Helen Cornish

Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Kev Ua Phem thiab Khawv koob

MUSEUM NTAWM WITCCHRAFT THIAB MAGIC TIMELINE

Xyoo 1930s: Cecil Williamson teeb tsa Witchcraft Research Center.

1951-1960: Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Khawv koob thiab Kev Ntseeg tau qhib rau ntawm Isle of Man los ntawm Cecil Williamson, nws tau tsiv mus rau lub tebchaws United Kingdom thaum xyoo 1950, thawj zaug hauv Windsor thiab tom qab ntawd Bourton-on-the-Dej.

1960: Cecil Williamson tau hloov lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft mus rau Boscastle, Cornwall.

1996 (Lub Kaum Hli 31): Lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau muag rau Graham King.

1998: Lub faus ntawm ib lub cev pob txha (claimed li Joan Wytte, Fighting Fairy Woman of Bodmin, 1781-1822) tau tshwm sim.

2004: Muaj dej nyab tshwm sim hauv Boscastle. Lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau kaw rau ib xyoos, rov qhib dua thaum Lub Peb Hlis 2005.

2013 (Lub Kaum Hli 31): Cov khoom sau tau muab rau Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm British Folklore, Simon Costin.

2015: Lub npe ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau hloov mus rau Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM 

"Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob tshawb txog kev coj ua khawv koob ntawm Askiv, ua piv nrog lwm cov kev ntseeg, txij thaum ub mus rau niaj hnub nim no" (MWM Guidebook 2017: 5). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob hauv tebchaws United Kingdom tau qhib hauv Castletown ntawm Isle of Man los ntawm Cecil Williamson hauv xyoo 1951, thiab nws tau teeb tsa Witchcraft Research Center thaum xyoo 1930s. Thaum nws ua tswv cuab ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej hauv Castletown nws koom nrog Gerald Gardner ua ib tug dab neeg nyob hauv, uas yuav lub tsev thaum Williamson [Duab ntawm sab xis] tsiv nws cov khoom mus rau hauv av loj. Thaum xyoo 1950s Williamson tau teeb tsa lub tsev cia puav pheej hauv Windsor, tom qab ntawd los ntawm Bourton-on-the-Water, ua ntej nyob hauv Boscastle nyob rau sab qaum teb Cornish ntug dej hiav txwv uas nws tau nyob (Patterson 2014; Williamson 2011), thiab ua kev zoo siab rau nws lub hnub nyoog thib rau xyoo 2020. . Lub tsev cia puav pheej tau muaj peb tus tswv / tus thawj coj: tus tsim Cecil Williamson (1950-1996), Graham King (1996-2013), thiab Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm British Folklore, tus thawj coj Simon Costin (2013-tam sim no). Nws yog qhov kev vam meej thiab txhawb nqa tus kheej "micro-tsev cia puav pheej" (Candlin 2015), nrog tsim "Cov phooj ywg ntawm Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob." Rau ib lub tsev khaws puav pheej me me, cov neeg tuaj xyuas muaj ntau, pom ntau dua 40,000 ntawm Easter thiab Halloween hauv 2018.

