Lus Askiv Intro

Spiritualism thiab Visual Arts

SPIRITUALISM THIAB VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE

1814 (Lub Plaub Hlis 20): Georgiana Houghton yug hauv Las Palmas, Canary Islands.

1824 (Lub Ib Hlis 15): Anna Mary Howitt (tom qab ntawd Howitt-Watts) yug hauv Nottingham, Tebchaws Askiv.

1832 (Lub Ob Hlis 10): David Duguid yug hauv Dunfermline, Scotland. 

1848 (Lub Peb Hlis 31): Ntsuj Plig tshwm sim tau pib hauv Hydesville, New York nrog rau Fox Tus viv ncaus, Kate (1836-1892), Margaret (1834-1893), thiab (tom qab) Leah (1811-1890), hnub sib xws rau lub hauv paus pib. ntawm Spiritualism, txawm hais tias mediums tau nquag ua ntej.

1853-1855: Seances nrog kev ua yeeb yam ntawm kev kos duab tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv lub tsev ntawm Victor Hugo hauv Jersey, Channel Islands.

1857: Allan Kardec (pseudonym los ntawm Hippolyte Denizard Léon Rivail, 1804-1869), luam tawm Phau Ntawv ntawm tus Ntsuj Plig, feem ntau cov phau ntawv txhais lus ntawm Fabkis txoj kev ntseeg ntawm Kev Ntseeg, uas yog "Spiritism."

1862 (Lub Kaum Hlis 26): Hilma af Klint yug hauv Stockholm, Sweden.

Xyoo 1870: Madame Helena Blavatsky thiab David Duguid puav leej tsim cov duab tha xim "nag lossis daus".

1871: Thawj zaug nthuav tawm ntawm Georgiana Houghton hauv London, qhov tsuas yog ib qho kev sib koom thaum nws lub neej.

1873 (Lub Plaub Hlis 7): Constance Ethel Le Rossignol yug hauv Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1876: Thawj phau ntawm Hafed tub huabtais ntawm Persia los ntawm David Duguid, nkaus duab nrog ntau hom kev kos duab, tau luam tawm nyob rau London thiab Glasgow.

1876 ​​(Lub Yim Hli 9): Augustin Lesage yug hauv Saint-Pierre-lez-Auchel, Pas-de-Calais, Fab Kis.

1879: Lub koom txoos Spiritualist ntawm Lily Dale, New York, koom ua ke nrog Cassadaga Lake Free Association.

1880-1889: Lub zos Rosazza tau txhim tsa hauv tebchaws Ltalis, nrog cov phiaj xwm kev kos duab tau qhia los ntawm tus ntsuj plig ntawm Augustine of Hippo thiab tus kws tshaj lij tsis muaj npe los ntawm Volterra, Tuscany.

1882 (Lub Ib Hlis 19): Madge Gill yug hauv Walthamstow, Waltham Forest, London.

1882-1883: Phau ntawv journal Gallery ntawm dab kos duab tau luam tawm nyob rau hauv Brooklyn, New York.

Xyoo 1884: Georgiana Houghton tuag hauv Kensington, Askiv.

1884 (Lub Xya Hli 23): Anna Mary Howitt-Watts tuag hauv Dietenheim, Tebchaws Yelemees.

1884: Brazilian Spiritualist Federation (FEB) tau tsim hauv Brazil, lub tebchaws uas Spiritualism kawg yuav ua tiav.

Xyoo 1890: Cov duab pleev xim los ntawm Bangs Sisters thiab Campbell Cov Kwv Tij los ua lub npe nrov hauv tebchaws Asmeskas.

Xyoo 1896: Tsev fuabtais Hasdeu tau ua tiav hauv C ,mpina, Romania, raws li cov tswv yim txog kev ua qauv qhia tau xa mus los ntawm tus kws sau paj lug Julia Hasdeu.

1898 (Lub Xya hli ntuj 15):  xiav, tej zaum qhov nrov tshaj plaws zaj dab neeg ua tau nruj tshaj plaws, tau ua nyob hauv Lily Dale ntawm Allen Campbell.

Xyoo 1900: Swiss tus kws kho mob hlwb Theodore Flournoy luam tawm Qhov no yog tsim los ntawm Mars, khaws cov kev tshwm sim thiab kev kos duab los ntawm nruab nrab Hélène Smith.

