Catherine B. Abbott Rebecca Moore

Cov Poj Niam Coj Ncaj Nraim Hauv Cov Haiv Neeg Hauv Tuam Tsev thiab Jonestown

PEOPLES TEMPLE THIAB WOMEN'S ROLES TIMELINE

Xyoo 1949 (Lub Rau Hli 12): Marceline Mae Baldwin tau sib yuav Jim Jones hauv Richmond, Indiana.

Xyoo 1954: Jim Jones txhim tsa Lub Koom Txoos Kev Sib Koom Tes hauv Indianapolis, Indiana.

Xyoo 1956: Cov Tuam Tsev Zej Zog, thawj zaug koom tes xyoo 1955 uas yog Wings of Deliverance, tau qhib hauv Indianapolis.

Xyoo 1960: Tib neeg lub Tuam Tsev tau los ua tswv cuab nrog rau cov Thwj Tim ntawm Khetos (Cov Ntseeg Lub Koom Txoos).

Xyoo 1962–1962: Jim Jones thiab tsev neeg nyob hauv tebchaws Brazil.

Xyoo 1965 (Lub Xya Hli): Jones, nws tsev neeg, thiab ntau dua yim tus tswvcuab ntawm nws pawg neeg sib tham tau tsiv mus rau Redwood Valley, California.

Xyoo 1968: Carolyn Moore Layton tau tsiv nrog nws tus txiv Larry Layton mus rau Redwood Valley.

Xyoo 1969: Kev sib raug zoo ntawm Carolyn Layton thiab Jim Jones tau tshaj tawm rau Moore tsev neeg.

Xyoo 1970: Grace Grech sib yuav Tim Stoen, Tus Kws Lij Choj hauv Tuam Tsev thiab tus pab tswv yim rau Jim Jones.

1971 (Plaub Hlis): Tim Stoen nug John Jones rau txiv ib tug me nyuam los ntawm Stoen tus poj niam Grace Grech Stoen.

Xyoo 1971 (Lub Yim Hli): Deborah Layton, tus kwv tij uas yog Carolyn Layton thiab Ann Moore, koom nrog Peoples Temple.

Xyoo 1972 (Lub Ib Hlis 25): Grace Stoen yug tau John Victor Stoen.

Xyoo 1972 (Lub Rau Hli): Ann (Annie) Moore, Carolyn Layton tus viv ncaus, koom nrog Peoples Temple.

Xyoo 1972: Peoples Temple tau mus yuav cov tuam tsev hauv Los Angeles (Cuaj Hli) thiab San Francisco (Kaum Ob Hlis).

Xyoo 1973 (?): Maria Katsaris koom nrog Cov Tuam Tsev Teev Ntuj.

Xyoo 1974: Cov neeg pe hawm hauv lub Tuam Tsev tau pib tshem cov av hauv Cheeb Tsam Northwest ntawm Guyana, Qab Teb Asmeskas kom txhim kho Peoples Temple Agricultural Project.

Xyoo 1975 (Lub Ib Hlis Ntuj Tim 31): Carolyn Layton yug Jim Jim (Kimo) Prokes, uas yog Jim Jones.

1975 (Kaum Ob Hlis Ntuj): Al thiab Jeannie Mills, Cov Neeg Ruam Peev hauv Tuam Tsev, tau tsim lub Human Freedom Center.

Xyoo 1976 (Lub Ob Hlis): Pehawm Tuam Tsev Peev Xwm tau kos npe rau Daim Ntawv Cog Lus nrog Tsoomfwv Guyana "kom cog qoob loo thiab muaj txiaj ntsig zoo yam tsawg ib feem tsib" ntawm 3,852 daim av nyob hauv Northwest District of Guyana.

Xyoo 1976 (Lub Xya Hli 4): Grace Grech Stoen tau khiav tawm ntawm Peoples Temple nrog Walter Jones (tsis muaj txheeb ze nrog Jim Jones tsev neeg), ua rau nws tus tub John Victor Stoen raug saib xyuas ntawm Maria Katsaris.

Xyoo 1977 (Lub Rau Hli): Tim Stoen tau ncaim Lub Tuam Tsev Pehawm Vajtswv.

Xyoo 1977 (Lub Caij Ntuj Sov): Kwv yees li 1,000 Cov Neeg ntawm Tuam Tsev Koom Txoos tau tsiv mus rau Jonestown hauv peb lub hlis.

Xyoo 1977 (Lub Caij Ntuj Sov): Tim Stoen thiab Al thiab Jeannie Mills tau tsim "Cov Txheeb Xyuas Cov Neeg Txom Nyem," ib pawg neeg tawm tsam thiab cov neeg hauv tsev neeg uas tau hais kom tsoomfwv cov koom haum thiab xov xwm tshaj tawm mus tshawb fawb txog Pe Tuam Tsev.

1977 (lub yim hli ntuj):  New West Magazine luam tawm ib qho kev qhia hauv lub neej hauv Haiv Neeg Lub Tuam Tsev raws li kev khav theeb.

1977 (Lub Yim Hli 11): Grace Stoen tau foob rau John Victor Stoen, hauv kev sib nrauj pib ntawm tus txiv Timautes Stoen.

1977 (Lub Cuaj Hli): "XNUMX-hnub-ib puag ncig" tiv thaiv los ntawm Jim Jones thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm sib ntaus sib tua tau tshwm sim hauv Jonestown thaum lub sijhawm cov pej xeem ntseeg tias lawv raug kev tawm tsam thaum kws lij choj rau Grace thiab Tim Stoen sim ua haujlwm hauv California lub chaw saib xyuas Jim Jim hauv Jonestown Cov.

