coj ua kom tsis txhob xyaum ua polygamy thiab raug ntes thiab disenfranchisement. Hauv 1935, lub koom haum Utah tau nce siab txog kev ua txhaum cai ntawm kev ua txhaum cai ntawm lub txim txhaum loj rau qhov ua txhaum loj. Xyoo ntawd, Utah thiab Arizona cov tub ceev xwm tau ua txhaum txoj kev sib haum xeeb ntawm Short Creek tom qab kev sib liam ntawm kev sib deev thiab kev sib daj sib deev.

Los ntawm 1928 rau 1934, Lorin C. Woolley coj ib pab pawg hu ua Council of Seven, kuj hu ua Pawg Neeg Cov Phooj Ywg. Pawg no tau ua los ntawm Lorin Woolley, John Y. Barlow, Leslie Broadbent, Charles Zitting, Joseph Musser, LeGrand Woolley, thiab Louis Kelsch. Woolley tau thov hais tias pawg sab laj ntawd yog lub pov thawj hwj txoj cai ntawm lub pov thawj hwj hauv ntiaj teb thiab tau yav tas los nyob hauv kev zais cia, hauv Nauvoo, Illinois. Cov neeg nyob hauv Cheeb Tsam li no tau txhawb nqa Brigham Young xws li communalism, Adas-Vaj txoj kev ntseeg, thiab ntau tus txij nkawm. Cov thawj coj ntawm lub zog hais tias LDS lub Koom Txoos tau poob nws txoj cai los txais kev tshwm sim ncaj ncaj los ntawm Vajtswv thaum nws tsis txiav txoj kev dawb huv ntawm ntau tus txij nkawm thaum lub sij hawm Pawg Thawj Tswj Hwm Woodruff.

Txawm hais tias Pab Pawg Sib Pham pib hauv Salt Lake, nws tsiv nws txoj kev txiav txim mus rau hauv lub nroog ntawm Short Creek nyob rau hauv Utah-Arizona ciam teb kom tsis txhob raug foob. Short Creek teem rau theem rau thawj zaug sim los tsim United United Order los yog siv zog, los pab npaj cov khoom thiab tswj cov av. Qhov chaw, ib puag ncig los ntawm lub pob zeb liab tshaj plaws ntawm cov pob zeb liab thiab me me, tau muab los ntawm Brigham Young, uas tau hais tias nws yuav yog "lub taub hau tsis tus Tsov" ntawm lub Koom Txoos. Rau ib xyoo caum nws yog qhov chaw sib sau ua ke rau ntau tus tswv cuab ntawm lub Koom Haum LDS uas xav ua kom cov poj niam muaj txoj sia nyob. Cov tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Cov phooj ywg sawv daws tau pom zoo hais txog kev khiav dej num hauv lub pov thawj hwj, thiab cov pej xeem ntawm cov neeg tuaj yeem mus rau Mormon fundamentalism pib loj hlob, feem ntau los ntawm kev loj hlob thiab kev tuaj txawv teb chaws ntawm cov neeg poob siab ntawm Maumoos lub Koom Txoos uas xav ua neej nyob "txoj kev qub." Nyob hauv 1935, lub Koom Haum LDS nug cov Neeg Ntseeg hauv Creek kom txhawb nqa pawg thawj tswj hwm ntawm pawg ntseeg thiab kos npe rau ib qho kev lav lus hais txog kev sib yuav. Qhov kev thov no tsis tau txais nrog cov neeg yau ib tus neeg, uas tsis kam kos npe rau thiab tau rho npe tom qab. Muaj ntau tus mej zeej raug kaw rau qhov loj.

Coinciding nrog lub koom haum ntawm Creek Creek yog txoj kev loj hlob ntawm lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm Colonia Juarez hauv Mexico sab qaum teb. Benjamin Johnson, tus tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Neeg Tawm Tsam Peev Xwm (lub tseem fwv tshiab los ntawm Brigham Young lub sijhawm), hais tias lawv tau tuav lub pov thawj hwj ntawm Yau. Nws, tig mus, nws muab rau nws tus xeeb ntxwv, Amas "Dayer" LeBaron. Dayer tom qab tsim Colonia LeBaron, nyob hauv kaum yim mais qab ntawm Colonia Juarez nyob rau hauv Galeana, raws li ib qhov chaw nkaum rau cov neeg uas xav kom xyaum ntau tshaj ib tus txij nkawm.