1907 (Lub Peb Hlis 14): David Duguid tuag (tejzaum nws hauv Glasgow).

1908 (Lub Yim Hli 23): Anna Zemánková yug hauv Olomouc, tam sim no-Czech koom pheej.

Xyoo 1911: Wassily Kandinsky luam tawm Txog Kev Ntseeg hauv Nruab Nrab, qhov chaw uas nws hais nws pab nws txiv siab ntsws rau Kev Ntsuj Plig.

Xyoo 1944 (Lub Kaum Hli 21): Hilma af Klint tuag hauv Djursholm, Sweden (Kandinsky thiab Mondrian kuj tuag hauv tib lub xyoo).

Xyoo 1948: Jean Dubuffet tau tsim tsa hauv Paris ib lub koom haum tau tshwj tseg rau kev saib xyuas thiab nthuav tawm "ua yeeb yam phem" (tom qab hu ua lus Askiv "tus neeg sab nraud kos duab"), ib qeb uas tuaj koom nrog feem ntau ntawm kev ua yeeb yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

1954 (Lub Ob Hlis 21): Augustin Lesage tuag hauv Burbure, Pas-de-Calais, Fabkis.

Xyoo 1961 (Lub Ib Hlis 28): Madge Gill tuag hauv Leytonstone, Waltham Forest, London.

1970 (Lub Peb Hlis): Ethel Le Rossignol tuag hauv London.

1986 (Lub Ib Hlis 15): Anna Zemánková tuag hauv Prague.

Xyoo 1986: Cov duab tha xim daws teeb meem los ntawm Hilma af Klint tau tshwm sim rau thawj zaug, ntawm lub Los Angeles County Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm daim duab.

2013: Lub rooj nthuav txuj ncig tebchaws Hilma af Klint - ib tug Pioneer ntawm Abstraction qhib rau ntawm Moderna Museet nyob rau hauv Stockholm. Nws yuav tom qab mus rau ntau lub nroog European.

2016: Muaj kev ua yeeb yam ntawm London's Courtauld lub koom haum ntawm Kev Ua Yeeb Yam tshwj xeeb muab koob meej ntawm Georgiana Houghton ua tus kws tshaj lij kev ua yeeb yam.

VISUAL ARTS QHIA QHOV TSEEB / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Tau ntau xyoo, cov neeg sau keeb kwm thiab cov neeg thuam cov neeg tau tawm tsam lub tswv yim tias Kev Ntseeg thiab lwm yam kev qhia tawm thiab kev coj ua zoo rau kev yug menyuam thiab kev paub txog kev kos duab tshiab. "Qhov tseeb yog (...) embarrassing," wrote nyob rau hauv 2010 lub npe nrov British critics, Waldemar Januszczak. Nws xa mus rau Theosophy, tab sis hais txog Spiritualism zoo li: "Yog tias muaj ib yam uas koj tsis xav kom koj tus kheej kev coj ua tam sim no ua, nws yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm ib tug occult cult [...]. [No] siv cov duab kos rau hauv Dan Brown chaw uasi. Tsis muaj menyuam kawm ntawv txog keebkwm kev kos duab xav kom nws kov "(Januszczak 2010).

Tsis tas li, rau xyoo tom qab, tib tus neeg thuam tau tuaj xyuas ib lub rooj nthuav dav ntawm London lub Courtauld Lub Tsev Haujlwm ntawm Kev Txwv muab fij rau Vajntsuj artist Georgiana Houghton (1814-1884), thiab nws cov tshuaj tiv thaiv yog ib yam ua rau nws xav tsis thoob. "Tsuas tsis tshua pom, hais txog Januszczak, hauv kuv lub sij hawm ua ib daim duab saib xyuas dua tau ua rau kuv xav li flabbergasted li kuv tau los ntawm cov dej nyob ntawm Georgiana Houghton. Nws cov hnub tau kuv rubbing kuv ob lub qhov muag nyob rau hauv disbelief. Nws ua li no thaum twg? Tawm ntawm kev tsis pom qhov no, zoo li ib qho kev xav ntawm ib qho kev xav, ib txoj hauj lwm muaj nyob rau hauv kos duab uas sau dua tshiab zaj dab neeg. "[Duab ntawm txoj cai] Rediscovering Houghton, Januszczak mus sau, yog