Xyoo 1978 (Lub Plaub Hlis 11): "Kev Tsis Txaus Siab Ua txhaum Txoj Cai ntawm Tib Neeg Txoj Cai" tau ua los ntawm Koom Haum Pab Koom Nrog Cov Koom Nrog Tiv Thaiv Jim Jones. Xws li yog tus tswv cuab yav dhau los Yolanda Crawford cov ntaub ntawv ntawm lub neej nyob hauv Jonestown.

Xyoo 1978 (Lub Tsib Hlis 13): Deborah Layton tau khiav tawm ntawm Jonestown.

1978 (Lub Kaum Hli): Teresa (Teri) Buford los ntawm Jonestown.

Xyoo 1978 (Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 17): California Congressman Leo J. Ryan, cov tswvcuab ntawm Kev Txheeb Xyuas Cov Neeg Txom Nyem, thiab cov tswvcuab hauv xov xwm tau mus ntsib Jonestown.

Xyoo 1978 (Kaum Ib Hlis 18): Ryan, peb tus neeg sau xov xwm (Robert Brown, Don Harris, thiab Greg Robinson) thiab ib tus neeg pe hawm tuam tsev (Patricia Park) raug tua los ntawm cov tub hluas los ntawm Jonestown hauv kev tua phom ntawm chaw nres nkoj Kaituma airstrip, rau mais los ntawm Jonestown, raws li lawv tau sim ua kom lub nkoj tsav mus rau Georgetown. Tom qab kev quab yuam ntawm lub airstrip ntau dua 900 cov neeg nyob, ua raws li cov lus txib ntawm Jones, nqos tau cov tshuaj lom nyob hauv Jonestown pavilion. Tsawg kawg ib tus poj niam, Christine Miller, tau sib cav nrog Jim Jones txog kev tua cov menyuam. Lwm tus, suav nrog Leslie Wagner-Wilson, tau khiav tawm ntawm txoj kev tuag los ntawm kev ua txuj ua li mus noj mov hauv rooj noj mov lossis, thaum muaj hnub nyoog Hyacinth Thrash, tau tsaug zog thiab tsis muaj neeg pom. Marceline Jones tuag ntawm kev lom, thaum Jim Jones tuag ntawm rab phom tawg rau lub taub hau. Ann Moore kuj tau tuag ntawm rab phom tsis raug mob rau saum taub hau. Carolyn Layton thiab Maria Katsaris tuag los ntawm kev noj tshuaj lom. Hauv Georgetown, Guyana, Tuam Tsev Teev Ntuj Sharon Amos tua nws peb tus menyuam thiab nws tus kheej.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM YUAV UA LI CAS XWB 

Lub tswv yim tseem ceeb ntawm kev xav hauv Haiv Neeg Hauv Haiv Neeg yog kev sib ntxub tsis sib luag thiab kev tsis ncaj ncees, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tsis yog nce qib ntawm cov poj niam txoj cai. Txawm li cas los xij, qhov kev tsim txom ntawm cov poj niam hauv zej zog tau paub txog Haiv Neeg Cov Tuam Tsev thiab cov thawj coj, Jim Jones (1931-1978). Nyob rau tsawg kawg yog ib cov lus qhuab qhia, tau muab rau hauv Xaus Xoom, Jones tau hais txog phau Vaj Lug Kub Npaiv Npaum raws li qhov ntawm poj niam txoj kev tsim txom (Q1974-1059 Transcript 6). Nws tau liam tias cov neeg pluag kev kho mob ntawm cov poj niam nyob hauv phau npaiv npaum zaj dab neeg txog Adas thiab Evas (Chivkeeb 1974). Ib yam li lwm cov neeg txhais lus hu ua Christian, Jones tau thov tias Chivkeeb 3: 3, qhov kev tso cai rau Eva qhov kev rau txim rau qhov tsis ua raws li Vajtswv cov lus txib yog kev mob kev nkeeg thiab kev txiav txim los ntawm nws tus txiv, yog qhov ua rau poj niam txoj kev quab yuam rau kev ua haujlwm hauv zej zog. Nyob rau hauv nws daim ntawv "The Letter Killeth," Jones kuj tau muab nyiaj ntau ntawm cov poj niam raws li pom zoo hauv phau Vaj Lug Kub Npaiv Npaum (Jim Jones nd)

Txawm hais tias tsis muaj qhov tseeb ntawm cov neeg tsis paub qab hau, cov poj niam dawb hauv Cov Haiv Neeg Dawb tau ua cov thawj coj, ua tiav cov kev cai thiab kev lav phom tsis muaj rau lawv nyob rau hauv lub zej tsoom neeg Amelikas hauv 1970s. Thaum lub tuam tsev tshaj tawm hauv lub Tuam Tsev tseem ceeb rau kev sib raug zoo thiab kev lag luam ntawm cov neeg muaj xim nyob rau hauv Tebchaws Meskas thiab txawv tebchaw, ib lub sijhawm sibtham muab pub dawb dawb rau cov pojniam dawb tshwj xeeb. Lub disconnect no tau sau tseg los ntawm yim tus neeg laus cov laus uas tawm hauv lub zog hauv 1973. Lub "Eight Revolutionaries" tau sau ib tsab ntawv mus rau Jim Jones piav lawv qhov kev tawm tsam uas lawv taw qhia tias:

Koj tau hais tias qhov kev taw qhia ntawm qhov taw qhia tam sim no yog nyob rau hauv cov neeg dub. Muaj tsis muaj peev xwm nyob rau hauv cov pej xeem dawb, raws li koj. Txawm li cas los xij, kev ua thawj coj dub, qhov twg yog cov neeg dub thiab cov cwj pwm dub? (Lub Xya Revolutionaries 1973)

Lub Sij Hawm Tsib Revolutionaries sau npe los ntawm lub npe ntawm cov neeg (txiv neej thiab poj niam) uas lawv ntseeg xav tau kev sib deev ntawm Jim Jones, tso cov kev sib raug zoo rau cov tswv cuab tsis yog tus thawj coj.