Lub caij no, rov qab rau hauv Creek Creek, pawg thawj coj tau hloov los ntawm Lorin C. Woolley, uas tuag rau hauv 1934, rau J. Leslie Broadbent, uas coj mus txog thaum nws tuag hauv 1935. Tom qab Yau Barlau tau ua tus yaj saub los ntawm 1935 mus rau 1949, tom qab uas Joseph Musser tswj hwm pawg pov thawj hwj. Musser thiab L. Broadbent sau tau Ntxiv mus rau Tshiab thiab Everlasting Covenant ntawm kev sib yuav (1934), uas tau tsa peb theem siab ntawm kev ua thawj coj ntawm lub pov thawj hwj: 1) pov thawj lub pov thawj hwj uas yog cov pov thawj hlob, zoo li lub Sanhedrin, los sis lub hwj chim ntawm Vajtswv hauv ntiaj teb; 2) Vajtswv lub Nceeg Vaj, uas siv los ntawm lub hwj chim thiab kev cai ntawm Vajtswv los tswj hwm lub ntiaj teb thiab "hauv cov neeg nyob hauv tej yam kev nom kev tswv;" thiab 3) Yexus Khetos lub Koom Txoos (lub Koom Txoos LDS), uas muaj kev thaj yeeb xwb dhau nws cov tswv cuab. Thawj qeb, raws li Musser, tau ua ntawm cov neeg tuav tswv yim tseem ceeb, nws tus kheej thiab lwm tus tswv cuab hauv pawg sab laj. Cov qeb thib ob raug xa mus rau lub cev loj ntawm cov tswvcuab ntawm cov tswvcuab, uas tau ua haujlwm rau cov neeg tseem ceeb. Qhov thib peb xa mus rau pawg ntseeg hauv pawg ntseeg, uas tsis muaj cai ncaj qha mus ua Vajtswv txoj haujlwm tiamsis tseem yog lub tseem ceeb tshaj plaws-pob zeb mus rau theem tom ntej.

Hauv 1944, thaum Barlow kev ua thawj coj, tsoomfwv Meskas tau ua txhaum Short Creek thiab Salt Lake City polygamists, tso tsib cuaj txiv thiab 9 tug poj niam nyob hauv Utah State Prison. Thaum pib ntawm lub xyoo pua pua, qhov kev cai lij choj ntawm cov poj niam nyob hauv Utah tseem tsis tseeb.

Nyob rau lub Xya hli ntuj 26, 1953, lwm txoj kev tua tau tshaj tawm Tsam Creek. Tom qab qhov kev tua no, peb caug tus txiv neej thiab cuaj poj niam raug ntes thiab 263 cov me nyuam raug muab rho tawm ntawm lawv cov tsev thiab muab tso rau hauv xeev tus saib xyuas. Ntawm 236 cov me nyuam, 150 tsis pub lawv rov tuaj rau lawv niam lawv txiv ntau tshaj ob xyoos.

Lwm cov niam txiv yeej tsis tau rov mus saib xyuas lawv cov menyuam. Ua ntej qhov kev tawm tsam no, Pawg Kws Tshawb Fawb Short Creek tau pib sib cais, ua tiav los ntawm John Woolley cov lus qhia ntau xyoo ua ntej uas "ib tiam neeg tseem tsis tau yug, nrog rau qee tus txiv neej uas nyob hauv no, tab tom yuav los tsim pab pawg. Cov. Cov. [thiab]. Cov. Cov. yuav sib cav sib ceg, hais tias lawv yuav sib cais, tias lawv yuav subdivide thiab lawv yuav muaj kev sib cav sib ceg loj ”(hais hauv Kraut 1989: 22).

Tom qab Yauxej Mauses tau mob ntshav hauv 1949, nws hu nws tus kws kho mob, Rulon C. Allred, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] ua nws tus tub hlob thib ob. Hauv 1951, Musser tau zoo txaus los koom nrog Richard Jessop hauv kev pov npav Rulon hauv lub yawg suab ntawm lub pov thawj hwj pov thawj hwj. Musser qhov kev txiav txim siab tau pom zoo los ntawm feem ntau ntawm pawg sab laj, uas tsis tuaj yeem nyob rau lub sij hawm teem tseg ntawm Rulon, txhawb kev sib cav thiab txawv cov lus tshaj tawm uas yog "ib tug muaj zog thiab muaj zog." Qhov no bickering cais thawj qub. Rulon Allred coj ib pawg ua haujlwm thiab Louis Kelsch taws tus lwm tus. Leroy S. Johnson thiab Charles Zitting, uas yog loyal rau Kelsch, tseem nyob rau hauv Creek Creek, qhov uas lawv tau tsim cov ntseeg Yexus Khetos lub Koom Txoos ntawm Tsoom Haiv Neeg Ntseeg hauv Hnub Nyoog, thaum Musser, Jessop, thiab Allred tau pib ua haujlwm rau pib lub zog tshiab, uas nws thiaj li tau hu ua tus Thwj Tim United Tij Laug. Cov tom kawg pawg no tsim tau ib lub rooj sib tham tshiab hauv 1952 ua los ntawm E. Jenson, John Butchereit, Lyman Jessop, Owen Allred, Marvin Allred, thiab Yauxej Thompson. Txawm hais tias qhov kev cais no tau hloov rau qhov kev hloov ntawm Mormon fundamentalism, tag nrho cov pab pawg neeg uas nws keeb kwm nyob hauv Txij Nkawm Short Creek kev sib txig sib luag ntawm cov kev sib raug zoo, kev sib yuav, thiab kev ntseeg tseem ceeb.