"Ib qho kev tshwm sim ntawm kev kos duab-keeb kwm tseem ceeb heev. Tsis yog vim Houghton tau hais ua ntej [Wassily] Kandinsky [1866-1944] thiab [Piet] Mondrian [1872-1944] los ntawm ib nrab xyoo, tiam sis vim nws txoj kev xav ua rau lub teeb ci ntsa iab heev rau lawv txoj kev xav. Txhua tus pioneers nto moo ntawm kev sau - Kandinsky, [Kazimir] Malevich [1878-1935], Mondrian - yog cov ntseeg [...]. Tab sis nyob rau hauv tag nrho lawv cov neeg, lub occult nam ntawm lawv creativity tau nquag suppressed nyob rau hauv lub canonical zaj dab neeg ntawm niaj hnub kos duab. Kev xaav ntawm sab ntsuj plig tsis muaj cai txwv tsis pub muaj kev vam meej ntawm kev ua tau zoo. Ntawm qhov lus pov thawj no, qhov tseeb, kev xav ntawm sab ntsuj plig yog qhov tseem ceeb "(Januszczak 2016).

Cov lus nug ntawm tus ntawm Spiritualism rau niaj hnub kos duab tswj, txawm li ntawd los, ib tug tej yam ambiguity. Cov neeg ua yeeb yam tau tshwm sim los ntawm Spiritualism, tiam sis tsuas yog ib txhia ua cov Spiritualists txhais tau tias yog "dab neeg kev kos duab." Tom qab, qhov "dab neeg kev kos duab" raws nraim yog, tsis yog pom tseeb. Peb tuaj yeem paub qhov tsawg kawg peb zaug: "ua tau ntau dua" ua haujlwm ntawm kev ua yeeb yam; portraits ntawm cov xim pleev xim los ntawm tes ntawm mediums thaum lub sij hawm; thiab cov hauj lwm uas tsim los ntawm cov neeg ua hauj lwm nruab nrab uas hais tias lawv cov tes yog coj los ntawm cov ntsuj plig. Sab nraum no peb pawg yog cov hauj lwm tsim los ntawm cov neeg ua yeeb yam raws li tus ntawm Spiritualist theories. Cov no yuav yog qhov tseem ceeb rau kev kos duab keeb kwm, tiam sis feem ntau tsis yog "kev kos duab dab qhuas" los ntawm Spiritualists lawv tus kheej.

Thawj cov ntaub ntawv ntawm "dab neeg kev kos duab" yog "nag lossis daus" ntawm cov duab kos uas tshwm rau ntawm daim ntaub (los yog hauv ntawv, los yog hauv cov ntaub ntawv), tsis muaj kev siv tib neeg txhais tes, thaum lub sij hawm Spiritualist seance. Nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no, lub mediums hais tias cov ntsujplig tsim cov paintings ncaj qha, tsis yog taw qhia cov tes ntawm ib tug tib neeg artist.

Ib qeb thib ob suav cov kev ntaus sab ntsuj plig. Nyob rau hauv cov hudays ntawm Spiritualism, nws tau los ua ntau heev rau kev sib haum xeeb rau kev kos duab ntawm cov dab uas lawv tau thov tuaj rau lub sijhawm, thiab tsim kom muaj qeb thib ob ntawm "dab neeg kev kos duab." Cov duab no tau tshwm sim thaum cov seans tsis tshua tau ua ib feem ntawm kev kos duab. Txawm li cas los xij, txoj kev xyaum mus ntxiv rau hnub no.

