James F. Lawrence

Swedenborgian lub Koom Txoos ntawm North America

SWEDENBORGIAN CHURCH NTAWM NORTH AMERICA TIMELINE

1784: James Glen, tus tub hluas Scotsman nrog cog hauv Guyana, tau mus xyuas Philadelphia thiab qhia thawj qhov chaw nyob rau ntawm Swedenborg cov lus sau hauv Asmeskas. Lub thawv ntawm Swedenborg cov phau ntawv los ntawm Askiv tau ua rau kev nyeem cov voj voog, uas tau loj hlob ntau thiab tau loj hlob mus rau hauv cov tsev sib ntsib nyob rau sab qaum tsev dej hiav txwv (Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts).

1817 (Lub Ib Hlis): Philadelphia Swedenborgian lub koom txoos tau qhib thawj lub tsev tsim tsa Swedenborgian tsim lub tsev teev ntuj hauv North America, lub Tuam Tsev Tshiab hauv Yeluxalees, ua qauv tom qab ib lub tuam tsev Swedenborg tau thov kom pom saum ntuj ceeb tsheej thiab tau piav qhia hauv Cov ntseeg tseeb, txij li razed.

1817 (Lub Tsib Hlis): Thawj Asmeskas sib sau, lossis kev sib txoos, ntawm cov koom txoos hauv Swedenborgian, tau ntsib hauv lub tuam tsev Philadelphia tshiab nrog cov sawv cev los ntawm kaum xya lub koom txoos. Qhov kev txiav txim siab kawg ntawm kev lag luam yog tuav lub rooj sib tham tom ntej lub caij ntuj sov hauv Baltimore, ib qho kev coj ua txhua xyoo uas tau txuas ntxiv mus tsis tau tas li rau lub sijhawm tam sim no. Ib tsab cai tau txais yuav, yog li khij lub koom haum ua ke ntawm dab tsi los ua Swedenborgian lub Koom Txoos ntawm North America.

Xyoo 1850: Swedenborgians hauv Ohio tau tsim ib lub tsev kawm ntawv qib siab tsis pub leej twg paub, lub tsev kawm qib siab Urbana hauv Urbana, Ohio, uas tau los ua Urbana University thaum xyoo 1985 thiab tau los ua ib ceg ntawm Franklin University (Columbus, Ohio) hauv 2014, thaum tseem khaws nws keeb kwm keeb kwm raws li Urbana Tsev kawm ntawv.

1861: Txoj kev ntseeg ntuj koom ua ke hauv Illinois uas tau yog tus General Convention ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees Tshiab. Txawm hais tias Swedenborgian Lub Koom Txoos ntawm North America yog nws lub npe raug cai, lub denomination yeej ib txwm raug xa mus rau "Cov Lus Cog Tseg" ntawm cov neeg Swedenborgians thoob ntiaj teb hauv lwm cov ceg.

Xyoo 1890: Lub sijhawm muaj keeb kwm ntau ntawm Swedenborgian pawg ntseeg tau ua tiav hauv Asmeskas hauv 187 lub koom txoos thiab 111 tus kws tshaj lij.

Xyoo 1890: Muaj ib qho kev schism tshwm sim thaum lub koom haum Pennsylvania koom tes tsis sib haum xeeb los ntawm Cov Lus Cog Tseg los ua ib pawg ntseeg cais, Lub Koom Txoos General ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees Tshiab, niaj hnub no nyob hauv Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.

1893: Sweden tus kws lij choj thiab tus kws tsim tsa Charles Carroll Bonney tau thov thiab coj thawj thawj pawg Thawj Hwj Hwm ntawm Neeg Ntiaj Teb Kev Ntseeg ntawm Ntiaj Teb Columbian Exposition tau tuav hauv Chicago, nqa ntau qhov kev pom zoo rau kev ntseeg; Bonney raug lees paub tias yog tus txhais lus thawj tus neeg txhais lus ntawm Swedenborg.

1894: Lub Tebchaws Swedenborgian lub tsev teev ntuj, Lub Koom Txoos ntawm nroog Dawb Huv, tau ua tiav thiab qhib hauv Washington DC thiab tseem ua haujlwm niaj hnub no tsis pub dhau lub Tsev Dawb.

Xyoo 1895: Lub Tsev Teev Ntuj San Francisco thib Ob ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees Tshiab (niaj hnub no Lub Tsev Teev Ntuj San Francisco Swedenborgian) tau qhib nrog kev lees paub vaj tsev thiab ua tib lub tebchaws ntawm qhov chaw pe hawm hauv San Francisco.

Xyoo 1896: Arthur Sewall, tus kws tshaj lij fab kev ua lag luam thiab Swedenborgian tus neeg sawv cev hauv chav da dej, Maine Swedenborgian pawg ntseeg, tau khiav ua tus lwm thawj coj sawv cev rau ntawm Party tog daim pib nrog William Jennings Bryan.

Xyoo 1897: Thawj lub koom txoos Swedenborgian ntau tiam neeg lub caij ntuj sov no tau qhib hauv Almont, Michigan (tseem nyob hauv kev ua haujlwm). Lwm tus ua raws li cov kev hloov tshwj xeeb no, feem ntau tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Fryeburg New Church Assembly hauv Maine

Xyoo 1900: Cov qhab nia siab hauv tag nrho cov tswv cuab hauv txoj cai tau ua tiav, tau suav txog ntawm 7,000 tus tswv cuab.

1904: Lub teb chaws Alliance ntawm Koom Txoos Tshiab Cov Poj Niam tau tsim.

Xyoo 1967: Txoj kev lees paub tau raug lees paub rau hauv National Council of Cov Koom Txoos txawm hais tias nws nyob deb luv luv ntawm qhov yuav tsum muaj tsawg kawg nkaus cov tswv cuab tsawg kawg ntawm 50,000.