DOCTRINE / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Mormon fundamentalists yog cov uas tau sau npe rau lub npe ntawm Hnub Nyoog Kawg Tsab Teev Tsab ntawm Yauxej Xam uas tau muaj xws li polygamy, cov cwj pwm xeeb rau poj niam, thiab kev cai dab qhuas. Hais txog xya caum-tsib feem pua ​​ntawm cov polygamists no yog los ntawm peb yam loj tshaj plaws: Cov Thwj Tim United Tij Laug (AUB los yog Allred Group), Cov Thawj Coj Tsoom Haiv Neeg Ntseeg Hnub Xyoo (FLDS), thiab Kingston Clan. Cov seem hauv los ntawm cov neeg LeBaron hauv Meksia thiab cov neeg tsis muaj tebchaws uas nyob hauv tebchaws Meskas tau nthuav thoob plaws hauv tebchaws Asmeskas sab hnub poob uas paub tias "cov neeg ywj pheej." Cov neeg txawj ntse thiab cov tib neeg muaj kev ntseeg siab rau Anplaham lub nceeg vaj uas tsim lub hauv paus rau lub hom phiaj ntawm Celestial nyob ntawm Elohim, Leej Txiv.

Txuag lub ntsiab ntawm qhov sib txawv ntawm AUB fundamentalists los ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj lub ntsiab, polygamist Ogden Kraut (1983) tau teev txog ntau cov teeb meem tseem ceeb: kev coj ua kev coj ua, kev xyaum ua tub txib txoj haujlwm, kev ntseeg txog lub pov thawj hwj, kev saws los ntawm United Order, kev ntseeg hauv lub tswvyim ntawm kev sib sau ntawm cov neeg Ixayees, kev ntseeg Adas-Vajtswv txoj kev xav, kev txais yuav lub tswv yim ntawm "ib tug muaj zog thiab muaj zog," txhim kho lub tswv yim ntawm Xi-oos, kev ntseeg txog cov neeg dub thiab lub pov thawj hwj, thiab kev ntseeg txog Vajtswv lub nceeg vaj. Adas-Vajtswv cov lus qhuab qhia yog lub tswv yim theological qhia los ntawm Brigham Young hais tias Adas los ntawm lwm lub ntiaj teb thiab los rau hauv ntiaj teb li Michael, tus tim tswv. Tom qab ntawd nws tau los ua neeg txawj tuag, Adas, tsim tsa noob neej nrog nws tus poj niam thib ob, Eve. Tom qab nws nce mus saum ntuj, nws tau ua Vajtswv, Leej Txiv Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej ntawm tib neeg.

Cov neeg ntseeg hauv pawg ntseeg kuj sib txawv ntawm lawv lub sijhawm "muaj txhij txhua" nrog ntau tus txij nkawm thiab lawv txoj kev ntseeg tias ib tug yuav tsum tau txais cov poj niam los ntawm Txoj Kev Cai ntawm Sarah kom muaj lub siab dawb siab zoo tshaj plaws ntawm lub Celestial Kingdom.6 Lawv kuj ntseeg hais tias txoj moo zoo tsis hloov; Yog tias Vajtswv hais rau Yauxej Xamiv los xyaum ua poj niam, nws yuav tsum xyaum coj niaj hnub no thiab tas mus li. Ua lwm yam lus, qhov tseeb yog kev paub txog "yam uas lawv muaj, thiab raws li lawv tau ua, thiab raws li lawv yuav tsum tuaj" (Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus 93: 24). Smith tau hais tias yog "txhua tus neeg tshaj tawm txoj moo zoo tshaj li qhov kuv tau tshaj tawm, nws yuav raug foom tsis zoo" (Smith 1838: 327) thiab Vajtswv "tsim cov kab ke los ua tib lub mus ib txhis thiab ib txhis" (Smith 1838: 168 ).