Tsis tas li ntawd nws yog tseeb hais tias Jones feem ntau kev sib deev uas tau tshwm sim hauv lub Tuam Tsev, pom zoo lossis tsis lees yuav kev ua txij ua nkawm thiab kev sib koom tes los ntawm Pawg Neeg Kev Sib Txheeb. Kev sib txuas nrog cov neeg sab nrauv tsis tau kev pom zoo. Thaum Jones tau hais tias txhua tus tab sis nws tus kheej yog ib tug txiv neej nyiam poj niam thiab ciali denigrate gays thiab lesbians, nws tau cia LGBT kev sib raug zoo rau flourish hauv Jonestown (Bellefountaine 2011).

Jones txhob txwm ua rau cov poj niam thiab cov txiv neej poob ntsej muag ntau txoj hau kev, nquag xyuas lawv cov kev tsis sib deev. Ib zaug nws hais tias Cathy Stahl (1953-1978) tshem nws cov khaub ncaws thiab dhia mus rau hauv lub pas dej da dej nyob ntawm Redwood Valley lub tuam tsev. Qhov no yog qhia kom nws tsis txhob noj ntau. Nws hais rau nws hauv kev sib tham nrog pej xeem, thiab "tib txoj kev koj yuav to taub cov cai no yog los ntawm kev txaj muag" (Mills 1981: 258). Stahl stripped rau nws khiab mis thiab panties, tuav ua ke los ntawm kev ruaj ntseg PIN, thiab raug thawb mus rau hauv tob tob ntawm lub pas dej.

Nyob rau lwm lub sijhawm Jones xav tau ib tug poj niam tsis tso npe tag nrho ntawm lub Npaj Pab Tswv Yim, pawg thawj coj hauv lub tuam tsev. Yog vim li cas tsis meej: nws puas tau sau ib daim ntawv hlub rau Jones, raws li qee cov neeg muaj tam sim no; los yog nws tau sau ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm pawg, los ntawm nws tus kheej account. (Vim tias nws tseem nyob, nws xav nyob twj ywm tsis qhia npe.) Thaum twg los xij, nws sawv liab qab ua ntej tsib caug leej neeg tau ntau tshaj ib teev thaum lawv thuam nws lub cev, nws tus qau, thiab nws tus neeg (Nelson 2006).

Yog li ntawd, kev ntseeg txog cov poj niam hauv lub Tuam Tsev yog ua rau lawv txoj kev thab plaub thiab, tib lub sij hawm, rau txoj kev nce qib ntawm ib co poj niam hauv lwm lub tuam tsev.

ORGANIZATIONAL ROLES PERFORMED NTAWM WOMEN

Cov poj niam txoj haujlwm coj noj coj ua hauv txhua lub sijhawm ntawm Cov Peev Hawm Haiv Neeg lub hnub nyoog tau hloov txog 25 xyoo. Thaum pawg neeg nyob hauv Indiana hauv 1950s, Jim Jones thiab nws tus poj niam Marceline Mae Baldwin Jones (1927-1978), [Duab ntawm txoj cai] yog pawg thawj coj txiav txim siab. Muaj ob peb lwm tus neeg muaj npe nyob hauv cov ntaub ntawv sau ua ke, tab sis nws yog qhov tseeb hais tias nkawm niam txiv ua haujlwm hauv pab pawg neeg: Jim yog tus txiv neej nyiam ua thawj coj, thaum Marceline ua haujlwm tom qab lub scenes ua tus thawj coj ntawm ntau qhov chaw zov me nyuam, uas muab nyiaj khwv tau los los txhawb pawg ntseeg txoj kev pabcuam nyiaj txiag. Nrog kev txav mus rau sab qaum teb California nyob rau hauv nruab nrab-1960s, ntau cov poj niam tau koom nrog hauv kev tswj hwm, tab sis Jim Jones tseem yog qhov txiav txim siab zaum kawg. Thaum lub koom txoos nthuav dav rau San Francisco thiab Los Angeles nyob rau 1970s thaum ntxov, kev ua haujlwm zoo uas tsim los tswj cov kev pabcuam los ntawm lub koomhaum. Rau feem ntau, cov poj niam saib xyuas cov khoos kas no. Thaum cov thawj pioneer hauv lub tuam tsev ua kev ua liaj ua teb hauv Guyana feem ntau cov txiv neej, ob peb cov poj niam kuj tau koom nrog txoj haujlwm hnyav uas yuav tsum tau ua kom tiav cov hav zoov. Cov poj niam uas rov qab rau hauv Tebchaws Meskas tau ua haujlwm rau ntau tshaj li ib txhiab tus Tuam Tsev Tswvcuab rau Guyana hauv 1977. Los ntawm qhov kawg ntawm Haiv Neeg Lub Tuam Tsev txoj kev sib pab, cov poj niam nyob rau hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas thiab hauv Jonestown tau sib koom ua ke ntawm txhua pawg ntawm kev ua haujlwm. (Saib, WRSP Profile ntawm Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev)