Xyoo 1975: Thawj thawj tug poj niam qhia ntawv raug tsa, Rev. Dr. Dorothea Harvey, yog tus xibfwb qhia kev ntseeg ntawm Urbana College.

1997: Thawj qhib kev tshaj tawm gay, thiab Rev. Dr. Jonathan Mitchell, tau raug tsa thiab tom qab ntawv xaiv tsa los ntawm cov npoj yaig mus rau lub chaw haujlwm ntawm lub rooj sib tham ntawm Cov Txwj Laus Tswj Haujlwm ntawm ob peb xyoos.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) yog ib lub npe hu ua Swedish natural philosopher uas tau coj lub neej nyob rau hauv nruab nrab thiab luam tawm ib lub ntsiab lus ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm cov phau ntawv ntawm sab ntsuj plig uas ua rau cov ntseeg muaj kev ntseeg zoo heev thiab tau qhia txog kev ntseeg Vajtswv.

Swedenborg [Duab ntawm txoj cai] xav tias nws hloov siab lees txim ntawm Christianity yuav los hloov cov ceg ntoo loj ntawm Christendom thiab tsis muaj kev cuam tshuam los ntawm lo lus los yog puav leej tsim kom muaj ib lub koom haum txawv. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov tsis sib haum xeeb cais tau tawm ntawm cov neeg nyeem ntawm nws phau ntawv nyob hauv teb chaws Askiv uas nws tau ua haujlwm tau kaum peb xyoos, thiab qee cov neeg ua haujlwm nyob hauv 1789 li lub Tuam Rooj Sab Laj ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees tshiab, tsis muaj Kev Xaiv Tsa (Duckworth 1998: 7- 25; Thaiv 1932: 61-73). Swedenborgian lub koom txoos cov koom haum nyob rau hauv ob qho tag nrho teb chaws As Mes Lis Kas thiab Asmesliskas tau pom tias cov kev cai tshiab yog vim tsis yog cov ntsiab lus heterodox hauv lawv txoj kev ntseeg xwb, tab sis kuj vim tias lawv tsis yog lwm yam kev cai dab qhuas. Nyob rau hauv teb chaws Askiv cov neeg uas tau koom ib lub koom txoos kev ntseeg tshiab tau los ntawm ntau ntau yam kev ntseeg, thiab Swedenborgian Church ntawm North America nws tus kheej tsis txuas nrog lub Swedenborgian pawg ntseeg tshiab nyob hauv Asmeskas, tab sis nws kuj yog ib lub zos thiab neeg txav deb uas nws cov thawj koom haum tuaj ntawm ob peb ntseeg Vajtswv.

Muaj li ntawm xya Swedenborgian denominations chaw lwm qhov nrog rau tag nrho cov tswv cuab ntawm 50,000, cov coob pawg nyob hauv West Africa thiab South Africa. Lub Koom Txoos American Swedishborgian ntawm North America (koom ua ke ntawm General Convention ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees tshiab) yog ob qhov qub, tom qab lus Asmeskas lub zog. Tag nrho Swedenborgian denominations siv cov lus "New Jerusalem" los sis "Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab" hauv lawv lub npe, thiab feem ntau tus kheej tau piav hais tias "Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab" thiab siv lo lus New Church hauv zos pawg ntseeg. Lub Koom Txoos Swedenvorgian ntawm North America, txawm li ntawd los, dav hloov nws cov pej xeem tus kheej thaum lub sij hawm thib ob ib nrab ntawm lub thib nees nkaum xyoo pua nrog ntau ministries nws tus kheej piav raws li Swedenborgian, nrog rau tam sim no title ntawm denomination. Qhov sib txawv ntawm cov lus qhia tsawg kawg li yog "Swedenborgian" yog qhov chaw thoob plaws.

Cov neeg Asmeskas txav mus rau lub caij ntuj sov ntawm 1784 thaum James Glen, British plantation hauv Guyana, coj luam ntawv ntawm Swedenborg lub theological writings rau Philadelphia thiab muab pej xeem lectures. Cov pawg nyeem ntawv rau cov phau ntawv no tau pib ua sai sai tom qab ntawd, nrog qee qhov nyeem voj voog mus rau hauv pawg ntseeg nrog kev pab cuam kev cai dab qhuas thiab kev ua tus thawj coj. Thaum ntxov ntawm pawg ntseeg nyob rau hauv Baltimore muaj cov tswvcuab feem ntau ntawm pawg ntseeg, Philadelphia tseem tshuav qis tshaj rau thawj peb lub xyoo plaub nrog rau ntau tshaj plaws. Quaker lub zog hauv Pennsylvania ua pov thawj siv tau raws li ob qhov taw qhia sib xws li sib tham txog lub teeb ci, thiab ob qho tib si tau ua pab pawg los ntawm ib co kev ntseeg historians nyob rau hauv lub ntsiab lus tau hais tias "qhov kev xaiv sab ntsuj plig" hauv Kev Hloov Ntshaw (Gutierrez 2010: 249-58). Quakers nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm ntxov tshaj plaws muab cov channel tseem ceeb ntawm kev hloov pauv hauv cov tshiab fledgling Swedenborgian societies.

Thawj lub tsev teev ntuj lub tuam txhab commissioned by Swedenborgians yog nyob rau hauv Philadelphia thiab qhib rau New Year lub hnub 1817. Nws tau caum tom qab hauv lub tuam tsev Nunc Licet lub tuam tsev Cov ntseeg tseeb (2006: 508):

Muaj ib hnub ib lub tuam tsev zoo kawg li rau kuv; nws yog square nyob rau hauv kev npaj nrog ib lub ru tsev zoo li ib tug crown, nrog arches saum toj no thiab ib tug tsa parapet khiav ib ncig. . . Tom qab ntawd, thaum kuv los ze zog, kuv pom muaj ib lub npe sau rau ntawm lub qhov rooj: TAM SIM NO YUAV TSUM POM ZOO. Qhov no txhais tau hais tias tam sim no nws raug tso cai rau nkag mus nrog kev nkag siab rau hauv qhov tsis paub txog kev ntseeg.