Lub tsev khaws puav pheej hauv Boscastle nyob ntawm ntug ntawm qhov chaw nres nkoj hauv qhov qis, ob lub tsev pob zeb, ib feem ntawm lub nroog cov keeb kwm nuv ntses. Cecil Williamson's "lub txee ntawm kev xav paub" txoj hauv kev tau hloov pauv los ntawm King's thematic curation, thiab niaj hnub no ntau tshaj nees nkaum cov xov xwm nyob rau hauv cov chav me nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev labyrinthine. Txoj kev txhawb nqa txoj hauv kev los ntawm lub tsev cia puav pheej, thiab txhawb kev nkag siab ntawm kev nkag mus rau hauv lub ntiaj teb esoteric. Hauv qab, nqaim Txoj kev hauv tsev yog edged nrog cov xwm txheej (duab, kev tsim txom, cov khawv koob ntseeg Vajtswv, tshuaj ntsuab), qhov chaw rau kev nthuav qhia ib ntus, thiab lub rooj zaum ntawm lub xyoo pua nees nkaum Witch's Cottage (Joan lub tsev). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Sab saum toj qhib rau hauv ib chav loj uas tau teeb tsa thematically (piv txwv li, kev ntxim nyiam, kev tiv thaiv, kev foom phem, mandraks, tus vajtswv poj niam, Txiv neej ntsuab, cov khoom sau Richel, lub rooj ntawm Horned Vajtswv). Qhov thib ob nqaim staircase ua rau peb qhov chaw me me (xws li kev qhia txog hmoov zoo, kev ua khawv koob hauv hiav txwv, cov cuab yeej, thiab Cov Dab Neeg Niaj Hnub). Los ntawm kev tawm yog lub thaj neeb, thaj chaw nyob ntsiag to rau kev xav, qhov twg ib lub rooj ntev zaum ntoo thiab lub qhov rais pob zeb qhib rau ntawm tus kwj deg uas khiav ntawm sab ntawm lub tsev mus rau qhov chaw nres nkoj. Sab nraum ib lub vaj zaub me me thiab lub rooj ntev zaum tsim ib lub tshav puam me me, thiab cov duab puab loj ntawm lub lauj kaub (ntawm kev qiv nyiaj mus sij hawm ntev) saib thoob plaws tus dej thiab chaw nres nkoj. Cov ntawv sau muaj ntau dua 3,000 yam khoom, lub tsev qiv ntawv nrog ntau dua 7,000 phau ntawv, thiab cov ntaub ntawv tshawb fawb digitized (saib tau los ntawm kev teem sijhawm).

Thaum lub sij hawm Graham King tus thawj coj, thaum lub Yim Hli 2004, muaj kev puas tsuaj los ntawm dej nyab los ntawm Boscastle, kaw lub nroog tau ntau lub hlis thaum kho vaj tse, txoj kev thiab txuas hniav. Lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau raug puas ntsoog thiab kis kab mob, tab sis lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau rov qhib thaum Lub Peb Hlis 2005. Tom qab dej nyab, Vaj Ntxwv tau tsim kev ntseeg siab rau cov khoom khaws cia thiab ua kom lub koom haum cov phooj ywg zoo sib xws rau hauv lub koom haum kev siab hlub. Nyob rau hauv lub teeb ntawm no, Kerriann Godwin kho ib phau ntawm cov qhua nco, nyob rau hauv uas nplua nuj thiab evocative accounts qhia kev sib txuas ntawm lub tsev cia puav pheej thiab nws ntau yam khoom thiab dab neeg, thiab cov qhua, feem ntau practitioners ntawm niaj hnub Witchcraft thiab Wicca (Godwin 2011).

Nyob rau hauv 2015, tus thawj coj tshiab, Simon Costin [Duab ntawm txoj cai] hloov lub npe mus rau Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob thiab tsim ib qho chaw nthuav tawm ib ntus nrog kev hloov pauv txhua xyoo. Nws rov qab los ntawm Williamson's Witchcraft Research Center los ntawm Lub Qhov Muag Inquiring phau ntawv sau. Pab neeg hauv tsev cia puav pheej tau tsim cov xwm txheej rau pej xeem txhua xyoo uas ua kev zoo siab rau kev ua liaj ua teb thiab kev ua koob tsheej, uas kuj tau txheeb xyuas los ntawm ntau tus poj niam niaj hnub no ua cov xwm txheej tseem ceeb ntawm lawv daim ntawv teev kev cai dab qhuas, Lub Log ntawm Lub Xyoo, thiab xav txog qhov hloov pauv qhov rais.