Nyob ze rau qeb ob ntawm "dab neeg kev txawj ntse" yog "auragraphs," uas sawv cev rau ib tus neeg yav dhau los, tam sim no, thiab muaj peev xwm pom tau los ntawm ib nrab los yog clairvoyant. Lub npe yog txheej txheem, thiab cov txheej txheem tsim, los ntawm British nruab nrab Harold Sharp (1890-1980) nrog kev pab los ntawm nws tus phoojywg kev cob qhia, ib tug neeg ntseeg Austria hu ua Brother Peter. Cov tub ntxhais kawm ua yeeb yam, xws li Susan Barnes (b. 1951) hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas, tseem pheej tsim cov ntaub ntawv. [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Qhov thib peb qeb ntawm "dab neeg kev kos duab" muaj cov hauj lwm ntawm kev nrag duab, duab puab, thiab tsim kho, raws li Cov Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv, los ntawm cov ntsuj plig uas coj tus tes ntawm cov artist. Cov ntsuj plig feem ntau qhia txog kev nruab nrab ntawm ob txhais tes nyob rau hauv ob pawg (kev lim duab) zoo li, tab sis qhov txawv nrog peb lub thib peb yog nyob rau hauv lub tom kawg, es tsis muaj duab ntawm tus ntsuj plig lawv tus kheej, txawv cov duab ntawm cov kos duab. Kuv yuav tsis muaj nyob rau hauv pawg dab neeg no, vim hais tias rau cov Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv qhov no tsis yog kos duab tiam sis txoj kev thov txim los txhawb lawv cov lus thov: yog tias muaj dab tsi tuaj yeem yees duab, lawv muaj nyob. Muaj thiab yog, txawm li cas los xij, cov duab thaij duab uas, ntxiv rau kev thaij duab seev cev, raug txhawb los ntawm Kev Ntsuj Plig hauv lawv txoj haujlwm. Ib tug qauv piv txwv yog Czech tus kws yees duab František Drtikol (1883-1961), leej twg yog tus xav hauv Theosophy thiab Buddhism. A Cov ntaub ntawv niaj hnub yog Amelikas tus tub yees duab Shannon Taggart (b. 1975), leej twg kuj tau ua qee cov duab zoo nkauj tshaj plaws ntawm cov seev cev thiab cov khoom nruab nrab. [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Rov qab mus rau duab thiab (tsis tshua muaj qhov) sculptures, qee qhov txawv ntawm kev ua yeeb yam ntawm kev tsim yeeb yaj kiab (feem ntau heev sai), ib qho kev sib tw (xws li thaum tus poj niam Gertrude Morgan, 1900-1980, , txawm li cas los, tshaj Spiritualism), los yog nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov tsis nco qab. Nws yog nyob rau hauv no peb qeb uas peb pom cov artists saib los ntawm kos duab historians raws li ib feem ntawm cov ntaub ntawv keeb kwm ntawm kev kos duab, xws li Georgiana Houghton. Tsis tas li ntawd, Houghton tau ceev faj tias, hais lus tsis meej, nws tsis kam ua dab tsi, tiam sis nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau cov dab neeg uas tau yug dua tshiab uas ua nws tes.

Lub tswv yim ntawm sab ntsuj plig, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog ntawm qeb thib ib thiab thib ob, tau yeej ib txwm raug kev liam ntawm kev dag. Rau hnub no, "skeptics skeptics" sim ua pov thawj qhov kev dag qab ntxhiab sab nraum kos duab. Ib co mediums muab, ua pov thawj tias lawv cov duab puab yog qhov tseeb, lawv txoj kev xav tsis zoo hauv kev nrag, feem ntau hauv qhov tsaus ntuj. Lawv suav cov British Elizabet d'Esperance (Née Hope, 1855-1919), German Heinrich Nüsslein (1879-1947), thiab Polish Franek Kluski (pseud ntawm Teofil Modrzejewski, 1873-1943). Txawm li ntawd los, lawv txoj haujlwm tseem dhau plaw los ntawm cov lus tsis txaus ntseeg ntawm kev dag.

COV LUS NEEG TSIS PUB MENYUAM

ntawm Klint, Hilma (1862-1944). Swedish neeg pleev kob.

Anderson, Wella Percy (1833-1900?), Thiab Lizzie Tus Tsiaj (1839?-1896). Lub Andersons. American mediums thiab cov kws ua yeeb yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

Bangs, Elizabeth (1859-1920), thiab May (Mary) Elvira (lossis Eunice) (1862-1917). Cov Nruab Nrab Bangs. American mediums thiab cov kws ua yeeb yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

Barnes, Susan (b. 1951). Tus neeg pleev kob Asmeskas thiab cov kws kho mob.

Blanchard, Elizabeth (ca. 1841-1876). Miskas nruab nrab thiab "tus ntsuj plig dej".