Thaum tus txivneej LDS Stephen Richards tau tawm ntawm Adas-Vajtswv qhov kev qhia thiab tshem nws cov cim ntawm lub pov thawj hwj (Richards 1927), thiab nyob rau hauv 1932s, thaum LDS tus yaj saub Ezra T. Benson tau hloov lub koob tsheej kom cia cov poj niam muaj txoj hau kev mus rau Vajtswv es tsis txhob mus dhau lawv cov txiv los sis txiv. Lub tom kawg hloov kuj tshem tawm cov cim kev cai thiab kev piav qhia siv los piav txog dab tsi yuav raug poob rau ib qho yog hais tias dawb ceev tau txais kev faib, tsis zoo li cov neeg siv los ntawm Masons. Lub Koom Txoos LDS tau hloov qhov kev cai uas coj cov Neeg Ntseeg mus rau hauv Vajtswv lub xub ntiag thiab ua kom luv luv thiab kho lub cev dawb huv. Fundamentalists ntseeg hais tias cov kev cai thiab cov cim uas tau ploj lawm yuav tsum rov qab thiab tias cov poj niam yuav tsum mus hauv lawv cov Saviors ntawm Mt. Zion nyob hauv lawv txoj hau kev mus rau Vajtswv. Lawv kuj hais tias lub ntsiab lus hauv txoj kab ke dawb ceev, cov uas siv hauv Yauxej Xamiv cov hnub thaum lub pov thawj hwj tau koob hmoov, yuav tsum siv nyob rau hauv lub caij nyoog niaj hnub, uas hais hauv nqe chiv keeb nyob rau lub xyoo pua.

Ntau tus tswv cuab ntawm AUB tseem tawm tsam 1978 kev tshwm sim uas tau muab rau Thawj Tswj Hwm Kimball uas tso cai rau cov dub nkag mus rau lub pov thawj hwj (Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus, Tshaj tawm 2). Lawv ntseeg tias Vajtswv hais rau Yauxej Xamiv tias "negroids" raug cim los ntawm Khayee cov ntshav thiab ua rau lub pov thawj hwj thiab lub tuam tsev ntiab tawm. Lub FLDS tau tshem tawm ib tug Polynesian los ntawm lawv nruab nrab, hais tias nws tsaus ntuj heev, thiab lawv nyuab siab rau kev ua txij ua nkawm txhua yam. Brigham Young tau txais kev ntseeg zoo li no thaum nws sau hais tias cov dub "tsis yoojyim rau lawv tus cwjpwm, qus thiab seemingly ploj tagnrho txhua qhov koobhmoov ntawm kev txawj ntse uas feem ntau muab rau noob neej" (Young 1867: 290). Cov AUB thiab LeBarons kuj yog tawm tsam dub tiam sis cia cov neeg sib koom tes nrog Hispanics thiab Polynesians. Txawm li cas los xij, lub AUB tau tshem tawm Richard Kunz (tus neeg uas yog phenotypic dawb thiab genotypic dub) ntawm nws txoj hauj lwm rau lub pov thawj hwj pov thawj hwj.

Lwm qhov sib txawv ntawm LDS Lub Koom Txoos thiab AUB yog tias lawv ntseeg hais tias Vajtswv txoj cai yog ua kom dhau tib neeg txoj cai. Txawm hais tias kev dag noj dag haus, ua rau tsev neeg, cov khoom tsis raug cai, lossis qee yam hom tsev kawm ntawv tuaj yeem tiv thaiv tsis tau cov kev cai lij choj, lawv txhais tau tias ua raws li txoj haujlwm loj tshaj ntawm kev pabcuam coob tus menyuam (Hales 2006). Nws yuav tsum raug sau tseg tias qee cov neeg hauv zej zog Polygamist, xws li Pinesdale, Montana, ua haujlwm nrog tub ceev xwm thiab ua raws li kev cai lij choj. Nkawd tso npe rau cov neeg ua txhaum cai thiab ua kom tsis muaj txim txhaum.

Tus tub Aub kuj xav tias cov hauj lwm ua tub txib yuav tsum ua raws li Yauxej Xamiv tau txib nws, tsis muaj "hnab nyiaj los sis sau ntawv," uas tsis muaj nyiaj txiag txhawb. Lawv kuj tsis pom zoo nrog lub koom txoos lub ntsiab lus ntawm Kev Txom Nyem, Missouri, uas yog "qhov chaw" rau kev sib sau ua ke ntawm Xi-oos. Qhov chaw no kuj hu ua Adas-ondi-Ahman, lossis lub Vaj Kaj Siab qub. Feem ntau cov fundamentalists xav tias Zion yog nyob rau hauv lub Rocky Roob, qhov twg tus Cawm Seej yuav ib hnub rov qab.