Lub tsev khaws puav pheej tsis yog tsuas yog los ntawm thiab rau cov kws tshaj lij ntawm Cov Dab Neeg Niaj Hnub Nyoog, lossis Wicca, lossis lwm yam kev coj noj coj ua ntawm Pagan uas yog ib feem ntawm lub ntiaj teb thiab loj hlob sai Nature Religions. Nws yuav tsum lom zem thiab qhia ntau tus neeg tuaj saib nrog kev txaus siab sib txawv raws li nws teev cov nyiaj ntawm cov ntaub ntawv niaj hnub thiab keeb kwm ntawm khawv koob thiab Witchcraft. Nws lub hom phiaj ua haujlwm rau ob tus neeg tuaj ncig tebchaws uasi tsis muaj kev paub dhau los ntawm Wicca lossis witchcraft nrog rau cov neeg tuaj saib thoob ntiaj teb uas suav nrog Witches (lossis lwm yam Pagan, Occult, thiab esoteric kab lig kev cai), thiab cov neeg nyiam cov dab neeg thiab cov dab neeg dab neeg. Kev rov mus xyuas dua thiab cov lus pom zoo los ntawm ntau tus kws kho mob pom tau tias nws qhov kev nyiam ua qhov chaw khaws khoom muaj txiaj ntsig ntawm cov khoom qub thiab qhov chaw ntawm muaj nuj nqis cuab yeej cuab tam. Rau cov neeg tuaj xyuas no lub tsev khaws puav pheej yog ib qho chaw mus ncig ua si, thiab nws qhov chaw nyob hauv Cornwall tau pom los ntawm cov keeb kwm esoteric. Txawm hais tias tsis muaj ntaub ntawv keeb kwm ntawm kev ua khawv koob lossis lwm yam kev ua khawv koob tshwm sim hauv Boscastle, thiab Williamson tau thov tias nws yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws "cov neeg mus ncig ua si honeypot" (Williamson 1976: 26), nws tau hais tias cov poj dab yuav tau "muag cua" rau cov neeg tsav nkoj hauv chaw nres nkoj ntawm no, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] raws li tau piav qhia hauv lub tsev khaws puav pheej kos npe. Ib qho ntawm Williamson lub tsev khaws puav pheej piav qhia tias "peb mais deb ntawm qhov chaw no koj tuaj yeem pom lub pob zeb ua ntej keeb kwm yav dhau los ua rau lub ntsej muag nyob hauv pob zeb ... yog vim li cas lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Dab Ntxwg Nyoog nyob ntawm no, ib tus sawv ntawm ntug kev dhau mus. ” Lub labyrinths ntawm Rocky Valley, dej tsaws tsag ntawm Nectan's Glen, thiab lub pob zeb memorial rau Joan Wytte hauv Minster Woods tread ib lub vev xaib ntawm cov chaw uas tuav lub tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm lawv qhov chaw, uas muaj ntau qhov chaw sib txuas.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Lub tsev khaws puav pheej muaj ntau qhov sau los ntawm West Lub Tebchaws pej xeem cov khawv koob, kev ua khawv koob, thiab Witchcraft cov khoom, suav nrog cov khoom muaj npe nrov xyoo pua nees nkaum Wiccans thiab Witches (xws li Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente, Alex Sanders, thiab Stewart thiab Jannet Farrar), Golden Kaj ntug, thiab Dutch Richel-Eldermans Collection (King 2016), thiab nyiaj pub dawb los ntawm cov kws kho mob uas tsis muaj cov ntaub ntawv pej xeem (Brownie Pate, Iain Steele). Lub tsev khaws puav pheej muaj ib qho kev sau loj ntawm cov duab nrov ntawm cov dab neeg los ntawm kev tshaj xov xwm thiab cov ntaub ntawv, thiab nws piav qhia txog kev iab liam witchcraft nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua thib kaum rau thiab kaum xya nyob sab Europe los ntawm kev xav ntau dua. Joyce Froome, tus tswv cuab ntawm pawg tsev khaws puav pheej, tau luam tawm ib tus account ntawm kev sim ntawm Pendle witches nyob rau hauv cov ntsiab lus ntawm pej xeem khawv koob nyob rau hauv lub tsev khaws puav pheej sau (Froome 2010). Feem ntau, nws siv cov khawv koob thiab kev ua khawv koob ntawm lub ntsej muag tus nqi thiab hauv paus hauv cov tswv yim thiab cov khoom siv. Cov tswv yim tseem ceeb no tau txhawb nqa keeb kwm ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej, hla Cecil Williamson's, Graham King's, thiab Simon Costin cov thawj coj. Lawv qhia qhov ua tau zoo ntawm kev ua khawv koob raws li kev nkag siab thiab xa mus natural rog nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb animistic (Patterson 2014). Rau cov kws kho mob cov neeg tuaj saib lub tsev khaws puav pheej muab kev nkag siab thiab keeb kwm los ntawm cov cuab yeej thiab cov khoom siv ua yeeb yam, thiab qhov kawg ntawm cov khoom siv tas mus li qhia txog cov khoom ntiag tug ntawm cov kws tshaj lij xyoo pua nees nkaum, thiab nws tau sau tias "Nws tseem mus rau hnub no." [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Cecil Williamson lub tsev khaws puav pheej suav nrog cov rooj ua yeeb yam uas pom cov tswv yim nrov thiab keeb kwm txog kev ua khawv koob. Txawm li cas los xij, nws muaj pov thawj los ntawm nws cov ntawv tshawb fawb, cov ntawv sau hauv tsev cia puav pheej, thiab cov khoom uas nws nyiam tshaj plaws hauv kev txawj ntse ntawm Cunning Folk thiab Wise Women, uas nws tau piav qhia tias "Aunty May" lossis "Wayside Witch" thiab tau qhia los ntawm cov cov cuab yeej thiab cov khoom siv hauv zos, feem ntau yog cov poj niam, thiab feem ntau yog los ntawm Tebchaws Askiv West (Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset). Nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej zaum Witch's Tsev, inhabited los ntawm mannequin Joan uas yog ib puag ncig los ntawm cov cuab yeej ntawm nws kev lag luam, fortune-tshaj, kho, spells thiab amulets rau kev tiv thaiv:

Peb tus poj niam txawj ntse 'Joan' qhia txog ntau txoj hauv kev ua haujlwm los pab cov neeg nrhiav kev pab, piv txwv li: qhia txog hmoov zoo siv tarot phaib lossis ntaus pob; tshuaj ntsuab los ua hmoov zoo rau tus neeg ua liaj ua teb uas muaj cov tsiaj txhu muaj mob, lossis ib lub hnab ntim khoom los dai ntawm lub qhov cub kom tshem tawm cov dab phem” (MWM Guidebook 2017:15).

Tus poj niam no tau piav qhia tias yog ib tus kws tshaj lij uas ib zaug tuav qhov chaw ntawm tus kws kho mob, tus kws yug menyuam, tus neeg ua haujlwm sib raug zoo thiab kws kho tsiaj. Rau ntau qhov kev xyaum ua khawv koob niaj hnub no, cov no tau pom tias yog cov poj koob yawm txwv, txawm hais tias cov keeb kwm piav qhia, qhov no tsis tau txais kev txhawb nqa los ntawm cov ntaub ntawv pov thawj (Hutton 1999; Davies 2003).

Rituals / kev xyaum  

Cov xov entangled los ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej sau cov kev cai dab qhuas thiab kev coj ua ntawm keeb kwm ntawm kev ua khawv koob hauv tsev thiab lub luag haujlwm ntawm cov kws tshaj lij occult nrog rau niaj hnub Magical-Religious Witchcraft. Wiccan rites yog sawv cev los ntawm cov cuab yeej ua ke ntawm cov kws kho mob niaj hnub no. Cov kev coj ua ntawm Cov Poj Niam Txawj Ntse thiab Cov Neeg Cunning Folk tau qhia los ntawm kev sau ntawv, kev ntxim nyiam thiab amulets, apotropaic motifs, sympathetic magic rau kev tiv thaiv lossis kho, thiab poppets tsim rau kev foom. Muaj cov dab dab fwj uas muaj cov pins, rau tes thiab tso zis los tiv thaiv kev phom sij lossis tiv thaiv cov khawv koob phem. Kev ua yeeb yam rov ua dua, zoo li knotting, knitting, suav, stepping, chanting, tau pom tias yog cov txheej txheem ua khawv koob zoo. Muag knotted lengths ntawm txoj hlua rau cov neeg tsav nkoj raws li huab cua spell yog piav qhia ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej kos npe. Nws qhia tau hais tias qhov kev hloov pauv no tshwm sim ntawm Boscastle lub chaw nres nkoj, thaum cov no kho cov phab ntsa ntawm Joan's Cottage nrog rau lwm cov piv txwv ntawm Wise Woman's kev coj ua, thiab lub suab ntawm chanting tuaj yeem hnov ​​(Patterson 2016). Cov kev qhia no qhia tau hais tias cov khoom los ntawm lub ntiaj teb ntuj, cov nplaum, pob zeb, pob txha, paj, raug xa mus rau tej yam yees siv lub hom phiaj, thiab koom ua ke rau hauv kev ua yeeb yam siv huab cua, lub caij hloov, lub hli waxing thiab waning hli, los yog lub zog ntawm cov dej ntws. Lub ntiaj teb cov ntaub ntawv yog animated thiab cov khoom ntawm no yeej muaj sia nyob, nqis peev rau tib neeg lub hom phiaj thiab tsis yog tib neeg lub zog (Hewitt 2017).

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP  