Calkoen, Jacoba C. (1866-1944). Dutch tus neeg nruab nrab thiab tus kws kho keeb kwm.

Campbell, Allen (1833-1919), thiab Charles Shourds (1863-1926). Cov kwv tij Campbell. American mediums thiab cov kws ua yeeb yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

Crépin, Fleury Yauxej (1875-1948). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Davies, Ann Bridge (b. 1950). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Desmoulin, Fernand (1853-1914). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

D'Esperance, Elizabeth (nais Hope, 1855-1919). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Diss Debar, Ann Odelia (1849-1911?). Tus neeg pleev kob Asmeskas thiab cov kws kho mob.

Duguid, David (1832-1907). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Ferraro, Francesca (b. 1966). Canadian nruab nrab thiab tus neeg pleev kiab siab.

Gasparetto, Luiz Antônio (b. 1949). Brazilian nruab nrab thiab tus neeg kos npe thiab tus kws tshaj lij.

Gill, Madge (1882-1961). British neeg pleev kob.

Houghton, Georgiana (1814-1884). British neeg pleev kob.

Howitt-Watts, Anna Mary (1824-1884). British neeg pleev kob.

Hugo, Victor (1802-1885). Fabkis novelist, tus neeg pleev kob rau siab.

Jayet, Aimable (1883-1953). Fabkis txoj kev puas siab puas ntsws thiab tus neeg pleev kiab plig.

Kluski, Franek (Pseud ntawm Teofil Modrzejewski, 1873-1943). Polish nruab nrab thiab tus neeg pleev kiab siab.

Ntsuas, František (1871-1957). Czech neeg pleev kob, ib nrab hauv nws cov hluas.

Leah, Frank (1886-1972). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Le Rossignol, Constance Ethel (1873-1970). British neeg pleev kob.

Lesage, Augustin (1876-1954). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Lonné, Raphaël (1910-1989). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Maffei, Giuseppe (1821-1901). Italian neeg pleev kob thiab tus kws kho vajtse.

Mansveld, Hendrix Cornelis (1874-1957). Dutch tus neeg nruab nrab thiab tus kws kho keeb kwm.

Medrado, Jose (b. 1961). Brazilian nruab nrab thiab tus neeg kos npe thiab tus kws tshaj lij.

Nusslein, Heinrich (1879-1947). German tus neeg pleev kob.

Pery, Alice Mary Theodosia (1833-1906). British neeg pleev kob.

Pigeon, Laure (1882-1965). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Polge, Coral (1924-2001). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Ryder, Coral (b. 1971). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Sardou, Victorien (1831-1908). Fabkis playwright thiab tus neeg pleev kob sij hawm.

Ntse, Harold (1890-1980). Tus neeg pleev kiab British thiab tus cwj pwm zoo.

Ximoos, Victor (1903-1976). Fab kis las thiab neeg pleev kob.

Smith, Hélène (Pseud ntawm Catherine-Elise Müller, 1861-1929). Swiss nruab nrab thiab neeg pleev kob.

Tripier, Jeanne (1869-1944). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Tromelin, Gustave Le Goarant Conte tsib (1850-1920). Fabkis tus neeg pleev kiab.

van Bezouwen, Angelique (b. 1961). Dutch tus neeg pleev kob.

Verwaal, Jan Huibreght (1889-1945?). Dutch tus neeg pleev kob.

TXOJ HAUJLWM TSIS TXHOB TSIS POM ZOO

Abramović, Marina (b. 1946). Serbian kev ua yeeb yam artist.

Balla, Giacomo (1871-1958). Italian neeg pleev kob.

Borgman, Johan (1889-1976). Dutch neeg pleev kob.

Blavatsky, Helena Petrovna (1831-1891). Co-founder ntawm Theosophical Society, ua dab neeg ua yeeb yam hauv nws cov hauj lwm thaum ntxov.

Burnat-Provins, Marguerite (1872-1952). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Qeej, Mikalojus Konstantinas (1875-1911). Lithuanian composer thiab neeg pleev kob.

Dalí, Salvador (1904-1989). Tus neeg pleev kob Spanish.

Tsib Morgan, Evelyn (née Pickering, 1855-1919). British neeg pleev kob.