Mormon fundamentalists, xws li mainstream LDS, raug thov los ntawm Vajtswv xav txog lawv tus kheej xws li Adas los yog Evas, lub tswv yim nyob hauv lub vaj txiaj ntsim hauv lub vaj txiaj ntsim. Lawv sawv daws ua hauj lwm nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb mus txog thaum lawv rov qab mus rau ntawm Leej Txiv. Thaum lub caij sim siab no, zoo li Adas, caum cuag "lub teeb ci thiab kev paub ntxiv" thiab nrhiav cov tub txib uas coj tau cov yuam sij uas qhib lub pov thawj hwj ntawm lub pov thawj hwj thiab tshem daim ntaub thaiv uas ciam teb nyob hauv ntiaj teb lub neej thiab lub Celestial Kingdom.

Rau lub apocalyptic fundamentalists, tej cwj pwm thiab cov cim qhia abound thiab txhua lub cim thiab cov ntawv muaj lub ntsiab lus tseem ceeb. Ntau yam ntawm cov cim no qhia txog cov neeg tawm tsam ntawm cov neeg tawm tsam mus rau saum toj thiab dhau ntawm Orthodox thiab sib zog ua kom dhau ntawm cov neeg tiag tiag uas tau nyob hauv lub koom txoos ntawm Vajtswv (Michael kuj hu ua Adas, Yexus, thiab Yauxej) thiab txais "kev paub txog lub nceeg vaj "(Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus 63: 23; 76: 1-7). Tab sis tsis yog txhua tus tuaj yeem to taub txog cov kev paub; tus neeg ncaj ncees ncaj ncees yuav tsum muaj "qhov muag pom thiab pob ntseg mloog" qhov tseeb txog txoj kev ua tiav txoj moo zoo. Muaj ntau tus tseem ceeb pom lawv tus yaj saub niaj hnub no (Jeffs, Allred, Kingston, thiab lwm yam) ua lub hauv paus ntawm kev tshwm sim los saum ntuj los, tiam sis cov neeg ua hauj lwm feem ntau hais tias lawv tau tuav "dawb ceev zais cia" ntawm tib neeg-rau-Vajtswv kev tshwm sim (Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus Qhuab Qhia 1972:141). Nov yog lub hauv paus ntawm kev ntseeg, uas koj tuaj yeem yog koj tus kheej tus yaj saub, tus pom tau, thiab tus vaj ntxwv.

Cov "ntsiab lus" tsis to taub hais txog cov lus qhia uas yog los ntawm kev tshwm sim los ntawm kev tshwm sim thiab cov yaj saub tseeb. Ib tug yuav ua kom txoj hauj lwm thiab kev xaiv tsa tseeb (Young 1867) kom tus Chosen yuav muaj txoj hau kev sib tham nrog cov tuag tom qab daim ntaub thaiv thiab txais tau kev tshwm sim ntawm Vajtswv. Ib kaujruam ntxiv yog txo hwjchim los ntawm kev thov Vajtswv, ib txoj kev uas Adas tau siv; cov neeg ua raws li txoj kev cai no hnav tsoos tsho hauv lub tuam tsev, txhos caug, thov Vajtswv nrog kev qhuas thiab kev thov Vajtswv, quaj tias, "Au Vajtswv, thov kuv tej lus ntawm kuv lub qhov ncauj." Ib yam li Yauxej Xamiv tau txais tej kab ke thiab kev qhia, txhua tus txiv neej uas nrhiav txoj cai ntawm lub pov thawj hwj, uas ua raws li tej kev khi lus, thiab cov neeg tshaib plab thiab nqhis dej rau kev paub. Cov ntseeg uas mob siab rau lawv txoj kev ncaj ncees thiab txais cov kab ke kev cai zoo dua yog cov tswv cuab ntawm "pawg ntseeg ntawm cov tub ntxhais hluas," uas yog cov neeg ntseeg Vajtswv uas muaj lub siab dawb paug thiab cov uas yuav tau txais qub txeeg qub teg nrog rau Tswv Yexus tau txais txhua yam uas Leej Txiv muaj (McConkie 1991: 139-40). Lawv yuav raug muab khi ua ke ntawm "lub hwj huam dawb huv ntawm kev cog lus," yuav rais los ua vajntxwv thiab Vajtswv ua tus coj, thiab koom nrog qhov kev sawv rov los. Qhov no yuav ua rau lawv nyob rau hauv Mt. Zion nrog Vajtswv nyob rau hauv lub tuam txhab ntawm cov tubtxib saum ntuj nyob rau hauv lub Celestial Nceeg Vaj (Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Khi Lus 76: 50-70). Cov mej zeej ntawm thawj tus tub hluas yuav raug nug kom ua txhaum txoj cai ntawm thaj av rau kev cai lij choj, tej zaum kuj ua txhaum, raws li Phau Ntawv Maumoos Nifais Nifais raug txib kom tua tus dab phem, Lanpas. Nws yog los ntawm txoj kev no hais tias "tib neeg yuav tsum ua neeg zoo tag nrho" thiab yuav tsum muab lub txiaj ntsim ntawm lub nceeg vaj thiab cov thawj coj hauv lub ntiaj teb tshiab tshaj qhov uas lawv xav tau.