Nyob rau tib lub xyoo ntawd, txij li ntau lub tebchaws tau tawg ua nyob nruab nrab sab hnub tuaj ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv, lub tswv yim tau tshwm sim kom muaj kev sib tham ntawm cov neeg sawv cev ntawm cov pab pawg, thiab lawv tau ntsib nyob rau Tsib 15, 1817 (hnub ntawm Ascension nyob rau hauv lub sijhawm Christian) Nunc Licet tuam tsev tshiab. Lawv kaw qhov kev lag luam yog los teeb tsa lub rooj sib ntsib thib ob rau xyoo ntxiv rau hnub ntawm Ascension 1818 mus rau hauv lub tsev teev ntuj Baltimore, thiab lub denomination tau txuas ntxiv mus tuav ib lub rooj sib tham txhua xyoo.

Thawj qhov tseem ceeb ntawm Swedenborgian nyob rau hauv Amelikas yog Francis Bailey (1744-1817), ib lub tshuab luam ntawv muaj npe nyob rau hauv Philadelphia uas tus Founding txiv tig mus luam tawm cov khoom ntawm Confederation (thawj American Constitution). Nws tau pib tus thawj Swedenborg nyeem lub voj voog thiab pib luam ntawv ntxov American Swedenborgian lawd phau ntawv thiab tom qab thawj American ntawv luam tawm ntawm Swedenborg txoj kev sau ntawv. Nws cov nom tswv radicalism tau pab nws cov lag luam luam tawm  vam meej, tab sis nws txoj kev ntseeg radicalism ua rau nws poob nws txoj kev koom nrog lub sijhawm. Feem ntau cov yeeb yuj Swedenborgian nyob rau hauv keeb kwm thaum pib ntawm lub zog tshiab yog ib tus Bailey's adherents, John Chapman (1774-1845), los yog Johnny Appleseed. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Lub caij nplooj ntoos hlav thaum ntxov sab hnub poob, tus kws tu me nyuam yaus kuj raug hu los ua tus kws tshaj lij rau Swedenborg txoj kev ntseeg ntawm Christianity. Nws txoj kev ua zoo yog kev qhuab qhia hauv kev qhuab qhia thiab muab tes tawm ntawm Swedenborgian cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm cov neeg uas nws yuav sau lawv thaum rov los ntawm kev muab rau lwm tus thiab tawm yam tshiab.

Lub foremost twv qhov kev hloov tshiab tshwm sim hauv nws thawj ib nrab xyoo tau koom tes nrog kev thawb-thiab-Tsoom fwv Nplog hu ua 1817 ua tus General Convention (ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees tshiab), lub koomhaum xoob ua haujlwm hauv lub koomhaum ua haujlwm ntawm pawg ntseeg (cov pawg hauv zos muaj thiab ua haujlwm rau lawv tus kheej) tus kheej kev qhuab qhia). Muaj lub siab xav ua kom sib haum thiab sib qhia sib luag, feem ntau mus nce tus kheej thiab muaj nyob rau hauv cov pej xeem square, vied nrog cov lus cog tseg rau kev ywj pheej thiab kev ntshai ntawm kev yuam los ntawm cov cheeb tsam zoo zog khiav roughshod tshaj me. Boston-centered New England cheeb tsam coj los ntawm Thomas Worcester ntawm Beacon Hill lub koom txoos yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv ob qho tag nrho thiab tus cwj pwm. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Worcester twb tau los ua tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm kev ntseeg rau ntau xyoo (peb caug-plaub) dua lwm yam.

Nyob rau hauv 1838 Worcester tau sim kom xa ib daim episcopal ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj tsoom fwv raws li lub diffuse gaggle ntawm Swedishborgian lub koom txoos. Nyob rau hauv lub siab phem ua rau lub npe hu ua "txoj cai tswjfwm," nyob rau hauv lub rooj sib txoos ib nrab xyoo Worcester tau tsim kho kom txhua tus neeg yuav tsum tau sib sau ua ke raws li txoj cai tshiab ntawm kev txiav txim los ntawm xyoo tom ntej los yog poob ntawm cov yob ntawm cov Convention. Lub plawv dhia tawm sab nraud ntawm sab qaum teb. Kev tiv thaiv tau coj ob hom: tawm tsam lub hauv paus nruab nrab ntawm Midwest thiab tawm tsam Worcester nyob rau hauv ib thaj chaw ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv uas yog Philadelphia. Cov Koomhaum Kev Tawm Tsam Nruab Nrab sab nrauv hu ua Western Convention thiab Central Convention tom qab tau tsim los tawm tsam rau New England-Conventioned General Convention, uas hu ua qee qhov Eastern Convention. Lub rooj sablaj no yog qhov tseemceeb rau tsoomfwv hauv lub tebchaws, thiab lub Central Convention tau tuaj yeem ua haujlwm zoo tshaj plaws rau hauv tsoomfwv, tabsis tsis yog nyob hauv Worcester. Nws siv sijhawm kaum rau nws tag nrho kom khom tau. Lub rooj sab laj Western tau rov qab los rau hauv tsev thiab tau lees txais qee qhov ntawm General Convention kev tswj kav, xws li txoj hauv kev ua kom tiav, thiab General Convention siv rau hauv lub koomhaum kev ua haujlwm hauv lub koomhaum uas muaj peevxwm nyob nruab nrab. Lub hauv paus ntawm Central Convention, txawm li ntawd los, los ua lub hauv paus tawg uas ua rau qhov kev txiav txim siab tshwm sim hauv 1890 uas tau los ua lub Koom Txoos General (ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees tshiab) nrog lub xeev daim npav (Nres 1932: 170-204).