Muaj ntau cov poj niam dawb hauv lub Tuam Tsev Cov Peev Xwm los ntawm ntau txoj hauv kev ua thawj coj: muaj kev sib koom tes ntawm Jim Jones, cov thawj coj, thiab cov tswv cuab ntawm Pawg Tswj kev Teeb Haujlwm, tag nrho cov uas tau ua hauj lwm thiab cov ntaub ntawv (Hall 1987). Cov poj niam uas Jones tau tso siab rau feem ntau, feem ntau yog poj niam nrog nws ntev kev sib raug zoo, xws li nws tus poj niam Marceline Jones thiab nws cov tubntxhais Carolyn Layton (1945-1978), Maria Katsaris (1953-1978), Teri Buford, thiab ob peb lwm tus. Lawv tau ua ib lub voj voos nyob hauv uas muaj ob peb tug txiv neej.

Cov thawj coj yog cov thawj coj thib ob (xws li Harriet Tropp (1950-1978) thiab Sharon Amos (1936-1978)) uas ua tiav cov lus Jones, los sis pom tias nws cov tswv yim xav tsis meej (Maaga 1998: 72). Amos tswj cov pab pawg hauv zej zos, hu ua Lamaha Gardens, hauv Georgetown, Guyana, thiab ua lag ua luam nrog cov thawj tswj hwm ntawm Guyanese. Tropp kev sib tham txog kev sib raug zoo rau cov pab pawg, thiab tau pom txog qhov tsis zoo uas yog tsim los ntawm Cov Neeg Txhawj Xeeb, ib pab tsim tsa kev tshaj tawm thiab paub txog pejxeem lub tswvyim txog Cov Neeg Lub Tuam Tsev. Tropp yog ib qho ntawm ob peb cov neeg uas yuav thuam Jim Jones, raws li nws daim ntawv txog "The Uglification of Jonestown" qhia. Nyob rau hauv daim ntawv no nws sau hais tias cov sib txuas lus tau pib ua ib txoj haujlwm zoo nkauj me me vim tias "Dad xav kom ua," tiv thaiv lub tswv yim zoo los ntawm ntau tus neeg.

Kuv xav tias cov lus saum toj no tsuas yog qhia txog qhov teeb meem uas peb muaj hauv kev txiav txim siab. Ntawd yog, yog tias koj hais tias koj xav tau ib yam dab tsi ua tiav, peb tsis quav ntsej txog tej tswv yim peb tau muab thiab peb tawm tsam peb tus kheej kev txiav txim, thiab mus tom ntej. . . . Kuv xav tias qhov essence ntawm qhov teeb meem, los yog tsawg kawg yog ib yam ntawm nws, yog tias tsis muaj leej twg kam tawm tsam koj lub tswv yim nyob rau hauv tej yam teeb meem, thiab kuv frankly xav tias tej zaum koj tsis ncaj ncees lawm, thiab tsis muaj leej twg txaus siab hais li ntawd. Kuv paub hais tias qhov no yog qhov tsis txaus ntseeg, tab sis kuv xav tias nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev ua haujlwm ntawm lub koom haum no uas tau txais peb cov teeb meem (Tropp, quoted by Stephenson 2005: 101).

Kev khiav hauj lwm nyob rau hauv Redwood Valley thiab San Francisco, Pawg Tswj kev Teeb Haujlwm tau ntau dua li cov neeg sib koom tes (los yog puab vajvoog) lossis cov thawj coj. Nws tau muaj cov poj niam thiab cov txiv neej uas tau tsim cov cai thiab cov txheej txheem hauv ib txoj kev coj ncaj ncees, tab sis thaum kawg Jones ib leeg tau txiav txim siab zaum kawg uas cuam tshuam rau pawg. Nrog kev txav mus rau Guyana, Txoj Kev Npaj Ua Kom Nkag Teb zoo li raug tso tseg ntawm kev muaj ntau haiv neeg thiab tsis ncaj ncees rau lub cev. Txoj cai nyob rau hauv Jonestown, txawm li cas los, tseem so nrog Jim Jones (Moore, Pinn, thiab Sawyer 2004: 69-70).

Ntxiv nrog rau peb theem thawj coj, cov poj niam muaj lub luag haujlwm ntau lub koom haum thiab kev khiav hauj lwm thoob plaws hauv keeb kwm ntawm kev txav. (Vim tias cov ntaub ntawv no muaj nyob hauv cov ntaub ntawv hauv Jonestown tso tawm hauv online ntawm Alternative Considerations ntawm Jonestown thiab Haiv Neeg lub Tuam Tsev (Alternative Considerations ntawm Jonestown thiab Haiv Neeg lub tuam tsev lub website 2018) peb tshaj tawm txog cov no; cov ntaub ntawv ntau dua los ntawm California Historical Society yuav tseeg txhawb cov duab ua tiav thaum lawv tau txais kev soj ntsuam txog kev tshawb fawb.) Don Beck, ib tug neeg hauv lub Koom Txoos qub, tau txheeb xyuas lub koom haum cov ntaub ntawv, cov ntawv ua haujlwm, thiab lwm yam khoom los tsim ib lub duab ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm hauv Jonestown. Piv txwv, qhov kev txiav txim siab "triumvirate" ntawm lub zej zog neeg yau muaj xws li Johnny Brown Jones (1950-1978), Carolyn Layton, thiab Harriet Tropp. Lawv saib xyuas cov dej num ntawm yim lub hauv paus tswj hwm uas tau siv peb caug sib cais (Beck nd). Maria Katsaris yog tus thawj coj ntawm tuam txhab nyiaj; Harriet Tropp thiab Jann Gurvich (1953-1978) yog ob tug ntawm peb tug tswv cuab ntawm pawg neeg raug cai; ob tug ntxhais Asmeslivkas cov pojniam, Shanda James (1959-1978) thiab Rhonda Fortson (1954-1978), ua kev lom zem, xws li video thiab movie zaj duab xis. Heather Shearer qhov kev tshawb fawb ntawm cov ntaub ntawv yuav tsum tau nce lub teb chaws ntawm ntau tshaj li ib txhiab neeg tawm hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas mus rau Guyana tsis muab cov npe, tab sis pom tseeb txog cov hauj lwm uas ua los ntawm cov ntaub ntawv qib siab, feem ntau yog poj niam, (Shearer 2018).