Cecil Williamson qhov kev txaus siab rau lub neej ntawm kev ua tau zoo ntawm kev ua khawv koob tseem pom nyob hauv tsev cia puav pheej niaj hnub no. Nyob rau hauv nws lub neej thaum ntxov, nws muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog tsev neeg nrog kev sib raug zoo hauv zej zog, nws pom ib lub zos dab raug tsim txom los ntawm cov neeg nyob ze, nws tau txhawb nqa los ntawm lwm tus los siv cov khawv koob los tiv thaiv nws tus kheej los ntawm kev thab plaub hauv tsev kawm ntawv, thiab nws muaj kev phooj ywg nrog "tus kws kho mob laus laus" thaum ua hauj lwm rau ib tug colonial cog nyob rau hauv Rhodesia nyob rau hauv 1930s. Thaum nws rov qab los rau Tebchaws Askiv nws tau ua haujlwm hauv kev lag luam ua yeeb yaj kiab, thiab yog "tus kws pab tswv yim tsis zoo" rau Lub Chaw Haujlwm Txawv Tebchaws thaum Tsov Rog Ntiaj Teb thib ob, thaum nws teeb tsa Witchcraft Research Center (Williamson 2011). Nws piav qhia hauv Ib Daim Ntawv Qhia los ntawm Inquiring Eye of Witchcraft Yuav ua li cas nws cov kev paub tau muab lub hauv paus zoo heev los teeb tsa nws thawj Witchcraft Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Isle of Man (Patterson 2014: 272-77).

Graham King taug kev 200 mais ntawm Hampshire mus rau Cornwall los ua tswv cuab ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej thaum ib tag hmo thaum Lub Kaum Hli 31, 1996 (King 2011). Vaj Ntxwv txoj kev hloov pauv ntawm Williamson lub "txheej txheem ntawm kev xav paub" khaws tib lub ntsiab lus ntawm pej xeem cov dab neeg, Cunning Folk, thiab lub ntiaj teb tej yam yees siv. Nws koom nrog cov neeg ua haujlwm pab dawb los ntawm Cornwall thiab Devon Pagan Federation los pab nrog kev kho dua tshiab; Lub voj voog pob zeb tau tsim nyob rau hauv pem teb (ib lub voj voog peb lub hlis twg los ntawm daim iav), thiab Joan lub tsev tau ua thaum tig ntawm lub stairwell. Cornish artist Vivienne Shanley tau pleev xim rau lub tsev khaws puav pheej kos npe "Muag Cua" thiab piav qhia txog Wiccan Wheel ntawm Lub Xyoo los ntawm kev ua liaj ua teb thiab kev ua koob tsheej raws caij nyoog. Huab tais tau tsim lub tsev qiv ntawv hauv tsev cia puav pheej thiab khaws cia, thiab nws tau npaj cov neeg tuaj yeem pab dawb los pib txoj haujlwm ntev ntawm digitizing cov ntawv thiab sau ntawv. Cov kwj uas khiav ib sab ntawm lub tsev khaws puav pheej tau raug tshem tawm thiab lub thaj neeb tsim. Lub cev pob txha uas tau dai ntawm lub qab nthab thaum lub sijhawm Williamson lub sijhawm tau muab tso rau hauv lub hleb rau ob peb xyoos ua ntej muab faus rau hauv cov ntoo nyob ze Minster xyoo 1998. Boscastle muaj dej nyab thaum lub Yim Hli 2004; lub tsev khaws puav pheej kaw thaum huab tais thiab nws pab neeg tau ua haujlwm hnyav los kho qhov kev puas tsuaj. Simon Costin tau koom tes nrog Natural History Tsev khaws puav pheej pub dawb ntawm Victorian cov teeb meem ua ib feem ntawm kev kho dua tshiab (Costin 2011).