Muaj ntev tau cog lus nyob rau hauv SwedenBorgian Church ntawm North America mus rau ecumenical thiab pluralist kev sib raug zoo. Ib tug Swedenborgian, Charles Carroll Bonney, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tau xeeb ntawm thawj zaug ntawm Parliament ntawm lub ntiaj teb txoj Kev Ntseeg rau 1893 Columbian Exposition nyob rau Chicago, thiab nws tau tswj xyuas tam sim no legendary kev tshwm sim uas yog thawj zaug ua tswvcuab Buddhism thiab Hinduism, rau cov pej xeem Asmeskas pej xeem. Hauv 1966, qhov kev cai dab qhuas tau nkag mus rau hauv National Council of Churches txawm tias muaj kev ua tswv cuab tsawg tshaj li niaj zaus txwm ntawm 50,000 cov tswvcuab thiab tseem niaj hnub ua haujlwm txhua lub sijhawm. Lub Koom Txoos Swedenborgian tau raug txheeb xyuas tias tsuas yog ib qho kev sib txuas lus los sis kev ntseeg tshiab rau hauv NCC (Lub rooj muag 2007: 27). Nyob rau hauv 2001, lub denomination's seminary tawm Boston tom qab 135 xyoo ntawm kev ua haujlwm thiab rov tsim ua ib feem ntawm Graduate Theological Union nyob rau hauv Berkeley, lub koom txoos feem coob pluralist kev kawm hauv North America.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Lub Swedenborgian lub zog muaj kev sib haum xeeb rau kev ntseeg ua rau cov ntseeg Christian keebkwm piv rau qhov kev ntseeg tom qab no puas xyoo dhau los ntawm cov ntseeg Yexus tshiab kev ntseeg kev cai li Mormonism, Lub Xya hnub Adventism, Yehauvas Cov Timkhawv, thiab Christian Science. Qhov no yog vim Swedenborg txoj kev cia siab kho cov ceg ntoo loj hauv Christendom. Sab nraum ntawm cov naiskhu nquag nyeem ntawv ntawm cov qib thiab cov xibfwb ntawm cov neeg Amelikas kev cai, txawm li ntawd los, Swedenborg yeej tsis tau txais kev sib ntau nyob rau hauv qhov kev cai loj ntawm cov neeg uas ntseeg Yexus. Nws ntev tshaj plaws kab lis kev cai ncav tau los ntawm Romance ntxias thiab paj huam uas pom muaj zog txog cov khoom siv hauv nws tus choj plhu thiab kev paub txog kev xav hauv nruab siab (Williams-Hogan 2012).

Txawm hais tias kev sib cav sib ceg ntawm qhov kev ntseeg loj tshaj plaws xws li kev ntseeg Tswv Yim Ntshiab, Kev Ntseeg Trinitarian, kev cawmdim los ntawm txoj kev ntseeg los ntawm kev tshav ntuj, thiab tsom rau qhov kev nkag siab zoo ntawm cov vaj lug kub, Swedenborgian pawg ntseeg tsis tas li tau txhawb cov paub txog Christian. Cov no muaj xws li kev ntseeg siab, qhia txog qhov kev ntseeg hauv phau Vajluskub kom totaub txog sab ntsujplig, thiab kev teev hawm pej xeem tom qab lub xyoo Christian. Xws li zoo sib xws, tiam sis, yuav tsum tsis txhob zais cov hauj lwm ntawm lwm cov teeb meem loj.

Zoo sib xws nrog Swedenborg lub luag hauj lwm nyob rau hauv lub siab ntawm niaj hnub spiritualism, Swedenborgians tau nquag hauv publishing ntau yam txog lub neej yav tom ntej tshaj kev tuag. Swedenborg tus khiav tawm zoo siab ntawm nws tus kheej lub neej nyob rau hauv lub tam sim no tau nws spiritualome tome, Saum ntuj ceeb tsheej thiab ntuj raug txim, uas yog nrog rau cov lus qhia ntawm sab ntsuj plig (Swedenborg 1758 / 2001). [Image ntawm txoj cai] Swedenborgians tau koom tes nrog txoj kev tshawb fawb ze ntawm kev tuag, luam tawm ntau yam haujlwm hauv kev txhawb nqa kev ploj tuag thiab kev sib koom nrog pawg hauv pawg ntseeg uas muaj cov neeg hais lus uas tau lees tias tau muaj kev paub nrog "lwm sab" nyob ze- tuag tshwm sim.

Attendance nyob rau sab saum toj ntawm qhov zoo tshaj plaws-paub cov yam ntxwv ntawm Swedenborgian kev ntseeg yog lub tswv yim hais tias phau Vajlugkub muaj ib qho kev cai lij choj uas tsis muaj neeg paub txog rau cov ntawv nyeem rau kev rhuav tshem lub cim ntawm nws lub ntsiab lus tiag tiag. Ze li ntawm ib nrab ntawm tag nrho cov nplooj ntawv ntawm Swedenborg luam tawm theosophy uas sau rau kwv yees li peb caug (nyob ntawm cov ntawv luam) nrog nqe vaj lug kub los ntawm nqe vaj lug kub uas qhia txog "kev nkag siab" hauv lub ntsiab lus ntawm cov ntawv nyeem. Txoj kev tawm suab ntawm cov ntawv no tshwm sim los ntawm ib tus qauv ntawm lub cim ntawm Swedenism hu ua "correspondences" los ntawm lub npe thiab cov lus hais ntawm lub siab dawb nyeem yog ib qho kev ntseeg ntawm kev ntseeg raws li kev sib raug zoo rau cov ntseeg hauv theosophy uas yog xa mus rau cov ntsiab lus ntawm peb lub ntsiab ntawm Vajtswv yus tus kheej thiab kev sib raug zoo nrog tib neeg, keeb kwm ntawm tib neeg ntawm sab ntsuj plig, thiab nyeem ntawv tus kheej lub neej lus. Swedenborg lub tswv yim kev lag luam yog xam los ntawm ntau tus kws tshawb fawb tau hais txog qhov ntev-sawv ntxov sensus spiritualis txoj kev biblical allegoresis ib zaug xyaum los ntawm kaum ob ntawm tseem ceeb cov nuj nqis nyob rau hauv keeb kwm Christian (Lawrence 2012).