Muaj ntau tus poj niam tsim nyog hais txog cov lus hais txog lawv txoj haujlwm hauv lub koom haum.

Psychobiographies ntawm Jim Jones 'leej niam Lynetta Putnam Jones (1902-1977) qhia txog ib tug poj niam uas tau sim ib txhij ntxub thiab hlub nws tus tub ntxhov siab (Nesci 1999; Kelley 2015). Los ntawm ntau qhov nyiaj, nws yog ib tug poj niam uas ntxub, nws yog ib tus niam txiv txij thaum nws tus poj niam, James Thurman Jones (1887-1951), leej txiv ntawm James Warren Jones, yog ib tug neeg xiam oob qhab ntawm Ntiaj Teb Tsov rog I. Nws tus kheej sau thiab kev xam phaj nws qhia txog nws tus tub zoo kawg nkaus (Lynetta Jones "Writings" thiab "Interviews"). Nws tau tsiv mus rau hauv lub tsev tshiab uas nyuam qhuav tuaj tshiab Jim thiab Marceline, thiab tseem yog ib qho kev sib kho nyob hauv lawv lub neej, txawm tsiv mus Jonestown thiab tuag nyob hauv 1977.

Marceline Jones, tus poj niam ntawm Jim Jones, yog ib tug "niam" ntawm lub Tuam Tsev, uas hais txog Jones lub luag haujlwm ua "leej txiv." Nws zoo siab rau txhua tus mej zeej, thiab paub nws txoj kev siab zoo thiab kev khuv leej. Ib tug account sau los ntawm nws tus tub Biologic Stephan Jones tau sim los daws qhov teeb meem ntawm nws loyalty rau Jones txawm nws compulsive kev plees kev yi. Nws cov lus piav qhia muaj ib tsab ntawv uas nws tau sau rau nws niam tom qab nws tuag hauv Jonestown:

Xijpeem koj tus kheej muaj mob xav tau, ib qho yog: Koj ntseeg tias koj tsis muaj kev xaiv tab sis nyob twj ywm. Koj tseem nyob hauv plawv los saib peb, kom peb muaj txoj sia nyob thiab kom txhua yam uas zoo tshaj yav tom ntej, lossis txog thaum peb muaj zog txaus los khiav ntawm peb tus kheej. Tab sis nws tsis yog cov me nyuam uas koj tau tuav ua me nyuam yaus uas koj tau ua, yog nws niam? Yeej muaj cov menyuam hauv lub tuam tsev thiab. Thiab muaj ib tug me nyuam ntxiv, tsis muaj? Koj ntseeg tias koj yuav kho tej yam kho-HIM-tsis tau koj? (Stephan Jones nd).

Marceline lub npe muaj nyob rau hauv ntau cov ntaub ntawv raws li txoj cai, qhia tias nws lub luag haujlwm yog tus kws lis haujlwm thiab tus txiav txim siab. Ib tus thawj coj hauv lub tsev laus, nws tau lav phij xauj thoob hauv lub neej yav dhau los los tsim ib qho cov nyiaj khwv tau los ntawm lub tuam tsev uas tau muab kev pab kho mob rau tib lub sijhawm.

Ib sab ntawm Jim thiab Marceline Jones, Carolyn Layton [Duab ntawm sab xis] tau saib tsam tus thawj coj tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv kev txav mus los. Nws saib xyuas kev npaj thiab pawg haujlwm. Raws li Mary McCormick Maaga hais, "Carolyn Layton yog qhov chaw tseem ceeb ntawm kev tsim kho thiab tuav lub koom haum ntawm Peoples Temple thiab tom qab ntawd, Jonestown, zoo ib yam li [Tus kws lij choj Tuam Tsev] Tim Stoen, tej zaum tseem muaj ntau dua" (Maaga 1998: 45). Maaga hais txog cov ntsiab lus ntawm Layton's résumé uas nws hais tias nws yog tus Lwm Thawj Coj thiab Tus Thawj Coj ntawm Pe Tuam Tsev (Maaga 1998: 57). Nws thiab Marceline Jones yog tib ob tug poj niam muab ntawv kos npe rau txoj cai los xaj khoom rau Jonestown kev sib hais haum. Hauv tsab ntawv rau nws niam thiab txiv, Layton tau sau tias hauv Jonestown qee qhov haujlwm nws tau suav nrog kev kawm paub txog socialism thiab kev ua haujlwm. Nws kev sib deev nrog Jones coj mus yug rau lawv tus tub Jim-Jon Prokes (1975-1978), hu ua Kimo hauv zej zog.