Dhau li "qhov tsis muaj tseeb," cov ntsiab lus tseem ceeb tshaj plaws uas tau tso tseg los ntawm lub Koom Txoos LDS yog poj niam, Vajtswv Txoj Kevcai, thiab Txoj Cai ntawm Kev Txiav Txim Siab. Thaum cov hauv paus ntsiab lus zoo li no, lub ntuj ceeb tsheej muaj plaub hom kev qhia txog txoj moo zoo rau hauv kev ua haujlwm: social, political, spiritual and economic. Txoj cai ntawm kev teev ntuj saum ntuj ceeb tsheej yog poj niam, kev nom kev tswv yog lub nceeg vaj ntawm Vajtswv los yog lub tseem fwv ntawm Vajtswv, lub ntsiab ntawm sab ntsuj plig yog lub pov thawj hwj ua raws li kev tshwm sim rau kev tshwm sim, thiab lub ntsiab lus ntawm kev cai United United.

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

The Apostolic United Brethren (AUB) have approximately 8,000 members throughout the world. Their official headquarters is in Bluffdale, Utah, where they have a chapel/cultural hall, an endowment house, a school, archives, and a sports field. Most of members live in medium-sized split-level homes and work in construction. The more successful own huge compounds in Eagle Mountain and Rocky Ridge accommodating four to five wives and twenty-five children. The church operates at least three private schools, but many families homeschool or send their children to public or public charter schools, blending with the mainstream. Other branches include Cedar City, Lehi, and Granite, Utah; Pinesdale, Montana; Lovell, Wyoming; Mesa, Arizona; Humansville, Missouri; and Ozumba, Mexico, where it has a temple with around 700 followers. More AUB members live in Germany, the Netherlands, and England.

Raws li tau hais, Dr. Rulon C. Allred, tus naturopath, tau los ua tus cev Vajtswv lus thaum xyoo 1954, txais yuav ntau tus txiv thaum nws tseem muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog LDS lub Koom Txoos, txawm hais tias nws tau raug rho tawm. Nws tsis pom tias qhov kev siv zog yog kev ua kom zoo saum toj no lub tsev teev ntuj tab sis mus tib seem rau nws, xav tias tsis yog txhua leej txhua tus ua tau (los sis yuav tsum tau) koom tes hauv cov poj niam.

Thaum xyoo 1959, AUB tau loj hlob mus txog 1,000 tus tswv cuab nrog kev pab ntawm Joseph Lyman Jessop, Joseph Thompson, thiab lwm tus neeg hloov siab tshiab, uas tau ntsib covertly hauv Bluffdale lub tsev ntawm Owen Allred, Rulon tus kwv tij. Xyoo 1960, Rulon Allred yuav lub 640 daim av hauv Pinesdale, Montana rau $ 42,500, thiab los ntawm 1973 ntau dua 400 tus neeg suav ua hu nws lub tsev. Thaum kuv nyob ntawd, txij xyoo 1989 txog xyoo 1993, muaj lub tsev kawm ntawv / tsev teev ntuj zoo nkauj, muaj lub tsev qiv ntawv saib, ua haujlwm nyuj, lub khw muag khoom, thiab ua haujlwm pub mis. Kuv suav kwv yees li 60-70 tus txiv neej sib yuav (yawg suab) nrog ze 140-150 tus poj niam (nyob ib puag ncig 2.8 ib leeg, ntawm qhov nruab nrab) thiab 720 cov me nyuam. Cov Txiv Huab Tais (Marvin thiab Morris) thiab lawv cov tub hlob yog cov thawj coj ntawm Pinesdale, nrog rau cov tswv cuab ntawm pawg pov thawj hwj uas tsis tshua muaj hwj chim.