Lwm qhov kev ntseeg tseem ceeb cuam tshuam rau qhov ua kom deb li deb Oneness metaphysic uas ua rau muaj tus neeg koom nrog (me "u") tus yam ntxwv ntawm tus Vaj Peb Leeg nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev heterodox uas Swedenborgians feem ntau tau sau npe los ntawm orthodox ntseeg tias yog kev tawm tsam Trinitarian. Tseem central yog txhais tau dua tshiab ntawm txoj kev ntseeg ntawm orthodox formulations. Swedenborg tawm tsam "txoj kev ntseeg ib leeg" lub tswv yim ntawm txoj kev cawm seej nrog lub siab phem uas cov pawg txav tau ib txwm hais txog kev loj hlob ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiab kev tsim kho tshiab, uas yog cov txheej txheem tiag tiag ntawm kev tsim thiab tsuas yog "txoj hauv kev" mus rau lub hom phiaj zoo hauv lub neej tom qab. Thaum teb nws tsis txaus siab mus sib hais nrog nws txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb kawg, Cov ntseeg tseeb, Swedenborg tsim ib litany ntawm nws cov lus qhuab qhia hloov kho siv khiav lub qauv ntawm ib tug raug Lutheran systematic. Rau txhua qeb lus qhuab qhia nws piav txog "lub qub pawg ntseeg" saib thiab "Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab" saib (Swedenborg 1771 / 2006).

Dua li ntawm feem ntau cov sectarian adherents uas Swedenborg twb tsis muaj hauv ntiaj teb no rau nws cov kev tshwm sim ntawm lub ntsiab lus ntawm qhov vaj lug kub thiab theology thiab theosophy nws muaj, heev ntseeg historians cim Swedenborg raws li pawg thiab resonant nrog ntau inter-txog keeb kwm currents kev xav: Neoplatonist, Augustinian, theosophical, hermetical, kabbalist, Pietist, thiab Neo Cartesian (Lamm 2000: 50-122; 1971-41; 118-1984; Larsen 1: 33-2012; Lawrence 147: 233-2012). Ntxiv nrog rau kev sau ntawm txoj kev cuam tshuam txoj hauv kev uas Swedenborg tau teeb tsa, qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov ntaub ntawv pov thawj tsim tau nws raws li kev paub txog cov tswv yim thiab kev coj ua los ntawm cov keeb kwm kev ua neej uas yooj yim rau nws paub tab ntawm kev xav. Cov ntaub ntawv no muaj ntau phau ntawv sau los ntawm nws cov ntaub ntawv thiab cov catalogue ntawm nws lub tsev qiv ntawv tom tsev tom qab nws tuag (Lawrence 114: 17-130, 36-XNUMX).

Nyob rau hauv cov nqe lus ntawm Swedenborg tus txais tos thiab cawv rau nws cov tswv yim, ib tug xov tooj ntawm historians ntawm kev ntseeg kev ntsuam xyuas Swedenborg lub luag hauj lwm nyob rau hauv shaping Western kev cai xav li ceeb toom, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv puas lub xyoo pua England thiab United States (Ahlstrom 1972: 600-04, 1019-24; Schmidt 2000; Albanese 2007: 136-44, 170-01, 303-11; thiab Goodrick-Clarke 2008: 152-78).

Rituals / kev xyaum

Cov kev coj ntawm sab ntsuj plig uas tau los ntawm cov keeb kwm ntawm pawg neeg no tau koom ua txoj kev teev ntuj sib tw. Suab paj nruag, kev thov Vajtswv, thiab cov lus teb ua pabcuam txhawb pabcuam hauv nroog loj: qhov kev txhais lus qhuab qhia txhais tau tias yuav ua neej licas los ntawm qhov kev qhia ntawm ntau lub ntsiab lus hauv vaj lug kub. Swedenborgians yuav yog qhov tsuas yog kev lig kev cai uas pib txhua qhov kev pab cuam nrog qhib kev cai raus dej ntawm phau Vajlugkub rau hauv lub thaj thiab xaus rau tom qab lub siab dawb paug nrog kev cai dab qhuas kaw ntawm phau Vajlugkub (Lawrence 2005: 605-08). Tsis ntev los no, feem ntau ntawm pawg ntseeg tau rais los ua "pawg ntseeg tsawg" thiab kawm hauv kev pehawm Vajtswv. Kev pehawm Vajtswv, kev sib tham thiab kev sib tham nyob rau Swedenborg cov haujlwm thiab Swedenborgian secondary cov ntaub ntawv yog qhov kev xyaum ua haujlwm, tabsis ob peb lub xyoos dhau los no muaj kev pom zoo, ntxiv rau cov neeg xav, cov xibfwb, thiab kev coj ua.

Thaum Swedenborg tuav tus txheej txheem ntawm tus yaj saub ntawm feem ntau Swedenborgians thoob ntiaj teb, nyob rau hauv no feem ntau cov ceg ntseeg loj nws tau saib ntau dua li "qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntawm ntau" lub siab dawb huv kev pab. American psychologist Wilson Van Dusen nyob rau hauv kaum ob lub xyoo pua ntawm lub xyoo pua nees no tau tsim ib qho dav dav rau Swedenborgian kev coj noj coj ua haujlwm uas yog qhia los ntawm Swedenborg tus kheej kev coj ua, thiab nws txav tseem ceeb mus rau kev xav, kev npau suav ua hauj lwm, thiab tso siab rau tus kheej kev paub nrog tus divine (Van Dusen 1974, 1975, thiab 1992).