Maria Katsaris [Duab ntawm txoj cai] pib nws mus quab yuam ua thawj coj hauv Tuam Tsev Haiv Neeg hauv lub chaw ua haujlwm ntawv, uas tswj cov kev sau ntawv-kev sau ntawv los ntawm lub tuam tsev. Nws thiaj li tau ua cov haujlwm ntawm ib tus tuav ntaub ntawv hauv lub Tuam Tsev Haiv Neeg, tab tom ua lub luag hauj lwm loj hauv Pawg Npaj Kho. Zoo li Carolyn Layton thiab cov qub neeg Grace Stoen thiab Teri Buford, Katsaris tau muaj kev sib deev nrog Jones thiab tseem tau mob siab rau nws txawm nws txoj kev sib raug zoo rau lwm tus poj niam hauv Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev, nrog rau nws tus poj niam, Marceline.

Raws li kev tso siab thiab kev pab rau Jones, Carolyn Layton thiab Maria Katsaris tsis tau paub txog lawv cov thawj coj tsis pub lwm tus neeg, xws li tsiv tsheej lab ntawm Tebchaws Meskas mus rau txawv tebchaws. Raws li Jones 'siv tshuaj hnyav hnyav siv hauv lub xyoo dhau los ntawm lub tuam tsev txoj kev ua neej thiab feem ntau tso nws ua tsis tau, Layton thiab Katsaris xav tias muaj hwj chim dua hauv Jonestown, relaying Jones' txiav txim rau nws cov thwjtim.

Muaj ntau tus poj niam, nrog rau Grace Stoen, Teri Buford, Deborah Layton (tus muam nyob rau hauv Carolyn), thiab Annie Moore (1954-1978, Carolyn tus viv ncaus), tau muaj lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv Haiv Neeg Peev, txawm tias Stoen, Deborah Layton, thiab Buford thaum kawg defected los ntawm cov pab pawg neeg. Grace yog tus pab tswv yim rau pawg neeg hauv San Francisco, teem caij ntsib thiab daws teeb meem. "Thaum kuv nyob hauv Tuam Tsev Tuam Tsev kuv tau muaj hwj chim ntau tshaj qhov kuv tau rov los hauv kuv lub neej," Grace Stoen cia siab rau Mary McCormick Maaga (Maaga 1998: 60). "Muaj lub hwj chim thiab kev txhawb zog uas cov ntxhais hluas hauv kev ua thawj coj, suav nrog [Stoen] nws tus kheej, tsis tau ntsib dua ua ntej," raws li Maaga (1998: 61). Nws fled lub Tuam Tsev nyob rau lub Xya hli ntuj 1976, ua ntej feem ntau ntawm cov mej zeej txav mus rau Guyana, tawm hauv nws tus tub John Victor Stoen (1972-1978) hauv kev saib xyuas ntawm Maria Katsaris. Tim Stoen tshuav cov tuam tsev nyob rau lub hli June 1977 (Moore 2009: 58). Lub sijhawm Stoens thiab Jim Jones pib ntawm 1977, uas tau coj mus luam tawm ib daim ntawv uas Tim Tim tau hais tias Jim Jones yog leej txiv ntawm John Victor. Grace thiab Tim yog cov tswv cuab, los yog tus tsim, ntawm Concerned Relatives group uas tau tsim cov dej num kom muaj kev tshaj tawm txog pej xeem paub txog Jonestown hauv Tebchaws Meskas; lawv kuj tau pab kom yawg Congressman Leo Ryan (1943-1978) hauv Kalifonias mus soj ntsuam cov xwm txheej hauv Jonestown thiab mus nrog nws mus rau Guyana hauv lub Kaum Ib Hlis 1978.

Deborah Layton thiab Teri Buford tau koom nrog nyiaj txiag, thiab smuggled txiaj rau bank accounts nyob sab nraum Teb Chaws Asmeskas. Layton defected nyob rau hauv May 1978, thiab tshaj tawm laj mej pej xeem kev xyaum tua neeg tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv Jonestown. Nws daim ntawv qhia tau ntxiv zog rau Leo Ryan lub tebchaws rau Jonestown. Teri Buford defended nyob rau lub Kaum Hlis 1978, ua tus pabcuam ntawm tus kws lijchoj Mark Lane rau nws qhov tawm mus. Whereas Layton tau tshaj tawm cov lus tshaj tawm rau pej xeem, Buford mus nkaum tom qab nws sib tw.

Annie Moore, ib tus nais maum, yog tus saib xyuas kom muaj kev tiv thaiv Jim Jones 'tshuaj tiv thaiv hauv Jonestown, muab cov kws kho mob (psychotheractive pharmaceuticals) (uppers thiab downers) kom tus thawj coj ua haujlwm. Dua li, Moore tau los ua ib txoj haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv txoj kev npaj lub hom phiaj ntawm lub zej zog yuav rhuav tshem, raws li tau sau tseg los ntawm ib daim ntawv uas nws tau piav qhia txog lwm txoj kev rau kev ua tus neeg ua txhaum (Annie Moore nd). Annie Moore, Carolyn Layton, thiab Maria Katsaris tseem nyob siab mus txog thaum kawg, thaum lub Kaum Ib Hlis 18, 1978, nrog ntau dua 9 tus neeg Lwm Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev tom qab noj cov cyanide. Annie Moore thiab Jim Jones tau tsuas yog Jonestown cov pej xeem paub paub tias tau tuag los ntawm rab phom kiav txhab.