Hauv xyoo 2013, cov khoom plig tau muab rau Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm British Folklore. Tus thawj coj, Simon Costin, thiab nws pab neeg hauv tsev cia puav pheej tau teeb tsa kev cob qhia thiab cov xwm txheej, hloov kho cov kev xav tshawb fawb los ntawm Lub Qhov Muag Inquiring, thiab hloov kho cov duab. Zoo li Vaj Ntxwv, Costin khaws Williamson txoj kev nyiam hauv kev qhia pej xeem cov khawv koob, Cunning Folk, thiab kev ua tau zoo ntawm kev ua khawv koob, nrog rau kev tsim lub tsev khaws puav pheej lub peev xwm los ua ib qho chaw cia khoom rau cov khoom pub dawb ntawm cov kws kho mob niaj hnub no. Hauv xyoo 2015, lub npe tau hloov pauv kom muaj kev cuam tshuam zoo dua Williamson lub tsev khaws puav pheej qub ntawm Isle of Man, thiab lub voj voog zeb tau hloov qhov chaw nyob. Qhov chaw tau pom ib qho kev nthuav qhia ntawm Jos A Smith cov duab kos ntawm Erica Jong phau ntawv Witches (Jong 1981), "Poppets, Pins thiab Hwjchim: Cov Khoom Siv Hluav Taws Xob" (2016), "Glitter thiab Gravedust: Halloween Past & Tam sim no" (2017), "Dew of Heaven: Objects of Ritual Magic" (2018) thiab " Betwixt thiab Nruab Nrab: Isobel Gowdie, Witch of Auldearn” (2019). Kev loj hlob ntawm kev txaus siab hauv kev ua khawv koob thiab khawv koob tau pom ntau yam khoom siv qiv rau lwm qhov kev nthuav qhia.Ib daim duab sau ntawm cov khoom hauv kev sau tau luam tawm xyoo 2016 (Hannant thiab Costin 2016). Thaum lub sijhawm sau ntawv, cov tswv cuab hauv tsev cia puav pheej tab tom npaj rau Tsev khaws puav pheej Accreditation.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES  