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

Lub denomination yog democratically tswj los ntawm lub npe-thiab cov ntaub ntawv ua tswv cuab los ntawm ib tug sawv cev ntawm tsoom fwv uas yog lub Koom Txoos General. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Tam sim no raws li ntawm 2018 muaj li ntawm xya tus tswv cuab, plaub tug neeg yog cov tub ceev xwm, tag nrho cov General Council cov tswv cuab raug xaiv tsa nyob rau hauv ib lub sij hawm txwv ntawm lub rooj sib tham txhua xyoo. Cov rooj xaiv tsa yog txiav txim siab los ntawm cov Koomhaum hauv cheeb tsam uas muab cov delegates los sib koom ua ke raws li cov neeg koom nrog hauv Koom Haum. Cov koom haum ua kom muaj cov koom haum hauv 501 (c) (3) cov koom haum hauv cheeb tsam ntawd.

Nws kuj muaj tsib Pawg Neeg Tuav Tswv Yim uas muaj peb leeg mus txog tsib tug neeg uas tau xaiv los ntawm cov neeg sawv cev los ua haujlwm. Cov no yog cov pawg ua haujlwm uas ua haujlwm thoob plaws lub xyoo ua haujlwm rau nyiaj txiag, luam tawm (online thiab luam tawm), cov xwm txheej kev kawm thiab kev pabcuam, kev tswj tuav ntaub ntawv, thiab kev xaiv tsa rau cov rooj sib tham yavtom ntej.

Lwm qhov tseem ceeb yog lub Council of Ministers, uas muaj cai tswj hwm cov txheej txheem thiab txheej txheem rau kev cob qhia kev ua haujlwm thiab tus neeg tawm tswv yim thiab kev coj ua haujlwm ntawm sab ntsuj plig txoj haujlwm ntawm kev ntseeg. Cov thawj xibfwb tau tsa qhib lub rooj sibtham hauv lub rooj sib txoos rau lub caij ntuj so thiab muab khaws cia rau ntawm cov rooj sib tham ntawm cov koom haum ua dejnum hauv lub Koomhaum.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Swedenborgianism nyob rau hauv ntau haiv neeg 'minds yog txuam nrog lub spiritualist txav uas fascinated cov pej xeem pib hauv 1830s nrog cov viv ncaus Fox. Tab sis feem ntau cov Swedenborgian xav cov thawj coj es tsis ua raws li kev ntseeg, cov lus tsis txaus ntseeg tsis tau vim tsis muaj vim Swedenborg tus kheej cov lus tshaj tawm txog nws tus kheej. Pib nrog nws thawj zaug luam tawm ntawm theosophy, nws qhov kev ua yeeb yam, Arcana Coelestia (Secrets ntawm Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej), Swedenborg tau ua ntaub ntawv thov ncaj qha mus rau sab ntsuj plig realms, thiab raws li lub siab ntawm Vajtswv, thiab yog li tau txais kev qhia los ntawm lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig (Swedenborg 1749-1756 / 1983). Txawm hais tias yim neeg tawm los ntawm 1749-1756, Swedenborg tus kheej yog tus sau ua paub txog tom qab nws tau los ua ib yam dab tsi ntawm kev xav ntawm lub paj hlwb vim peb cov neeg mob siab heev rau 1760 thiab 1761 nrog qee cov neeg paub zoo-paub (Sigstedt 1952: 269- 86).

Lub sijhawm dhau los nws tau los ua ib yam dab tsi uas muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog cov phooj ywg tseem ceeb hauv cov chaw tseem ceeb, xws li Prime Minister Anders von Hopkins, tab sis ntau tus detractors uas pom tias nws yog tus charlatan. Cartoons ua kev lom zem ntawm nws los ua ntau, nrog rau cov lus tim khawv los ntawm cov neeg paub zoo uas paub nws. Immanuel Kant tau mus rau kev txiav txim siab txog cov dab neeg ntawm Swedenborg lub liam clairaudience thiab clairvoyance, xa ib tug thoj thuam rau Sweden thiaj li mus zoo reckon seb xws theoretical raws ntawm kev paub txog yuav tsum tau xav nyob rau hauv nws philosophy ntawm epistemology (Sigstedt 1952: 303-04) .

Swedenborg lub spiritualist piav qhia rau tus nyeem ntawv raws li cov kev paub Swedenborg muaj nyob rau hauv lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig, thiab qhov no luam tawm cov ntaub ntawv yog vim li cas nws tau txais lub moniker "tus pom." Nws thov rau cov phooj ywg thiab tom qab mus rau inquirers thiab nyob rau hauv nws cov phau ntawv uas los ntawm kev tso cai thiab Nws muaj peev xwm tshawb tau lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig thaum tseem nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb. Qhov no raug tso cai kom pom ntau yam tob tob rau hauv lub neej thiab teb cov lus nug ntawm kev ua xyem xyav uas tau coj neeg mus rau kev tsis ntseeg thiab cov pawg ntseeg uas tau tsim los ua kev txhaum loj (Tafel 1875-1877: I, 92, 207). Raws li nws posthumously sab thiab luam tawm lwm phau ntawv journal (Swedenborg 1883) qhia, nws sau copiously ntawm cov kev paub tam sim ntawd tom qab lub sij hawm nws ua ntawv thov kom tau intromitted rau sab ntsuj plig lub ntiaj teb nyob rau hauv 1745 thiab txuas ntxiv ua li ntawd rau nees nkaum ntau xyoo Tshwm Sim Qhia Tshwm thaum nws pib publishing nyiaj ntau transparently. Cov ncauj lus tseem ceeb thiab seemingly ntawm cov neeg pabcuam ua ke nrog cov keeb kwm ntawm kev ua tsis tiav thiab muaj feem xyuam rau hauv keeb kwm hnub nyoog Western, tau coj mus ntev keeb kwm ntawm kev sib tham txog Swedenborg txoj kev xav ntawm lub hlwb.