ISSUES / NEEG TXAWV HAIS TXOG KOM ZOO

Ib qhov teeb meem loj uas tau ntsib cov poj niam hauv Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev yog qhov tsis sib xws ntawm cov poj niam dawb thiab cov neeg muaj xim, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov poj niam. [Duab ntawm sab xis] Txawm hais tias cov neeg Asmeskas Dub cov poj niam muaj ntau feem pua ​​ntawm Haiv Neeg Cov Tswv Yim Cov Thawj Coj tshaj li cov poj niam dawb (thiab tau ua ib nrab ntawm cov neeg tuag nyob rau hauv Jonestown) feem ntau ntawm Jones cov kws tshawb fawb tau dawb, kawm ntawv qib siab, thiab tseem hluas. Qhov kev tsis sib haum no qhia tau hais tias Jones 'kev nyiam ntawm cov ntsiab lus thiab nws ua tsis tau li cas los muab cov haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev rau cov poj niam Asmeskas Dub (Rebecca Moore 2017). Ntau qhov tseem ceeb, txawm li cas los xij, yog qhov tsis paub tias cov xov xwm xov xwm thiab kws tshawb fawb tau muab rau txoj kev kawm dub nyob hauv lub tuam tsev thiab hauv Jonestown, txawm tias Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev thiab Dub Kev Ntseeg hauv Tebchaws Asmeskas (Moore, Pinn, thiab Sawyer 2004) yog qhov tsis tseem ceeb.

Txoj kev rov qab ntawm cov suab ntawm cov pojniam Asmesliskas cov poj niam tau tuaj yeem ua ntej hauv 2015, nrog rau ntawv tshaj tawm Dawb Nights, Dub Paradise, los ntawm Sikivu Hutchinson. Hauv cov ntawv sau cuav, Hutchinson (tus kws sau ntawv, tus kws qhia ntawv, thiab cov yeeb yaj kiab) tau tsom ntsoov rau cov tub ntxhais Asmeskas cov poj niam hauv lub tuam tsev thiab hauv Jonestown. Hutchinson tau tsim ib txoj kev cai luv luv ntawm tib lub npe, thiab nyob rau hauv 2018 txuas ua theem ntawm phau ntawv. Nws kuj tau txhim kho ntau lub rooj sib tham txog kev sib tham nrog cov suab ntawm African Asmeskas thiab cov poj niam hluas hauv lub Tuam Tsev. Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm cov no yog Yolanda Crawford (uas tau hloov nws lub npe rau Yulanda), tus neeg taw qhia txog nws qhov kev lees paub ua pov thawj ntawm qhov peev xwm ntawm kev ua phem hauv Jonestown (Crawford 1978); thiab Leslie Wagner-Wilson, uas tau tso Jonestown nrog nws tus tub hluas nyob rau lub Kaum Ib Hlis 18 (Wagner-Wilson 2009). Cov poj niam no piav qhia txog kev ua haujlwm nyob rau hauv Hierarchical, uas yog haiv neeg African Asmeskas raug tsim txom thiab ua neej nyob raws li hauv nkuaj hauv Jonestown.

Ib qho kev sib tw tseem ceeb yog qhov kev sib deev ntawm kev sib deev uas tau tshwm sim ntawm poj niam thiab Jim Jones. Cov ntawv ceeb toom yog nyuaj thiab qee zaum tsis sib haum: qee qhov qhia tias kev sib deev sib raug zoo ntawm Jones thiab nws cov neeg tau pom zoo, xws li cov neeg uas muaj Maria Katsaris thiab Carolyn Layton; lwm tus hais tias Jones ua phem rau nws lub zog thiab tsoob txiv neej thiab poj niam tsis muaj cai, xws li Deborah Layton thiab Janet Phillips (Layton 1998; Q775 Transcript 1973).

Lub luag hauj lwm ntawm cov poj niam hauv kev ntseeg kev cai tshiab, tsis yog hauv Tib Neeg Tuam Tsev, yog kev sib cav sib ceg. Sociologist Rosabeth Kanter tau sib cav hais tias "kev tsim txom" txhawb cov poj niam txoj kev koom tes hauv kev txiav txim siab ntawm kev sib txuas lus ntawm utopianist (Kanter 1972). Yeej yog qhov chaw sib koom hauv Jonestown, nrog cov me nyuam loj hlob thiab qhia los ntawm cov neeg zov me nyuam uas tsis ua haujlwm, tej zaum yuav txhawb nqa Kanter qhov kev sib cav. Muaj ntau tus poj niam tau raug tso tawm ntawm kev tu menyuam yaus kom ua lwm yam haujlwm hauv lub sib tham; [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tib lub sij hawm, ntau ntawm cov hauj lwm no tau muab faib ua cov poj niam txiv neej, nrog ua noj, ntxhua khaub ncaws, zov me nyuam, kev kho mob rau cov poj niam, txawm tias muaj qhov tshwj xeeb tshaj. Ob tug poj niam thiab txiv neej, piv txwv li, tau ua haujlwm ua haujlwm ntawm Jonestown. Sociologist Susan J. Palmer's ethnographic tshawb kawm txog cov poj niam hauv xya txawv ntawm kev ntseeg tshiab tsis suav cov Tuam Tsev Tuam Tsev vim hais tias nws yog qhov tseeb (Palmer 1994). Tiam sis nws yog poj niam txiv neej, kev sib deev tsis meej, thiab kev sib daj sib deev nyob hauv cov pab pawg uas nws tau kawm tsis yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev nkag siab txog cov poj niam lub luag haujlwm hauv Cov Haiv Neeg Peev thiab Jonestown, uas tsis muaj qhov tseeb ntawm kev ntseeg los yog kev xav poj niam.