Cov teeb meem tshwm sim nyob ib ncig ntawm cov lus nug ntawm kev yuav thiab txoj cai. Williamson cov ntaub ntawv tsis tshua muaj thiab tsis tiav, tej zaum yuav zais qhov tseeb tom qab zaj dab neeg (Fenton 2013). Nws cov ntawv feem ntau ntev thiab nyuaj, thiab lawv tau pab txhawb rau kev ua yeeb yam ntawm ntau yam ntawm nws cov yeeb yam. Niaj hnub no, thaum qee cov neeg tuaj xyuas nco qab lawv zoo siab, lwm tus tau txhawj xeeb tias lawv ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam cov cai sau tseg, thiab Vaj Ntxwv tau mob siab rau kev hloov kho tshiab. Kev txhawj xeeb txog kev tso saib ntawm tib neeg seem yog xav txog hauv Vaj Ntxwv qhov kev txiav txim siab tshem tawm ntawm cov pob txha uas tau nthuav tawm txij li xyoo 1960. Piav qhia los ntawm Williamson li "cov neeg tuag ntawm Joan Wytte, Sib Ntaus Poj Niam ntawm Bodmin," nws tau raug suav hais tias yog poj dab, thiab tuag hauv tsev loj cuj Bodmin rau kev ua phem rau ob tug txiv neej muaj zog. Vajntxwv faus cov pob txha hauv hav zoov sab nraum Boscastle thaum Lub Kaum Hli 31, 1999. Raws li zaj dab neeg ntawm Joan Wytte tau hais txog cov neeg mloog lus thiab cov dab neeg (Jones 1999, Wallis 2003), nws txav los ze zog rau cov poj niam Wise thiab Cunning Folk raws li qhov ua tau zoo. kws txawj tej yam yees siv, nyob rau hauv txoj kev uas qiv los ntawm niaj hnub Wiccan rituals thiab kev ntseeg. Lub neej thiab kev tuag ntawm Joan Wytte yog resonant rau ntau tus neeg tuaj xyuas, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov kws kho mob, tab sis tseem tsis muaj ntaub ntawv pov thawj tias nws muaj nyob (Semmens 2010; Cornish 2013). Ntau tus neeg tuaj xyuas suav nrog taug kev mus rau lub pob zeb memorial hauv Minster Woods [Duab ntawm txoj cai] uas yog ib feem ntawm lub vev xaib uas tau nthuav tawm ntawm lub tsev cia puav pheej mus rau Cornish toj roob hauv pes.

Muaj ib txwm muaj kev sib tw hauv tsev cia puav pheej nyob ib ncig ntawm cov lus nug ntawm kev ua tau zoo thiab qhov chaw ntawm kev ua khawv koob hauv ntiaj teb niaj hnub no. Kuj tseem muaj qhov kev xav tau txuas ntxiv ntawm kev ntsuas qhov xav tau ntawm ntau tus neeg tuaj saib, lom zem thiab qhia cov neeg tuaj ncig tebchaws uasi, uas muab cov nyiaj tau los ntawm cov tsev cia puav pheej, nrog rau kev txaus siab rau cov neeg muaj kev txaus siab tshwj xeeb lossis kev nyiam ntawm tus kheej hauv kev sau. Raws li niaj hnub Witchcraft thiab Wicca loj hlob tuaj, thiab nws qhov profile tau dhau los ua pej xeem, qhov tseem ceeb ntawm nws keeb kwm thiab cov tswv cuab nce. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov kev nkag siab ntawm lub ntiaj teb tej yam yees siv tseem nyob hauv nruab nrab, thiab lub tsev khaws puav pheej, nrog rau nws qhov kev sau ntau ntawm cov khoom ua khawv koob hais tias:

Cov khoom koj yuav pom ntawm no yog qhov tsawg, qhov chaw, txawv txawv, ubiquitous. Txhua yam yog tej yam yees siv: lawv muaj lub zog tshwj xeeb thiab qhov tseem ceeb, thiab nthuav tawm cov cuab yeej cuab tam tej yam yees siv uas tseem muaj sia nyob niaj hnub no (MWM Phau ntawv qhia 2017: 6).

DLAWS
Duab #1: Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob © Helen Cornish (2014).
Duab #2: Cecil Williamson (c) Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob.
Duab #3: Simon Costin nrog Graham King (c) Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob (2013).
Duab #4: Joan's Cottage © Helen Cornish (2014).
Duab #5: Muag Cua © Helen Cornish (2012).
Duab #6: Niaj hnub no Witchcraft zaub © Helen Cornish (2014).
Duab #7: Joan memorial pob zeb © Helen Cornish (2010).

ua tim khawv

Candlin, Fiona. 2015. Micromuseology: Kev Ntsuam Xyuas ntawm Me Me Independent Tsev khaws puav pheej. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Cornish, Helen. 2013. "Lub neej ntawm Kev Tuag ntawm "Kev Sib Tw Fairy Poj Niam ntawm Bodmin": Dab neeg ncig lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft."  Anthropological Journal ntawm European Cultures 22: 79-97.