In Secrets ntawm Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej Swedenborg tau pib ua qhov uas tau hais tawm ua nws lub cim "kev nco txog" lossis "nco txog kev sib raug zoo." Cov no yog cov ntawv sau theological xaus rau txhua tshooj ntawm exegesis ntawm Chiv Keeb thiab Khiav Dim (txog cuaj caum hauv txhua qhov) uas nws cov ntsiab lus kawm tau qhia, raws li tus pom tau xwm yeem qhia meej, los ntawm nws qhov kev paub hauv lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig. Vim tias cov ntawv sau saum toj no feem ntau tsis cuam tshuam nrog lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub ntsiab lus ntawm tshooj uas lawv tau txuas ntxiv, lub cim nco tau feem ntau suav hais tias yog "cov khoom siv nruab nrab ntawm tshooj" los qhia qhov txawv ntawm cov ntawv xov xwm hauv phau npaiv npaum per se. Didactic thiab kev qhia, kev nco ntawm Secrets ntawm Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej tsim tawm ntawm nws tsib 1758 ua haujlwm, uas yog piav raws li derivative ua haujlwm rau qhov no yog vim li cas (Swedenborg 1848).

Tom qab cov pej xeem nov, Swedenborg luam tawm nws qhov thib tsib ua hauj lwm, Tshwm Sim Qhia Tshwm, uas tau ntxiv rau txhua tshooj lus txhais ntawm Apocalypse, seem ntawm spiritualist cov lus qhia txog lub neej tom qab thiab qhov xwm ntawm lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig (Swedenborg 1766 / 1855). Txhua zaus nws luam tawm nws tau siv cov lus "yam pom thiab hnov" (dhau audit thiab visis) txog nws qhov kev paub ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Zoo ib yam li lub suab lus, ze li lawv tau muab tso rau tom kawg ntawm tshooj lus tawm tswv yim thiab feem ntau muaj lawv tus kheej taw qhia kom tsis txhob cuam tshuam txog qhov kev kawm zoo ntawm nws Tshaj Tawm Qhuab Qhia.

Nws qhov kev paub ntawm sab ntsuj plig zoo li no tau qhia meej meej thiab muaj kev cob qhia txog kev qhia cov ntsiab lus los ntawm lawv. Nrog lub pivot, Swedenborg ntau ntxiv mus ua ib hom kev sau ntawv uas tau los ua thawj cov ntawv nyeem nyob rau hauv lub niaj hnub ib hom ntawv nyeem ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntaub ntawv. Keeb kwm ntawm kev ntseeg kev cai dab qhuas feem ntau tau sib cav nws yog thawj tus kws sau ntawv xov xwm (Schmidt 2000: 200-46; Block 1932: 56-57; Goodrick-Clarke 2008: 152-78; Doyle 1926: 1: 1-18). Aldous Huxley gauges Swedenborg raws li nws qhov txawv txav rau qhov tshwm sim ntawm sab ntsuj plig (Huxley 1956: 13-14), thiab keeb kwm ntawm lub xyoo pua thib ob America Bret Carroll paub lub hauv paus ntawm sab ntsuj plig nyob rau hauv cov lus thov ntawm kev nthuav tswv yim thiab rov qab los nrog tus kheej tam sim no nyob rau hauv lub sab ntsuj plig lub ntiaj teb raws li ib tug kev lig kev cai uas pib nrog Swedenborg thiab "ib tug veritable Swedishborgian subculture nyob rau hauv Transcendentalist America" ​​(Carroll 1997: 16-34).

Lub koom haum kev sib txuam ua rau lub hauv paus nyob thawj 100 xyoo. Lub koom haum Amelikas no tau ua kom muaj kev sib txoos loj nyob rau thaum xaus ntawm lub xyoo pua thib kaum ntawm kev sib txeeb ntawm kev coj ntawm cov neeg ntseeg Yexus thaum lub sij hawm. Txoj kev ntseeg siab ntev nyob hauv kev ntseeg hauv tebchaws United States (thiab cov tebchaws Europe) tau siv ntau lub dag zog los tsim thiab rub rov qab qub kab lis kev cai, feem ntau nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm purist los yog Fundamentalist rhetoric. Nyob rau hauv American Swedishborgianism, dab tsi los ua lub npe hu ua "Academy Movement" yog ib nrab xyoo thiab ua tiav nrog ib qho kev tawm tsam hauv 1890 (Williams-Hogan thiab Eller 2005: 183-92). Lub hauv paus ntsiab lus muab kev koom tes ntawm Swedenborg (Thaiv 1952: 205-32). Ib qhov teeb meem tseem ceeb ua rau muaj qhov sib txawv ntawm ob ceg koom nrog seb Swedenborg cov lus sau yog lawv tus kheej cov vaj lug kub. Cov ceg qub tsis hais txog Swedenborg qhov kev sau ntawv raws li vaj lug kub, hos cov ceg yau hu lawv ua Txoj Cai thib Peb.. Raws li xws li, lub Koom Txoos General regards Swedenborg tus sau ua Phau Vaj Lug Kub Npib Peb thiab nyeem ntawm lawv hauv kev pab cuam raws li ib feem ntawm Lo Lus nrog rau cov phau Vajluskub qub thiab Phau Tshiab. Tsis tas li ntawd xwb, cov ceg loj hlob yog pawg ntseeg, uas txhais tau hais tias cov koom txoos hauv zos tswj hwm txoj haujlwm ntawm kev tshaj tawm txoj moo zoo nrog rau kev txhais cov lus qhuab qhia, tus ceg tshiab tau siv lub koomhaum episcopal nrog rau kev ua haujlwm thiab kev tswjfwm kev tswj hwm ntawm Executive Bishop.