Mary McCormick Maaga (1998) muab qhov kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm cov poj niam lub luag haujlwm hauv Cov Haiv Neeg Peev, tab sis nws, dhau, tsis quav ntsej cov poj niam African Asmeskas. Nws cov nyom hais txog qhov kev tsis txaus siab uas Jim Jones tuav tag nrho cov kev tswj nyob rau hauv lub zog thiab cav hais tias cov poj niam dawb tau sib deev nrog Jones rau ob qho tib si Library thiab hwj chim (Maaga 1998: 49). Nkawd tau sib cuam tshuam lwm tus los ntawm "hauv ncoo sib tham," siv lawv cov kev sib deev nrog Jones rau kev sib raug zoo thiab kev sib raug zoo. Qhov no tsis muaj txiaj ntsig yog tsis derivative, tab sis yog lub hauv paus rau kev ua hauj lwm ntawm tag nrho cov haujlwm. Cov poj niam thiab cov txiv neej hauv kev ua thawj coj tau sib koom ib yam, tab sis: "txhua tus muaj lub siab xav pab txhawb zoo thiab kev hloov hauv kev hloov hauv kev sib raug zoo." Cov poj niam, lawv txoj cai thiab kev tshoov siab los ua qhov txawv tsis tau ras txog rau thaum lawv koom nrog Tuam tsev thiab hooked nrog Jones; tus txiv neej, ntawm qhov kev tes, yuav tau muaj tib theem ntawm kev coj noj coj ua nyob sab nraum lub zog. "Hauv Tuam Tsev Tib neeg tau muaj lub cib fim rau qee cov poj niam siv zog thiab kev cai tshaj qhov uas lawv cov poj niam los sis txiv neej los sis kev kawm yuav tau tso cai rau hauv cov koom txoos" (Maaga 1998: 55-56).

Dua li ntawm qhov kev sib deev uas ua kom meej meej, cov poj niam dawb, thiab qee cov neeg Asmeskas Dub cov poj niam, dhau ntawm cov qub kom suav cov haujlwm lub luag haujlwm zoo rau qhov ua dhau los ua haujlwm ntau tshaj li ntawm $ lab. Tag nrho cov poj niam (ntawm cov kws qhia ntawv, cov chaw muag khoom noj, thiab cov chaw zov me nyuam, cov xib fwb hauv tsev kawm ntawv, cov thawj coj hauv zej tsoom, thiab cov tswj hwm nyiaj txiag) tau muab sij hawm thiab lub zog rau lub koom haum. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Nws tsis tau muaj tsis muaj lawv txoj haujlwm lossis kev ua thawj coj.

Tsis yog qhov kev ua phem ntawm lub zej zog lub hnub kawg tau tshwm sim yam tsis muaj kev yooj yim ntawm cov poj niam uas tau txais thiab ua rau tshuaj lom. Tiam sis ob peb Asmeskas Dub cov poj niam tsis kam. Leslie Wagner-Wilson khiav nrog nws tus tub hluas thiab lub kaum os lwm tus ua ntej pib kev tuag. Ib tug pojniam African Asmeskas pojniam, Hyacinth Thrash (d. 1995) pw ntawm cov xwm txheej traum (Moore, Pinn, thiab Sawyer 2004: 177). Thiab thaum lub sijhawm zaum kawg ntawm lub nroog Jonestown, Christine Miller (1918-1978) tau sib cav nrog Jim Jones tawm tsam tua cov menyuam yaus (Q042 Transcript 1978). Txawm li cas los xij, lwm tus tswv cuab ntawm Cov Peoples Cov Tuam Tsev tau sawv nrog Jones thiab qhuas nws txoj kev npaj los ua "tawm tsam tua tus kheej" rau lub Kaum Ib Hlis 18, 1978 (Q042 Transcript 1978).

DAWB **
** Tag nrho cov duab yog qhov tshwj xeeb Collections, Library and Information Access, San Diego State University.
Image # 1: Cov poj niam hu nkauj ntawm lub tuam rooj sab laj (chaw tsis paub) = MS-0516-06-149.
Image # 2: Marceline Jones nrog lub microphone = MS-0516-02-052.
Image # 3: Carolyn Layton thiab Kimo Prokes, Jim Jones 'lom tub, hauv Jonestown, 1978 = MS0183-48-10-006.
Image # 4: Maria Katsaris tuav tus toucan hauv Jonestown, 1978 = MS0183-78-1-053.
Image # 5: Poj niam hoeing hauv Jonestown, 1978 = MS0183-78-2-036.
Image # 6: Cov poj niam sewing hauv Jonestown, 1978 = MS0183-78-2-040.
Image # 7: Teenage ntxhais sawv ntsaws hauv cov tsheb thauj khoom hauv Yaunster, 1978 = MS0183-78-2-015.

ua tim khawv

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TAYLOR, James Lance. 2011. "Nqa tawm ntawm 'Dub Dimensions' ntawm Haiv Neeg Tuam Tsev." daim ntawv ceeb toom jonestown, Kaum Hlis 13. Tau txais los ntawm  https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=29462 nyob rau 25 Cuaj hlis 2018.

Hnub xa:
27 Cuaj hlis 2018

 

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