Costin, Simon. 2011. "Ceev faj Yam Koj Xav Tau: Sijhawm, Kev Pom Zoo thiab Kev Xav Ua tiav." p.29 ib Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft: A Magical History, kho los ntawm Kerriann Godwin. Bodmin: Lub Tuam Txhab Occult Art thiab Cov Phooj Ywg ntawm Boscastle Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft.

Davies, Owen. Xyoo 2003. Cunning-Folk: nrov khawv koob hauv keeb kwm Askiv. London: Hambledon Continuum.

Fenton, Louise. 2013. "Lub Txiaj Ntsim ntawm Curses: Kev kawm ntawm cov neeg qab cov poppets tuav hauv Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft." Cov cuab yeej ntawm Kev Lag Luam: Ib hnub ntawm kev hais lus rau Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft: The Wellington Hotel, Boscastle, Tsib Hlis 2013, tsis tau luam tawm daim ntawv.

Joyce, Foos. 2010. Kev phem kev qias: keeb kwm ntawm Pendle Witches thiab lawv cov khawv koob. Lancaster: Phau Ntawv Palatine.

Godwin, Kerriann, ed. Xyoo 2011. Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft: A Magical History. Bodmin: Lub Tuam Txhab Occult Art thiab Cov Phooj Ywg ntawm Boscastle Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft.

Hannant, Sara, thiab Simon Costin. 2016. Ntawm Duab ntxoov ntxoo: Ib Puas Yam Khoom los ntawm Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob. London: Txawv txawv Attractor Xovxwm.

Hewitt, Peter. 2017. "Sau thiab ua cov khoom siv yees duab nrog Cecil Williamson."Lub qhov muag Enquring 1: 44-60.

Hutton, Ronald. 1999. Triumph ntawm lub hli. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, Kelvin. Xyoo 1999. Ib Joan lub Crone: Keeb Kwm thiab Khoom Siv ntawm Cornish Witch. Penzance: Oakmagic Publications.

Yim, Erica. 1981. Dab. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Vajntxwv, Graham. 2011. "A Journey to Beyond." Pp. 127-28 ib Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft: A Magical History, kho los ntawm Kerriann Godwin. Bodmin: Lub Tuam Txhab Occult Art thiab Cov Phooj Ywg ntawm Boscastle Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft.

Vajntxwv, Graham. 2016. Duab thiab Artefacts ntawm Richel-Cov Txwj Laug Sau: Peb Tes Xovxwm.

MWM Guidebook. 2017. Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob Guidebook: Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft thiab Khawv koob.

Patterson, Steve. Xyoo 2014. Cecil Williamsons Phau Ntawv Witchcraft: A Grimoire ntawm Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft. Penzance: Troy Phau Ntawv.

Patterson, Steve. Xyoo 2016. Cov ntawv sau los ntawm Wise Woman's Cottage. London: Troy Books Publishing.

Semmens, Jason. 2010. "Bucca Redivivus: Keeb Kwm, Folklore thiab Kev Tsim Kho ntawm haiv neeg tus kheej nyob rau niaj hnub Pagan Witchcraft hauv Cornwall." Cornish Studies 18: 141-61.

Wallis, Kathy. Xyoo 2003. Ntsuj Plig nyob rau hauv cua daj cua dub: Zaj Dab Neeg Tseeb ntawm Joan Wytte, Sib Ntaus Poj Niam ntawm Bodmin. Wadebridge, Cornwall: Lyngham Lub Tsev.

Williamson, Cecil. Xyoo 2011 [1966]. "Yuav ua li cas Witchcraft Tsev khaws puav pheej tau los ua." Pp. 12-19 Ib Lub Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft: A Magical History, kho los ntawm Kerriann Godwin. Bodmin: Lub Tuam Txhab Occult Art thiab Cov Phooj Ywg ntawm Boscastle Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Witchcraft.

Williamson, Cecil. 1976. "Witchcraft Tsev khaws puav pheej - thiab nws txhais li cas kom muaj ib tug."  Quest 27: 4-6.

Daim Ntawv Qhia Hnub:
3 Tej zaum 2019

 

Qhia