Centered hauv Pennsylvania, ua li cas los ua lub Koom Txoos General ntawm lub nroog Yeluxalees kawg ua tau lub tebchaws loj tshaj plaws uas tsis yog-African Swedenborgian nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb. Lub tsev hauv paus hauv Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, tau hloov zuj zus nrog rau ib qho ntawm cov neeg kawm tiav thiab zoo tshaj plaws hauv tebchaws Amelikas [Qhov yeeb yam ntawm txoj cai] (qhov thib ob loj tshaj plaws hauv lub tsev teev ntuj hauv Pennsylvania thiab cov American cathedral ua tau raws li cov kev kawm medieval thiab craftsmanship) thiab plaub xyoos hauv hoob liberal arts. Qhov ob ceg tau txuas ntxiv mus ua ib qho kev coj ncaj ncees rau lub sijhawm tam sim no nrog rau cov poj niam loj hlob txij thaum 1975 thiab kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov pojniam txij thaum 1997, qhov twg yog tus neeg raug txhim khu pabcuam pheej yeem ua haujlwm rau cov poj niam thiab tsis tau tso cai lo lus nug ntawm kev sib daj sib deev yuav tsum tau sib tham nyob rau hauv tej rooj sab laj qhib. Txawm tias qhov sib txawv hauv kev txhais ntawm Swedenborg, muaj ntau txoj hauv kev uas ob lub koom tes sib koom tes, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog hauv cov kev tshaj tawm thiab qee zaus hauv zos qib thaum lub koom txoos ntawm txhua ceg yog nyob ze.

Lub koom haum conservative endured nws tus kheej lub tswv yim ntawm 1930 li ib pawg uas siv lub npe Tus Tswv Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab uas yog Nova Hierosolyma (feem ntau hu ua Lords New Church los yog Nova) tau rhuav tshem nws cov lus hais tias vim Swedenborg cov ntawv yog lub Thib Peb thiab yog li ntawd dawb ceev vaj lug kub, lawv, dhau lawm, yuav tsum muaj qhov kev nkag siab hauv puab. Pawg no, txawm me me hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas, muaj kev sib tham thoob ntiaj teb nrog pawg ntseeg hauv tebchaws Holland thiab Ukraine (Williams-Hogan thiab Eller 2005: 292-94).

DLAWS

Image # 1: Emanuel Swedenborg los ntawm Carl Fredrik von Breda.
Image # 2: Johnny Appleseed Tsev khaws puav pheej nyob hauv University of Urbana.
Image # 3: Hiram Powers bust ntawm Thomas Worcester, 1851.
Image # 4: Charles Carroll Bonney, [zaum] hauv thawj Parliament ntawm lub Ntiaj Teb Kev Ntseeg rau 1893 Columbian Exposition nyob Chicago.
Daim duab # 5: Sab npog pem hauv ntej ntawm Swedenborg phau ntawv Ntuj thiab ntuj raug txim.
Image # 6: Swedenborg lub Koom Txoos ntawm North America logo.
Image # 7: Lub Cathedral hauv Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.

TXOJ CAI **

** Swedenborg sau tag nrho nws cov hauj lwm hauv Latin. Swedenborg cov neeg ua tim khawv yog kom muaj cov txhais lus Askiv tom qab, tiam sis suav nrog cov ntawv tshaj tawm xyoo ntawm cov qauv.

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Acton, Alfred. 1927. Taw qhia rau Lo Lus Qhia Tawm: Txoj Kev Tshawb Fawb ntawm Txoj Cai Los ntawm Swedenborg tus kws tshawb fawb thiab Philosopher los ua Theologian thiab Revelator. Bryn Athyn, PA: Academy ntawm lub Koom Txoos Tshiab.

Ahlstrom, Sydney E. 1972. Ib tug Kev cai dab qhuas keeb kwm ntawm cov neeg Amelikas. Tshiab Haven: Yale University Xovxwm.

Åkerman-Hjern, Susanna. 2017. "De Sapientia Salomonis: Emanuel Swedenborg thiab Kabbalah." Pp. 206-19 nyob rau hauv Lux nyob rau hauv Tenebris: Lub Nrig txog kev Pom Zoo thiab Symbolic nyob hauv Western Esotericism, kho los ntawm Peter Forshaw, Leiden: Brill.

Albanese, Catherine. 2007. Lub Koom Txoos Nco thiab Ntsuj Plig. Tshiab Haven: Yale University Xovxwm.

Anton Pacheco, Jose Antonio. 2000. Visionary Nco ntsoov; Emanuel Swedenborg thiab Kev Txom Nyem ntawm Kev Ntsuj Plig. Charleston, SC: Arcana Phau ntawv.

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Thaiv, Marguerite Beck. 1932. Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab hauv lub Ntiaj Teb Tshiab: Kev Tshawb Fawb ntawm SwedenBorgianism hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas. New York: Henry Holt.

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Brock, Erland, ed. 1988. Swedenborg thiab nws cov kev mob. Bryn Athyn, PA: Tus Academy ntawm lub Koom Txoos Tshiab.

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Clissold, Augustus. 1851. Lub Raus Dej Kev Tshwm Sim ntawm Tshwm Sim: Raws Li Los ntawm Cov Ntawv Sau ntawm Huab Hwm. Emanuel Swedenborg, Piav thiab pom zoo los ntawm Ancient thiab niaj hnub Thawj Coj, Plaub Ntug. London: Longman, Brown, Ntsuab thiab Longmans.

Cole, Stephen. 1977. "Swedenborg lub Hebrew phau Vajlugkub." Tus Tshiab Philosophy (Lub Rau Hli): 28-33.

Corbin, Henri. 1995. Swedenborg thiab Esoteric Islam. Neeg txhais lus los ntawm Leonard Fox. West Chester, PA: Swedenborg Foundation Xovxwm.

De Boismont, Alexandre Brierre. 1859. Rau kev hnov ​​kev pom. Neeg txhais lus los ntawm Robert Hulme. London: H. Renshaw.

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