Cov tub rog AUB khav ntau ntawm cov neeg hloov siab los ntseeg dua lwm pab pawg. Cov neeg raug coj mus cog lus ntawm homesteading thiab lub nceeg vaj lub tsev nyob rau hauv ib pawg nrog ob peb txwv. Cov rooj sib txoos feem ntau tau ua los ntawm lub pov thawj hwj cov thawj coj nyob hauv vaj tse, hauv vaj tse hauv tsev, hauv tsev teev ntuj lub tsev, los sis hauv hillside los yog tiaj nyom. Los ntawm 1970, cov tub koom xeeb AUB tau nyob ze rau 2,500 nthuav dav mus rau Utah yav qab teb thiab hauv cheeb tsam Wasatch Front.

Rulon Allred pawg pov thawj hwj suav nrog Rulon, Owen Allred, George Scott, Ormand Lavery, Marvin Jessop thiab nws tus tij laug Morris Jessop, Lamoine Jensen, George Maycock, John Ray, thiab Bill Baird. Tau ntau xyoo, Rulon hloov cov tswv cuab uas tuag, uas raug rho tawm (xws li John Ray), lossis tus twg thim txoj moo zoo. Rulon ceev nws ob tug nus, Owen thiab Marvin, ze rau ntawm cov haujlwm, muab ua tus saib xyuas lawv thiab muab kev tso cai rau yuav ob peb tus poj niam. AUB siv LDS cov khoom hauv lub Koom Txoos hauv lawv cov lus qhuab qhia thiab rau kev qhia hnub Sunday kawm. Ntau ntawm cov chaw ua haujlwm thiab kev hu yog tib yam. AUB cov tswvcuab tseem nyiam sib xyaw nrog cov zej zog Maumoos nyob ib puag ncig, feem ntau yog vim muaj Owen Allred txoj kev xav ua haujlwm nrog cov kws lijchoj hauv zos thiab ua kom tiav kev xyaum ua txij ua nkawm nrog cov ntxhais tsis muaj hnub nyoog. Allred [Duab ntawm txoj cai] ntseeg tau hais tias txoj kev pom tau hais tias txoj kev pom zoo yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv nws txoj kev los mus qhia rau cov neeg tsis yog hauv Maumoos uas lub AUB thiab nws cov tswv cuab tsis yog ib qho kev hem.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Xyoo 1977, Rulon raug tus poj niam tua neeg tuag los ntawm Ervil LeBaron thiab nws tus tij laug Owen nqa lub kaus mom. Owen tau coj pab pawg no tau nees nkaum yim xyoo, lub sijhawm thaum AUB nthuav dav nws cov tswv cuab thiab nkag rau lub sijhawm ntawm kev sib koom tes nrog kev tshaj xov xwm, kev kawm, thiab Utah cov kws lij choj cov chaw ua haujlwm.

Accusations of child sexual abuse were made against three Allred councilmen over the space of two decades, 1975-1995: John Ray, Lynn Thompson, and Chevral Palacios. Yet, the rates of abuse are no greater than what you would expect to find in the mainstream monogamist communities of the United States. Members who perpetrate abuse are excommunicated, and victims are encouraged to report the incidents to the police. In addition, I suggest that the AUB is more progressive and law-abiding than other groups. Its members pay their taxes, seem to dress like everyone else for the most part, send their children to public school, and even have a Boy Scout troop. There are some flies in the AUB ointment, such as the ex-Allredite man who recently was arrested for raping twin sisters in Humansville, Missouri. There is also evidence of money laundering and some welfare fraud. According to one former member, attorney John Llewellyn, plural wives are sent into nearby Hamilton to apply for welfare as single mothers, and they take this money directly to the priesthood Brethren. In my own research in 1993, I heard of welfare misuse in twenty-five percent of my sample of fifteen extended families. They looked on it much the same way that the FLDS wives did, as “creative financing” that was taking from the federal government, a corrupt entity.

In 2004, the priesthood leadership was comprised of Owen Allred, Lamoine Jensen, Ron Allred, Dave Watson, Lynn Thompson, Shem Jessop, Harry Bonell, Sam Allred, Marvin Jessop, and Morris Jessop. In 2005, Owen Allred died at the age of ninety-one, after appointing Lamoine Jensen to be his successor, passing up more senior council members. In 2015, Lamoine died of intestinal cancer, which caused a major split in the group with some following Lynn Thompson and the others following Morris and Marvin Jessop.

When Lynn Thompson died in 2021, he was replaced by David Watson. Thompson was the most controversial prophet in the history of the AUB, due to accusations of sexual assault by his daughter and two of his nieces. He was also alleged to have embezzled up to $500,000 in AUB tithes. These accusations were the fuel that led to the schism with the Pinesdale, MT branch, which formed a separate order, called the “second ward” (Carlisle 2017).

The year before Thompson’s death, the Utah legislature passed a bill to decriminalize polygamy in Utah. Those who favored the passage of the bill argued that the criminal status of polygamy directly contributed to a culture of distrust and isolation, and subsequently abuse. Decriminalization would serve to bring such abuses into the light for prosecution (Bennion and Joffe 2016). This law did not impact the Thompson case as his daughter declined to bring formal charges.

DLAWS

Image # 1: Joseph Smith Jr.
Image # 2: Lorin Woolley.
Image # 3: Liab Allred.
Image # 4: Owen Allred.

ua tim khawv

Anderson, Scott. 2010. "Cov Polygamists." National Geographic, Lub Ob Hlis: 34-61.

Bennion, Janet and Joffe, Lisa F. 2016. “Introduction.” Pp. 3-22 in The Polygamy Question. Boulder: University of Colorado Press.

Carlisle, Nate. 2017. “Sex abuse allegations have rocked the polygamous church of ‘Sister Wives,’ causing rift from Utah to Montana." Salt Lake Tribune, Kaum Hlis 21.

Driggs, Ken. 2005. "Kev Txhim Kho, Kev Tawm Tseg, thiab Phaj: Keeb Kwm ntawm Mormon Fundamentalism nyob rau hauv 1940s thiab 1950s." sib tham 38: 65-95.

Driggs, Ken. 2001. "'Qhov no yuav muaj ib hnub twg yog Lub Taub Hau thiab Tsis Tail ntawm lub Koom Txoos': Cov Keeb Kwm ntawm Cov Neeg Maumoos Cov Neeg Khaub Ntuas nyob ntawm Creek Creek." Phau ntawv ntawm lub Koom Txoos thiab Lub Xeev 43:49-80.

Gordon, Sarah. 2001. Cov Piv Txwv: Cov poj niam thiab kev sib cav sib ceg hauv Tsov Rog Xyoo Tsaus America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Xovxwm.

Hales, Brian. 2006. Niaj hnub nimno niam hlob niam yau thiab Cov Neeg Maumoos lub fundamentalism: Lub Tiam Tom qab lub Manifesto. Salt Lake City: Greg Kofford Phau ntawv.

Kraut, Ogden. 1989. Tus Muam Cov Lus Maumoos. Salt Lake City: Pioneer Xovxwm.

McConkie, Bruce R. 1991. Maumoos Lus Qhuab Qhia. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft. [Kev ua hauj lwm ntau tshaj tawm sau ua 1958; tsis yog daim ntawv luam ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj LDS.], 139-40

Musser, Yauxej, thiab L. Broadbent. 1934. Ntxiv mus rau Tshiab thiab Everlasting Covenant ntawm kev sib yuav. Phau ntawv qhia. Salt Lake City: Qhov Tseeb Tshaj Tawm Lag Luam.

Quinn, D. Michael. 1993. "Plural Marriage thiab Mormon Fundamentalism." Pp. 240-66 nyob rau hauv Fundamentalisms thiab Society, edited by Martin Marty thiab R. Scott Appleby. Chicago: Tsev kawm ntawv ntawm Chicago.

Richards, Stephen. 1932. Sermon tau xa thaum Lub Plaub Hlis Ntuj 1932 LDS lub tuam rooj sab laj, tseem hais tawm hauv Salt Lake Tribune, Plaub Hlis Ntuj 10, 1932.

Smith, Yauxej Fielding. [1838] 2006. Teachings of tus Yaj Saub Yauxej Xamiv. Sau thiab kho los ntawm Yauxej Fielding Smith. Salt Lake City: Cov phau ntawv Deseret.

Cov tub ntxhais hluas, Brigham.1867. Journal of Discourses 12: 103; 7: 290, Kaum Ib Hlis. Liverpool: LDS Church.

Hluas, Kimball. 1954. "Kev Coj Tus Cwj Pwm ntawm Kev Txawj Ntse hauv Cov Neeg Maumoos Hauv Cov Poj Niam." Pp. 373-93 nyob rau hauv Nyeem hauv Psychology, kho los ntawm Theodore Newcomb thiab Eugene Hartley. New York: Holt.

Daim Ntawv Qhia Hnub:
27 Tej zaum 2019

 

Qhia