Drtikol, František (1883-1961). Czech kws yees duab.

Dubuffet, Jean (1901-1985). Fabkis neeg pleev kob.

Echandi, Enrique (1866-1959). Costa Rican neeg pleev kob.

Fuller, George (1822-1884). American neeg pleev kob.

Henri, Robert (1865-1929). American neeg pleev kob.

Hosmer, Harriet (1830-1908). Asmeskas sculptor.

Inness, George (1825-1894). American neeg pleev kob (feem ntau yog ib tug Swedenborgian).

Kandinsky, Wassily (1866-1944). Lavxias teb sab yeeb yaj kiab.

Klee, Paul (1879-1940). Swiss-German artist.

Txoj kab, Fitz Henry (1804-1865). American neeg pleev kob thiab luam ntawv.

Morgan, Muam Gertrude (1900-1980). American neeg pleev kiab thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm.

Mount, William Sidney (1807-1868). American neeg pleev kob.

Munch, Edvard (1863-1944). Norwegian neeg pleev kob.

Powers, Hiram (1805-1873). American sculptor (feem ntau yog ib tug Swedenborgian).

Randone, Francesco (1864-1935). Italian ceramist.

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828-1882). British neeg pleev kob.

Ryder, Albert Pinkham (1847-1917). American neeg pleev kob.

Robertson, "Yaj Saub" Muaj koob muaj npe (1936-1997). American neeg pleev kob.

Tug Tswv, Gustavo Adolfo (1903-1994). Italian psychic, ua ib co dab neeg paintings.

Nyob rau hauv, Ladislav Jan (1870-1946). Czech tus kws tshaj lij choj.

Stabrowski, Kazimierz (1869-1929). Polish neeg pleev kob (feem ntau yog Tus Theophophist).

Zaj Dab Neeg, William Wetmore (1819-1895). Asmeskas sculptor.

Taggart, Shannon (b. 1975). American tus kws yees duab.

Váchal, Josef (1884-1969). Czech neeg pleev kob thiab luam ntawv.

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill (1834-1903). American neeg pleev kob.

Zemánková, Anna (1908-1986). Czech neeg pleev kiab.

TXOJ HAUJLWM NTAWM LUB VISUAL ARTS

Raws li hais hauv "Visual Arts Teachings" section, "dab neeg kev kos duab," nyob hauv kev txiav txim siab voj, muaj peb pawg. Thawj qeb yog "kos duab" ntau dua. Thawj nto moo nruab nrab uas muaj peev xwm "ua raws li" zaj dab neeg yog Scottish txee-txiag David Duguid (1832-1907). Txawm hais tias Duguid feem ntau pleev xim nrog nws txhais tes coj los ntawm cov kws ua yeeb yam, xws li Jan Steen (1626-1679) thiab Jacob van Ruisdael (1628-1682), nws cov guides kuj tau ua "ncaj" (ua hauj lwm) thaum lub sij hawm nws cov seances, nrog rau qee qhov qhia txog nws 1876 tus ntsuj plig tshiab (uas nws tau qhia los ua ib qho keeb kwm keeb kwm), Hafed tub huabtais ntawm Persia (Duguid 1876). Ib qho teeb meem nrog Duguid yog tias cov ntsuj plig ntawm Steen thiab Ruisdael tau pom tias tsis paub txog cov cai copyright. Ob peb "ncaj" cov duab nyob hauv thawj tsab xov xwm ntawm  Hafed tau muaj kev ntseeg zoo ib yam li cov neeg nyiam Cassell phau Family Bible thiab yuav tsum tau ntiab tawm ntawm ob tsab ntawv. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Rau cov ntseeg, txawm li cas los, zoo sib xws nrog cov Cassell phau Family Bible, nyob rau hauv ob qho tib si "ncaj" thiab "ua yeeb yam" ua yeeb yam duab ntawm Hafed, tsis tau tseeb pov thawj ntawm kev dag. Yog hais tias ib tug ntseeg tias cov ntsuj plig nyob tom hauj lwm, lawv yuav ua tau zoo nrog cov ntaub ntawv uas lawv pom nyob rau hauv lub hlwb ntawm lub nruab nrab, nrog rau cov reminiscences ntawm lub Cassell phau Family Bible

Ntawm cov thawj nruab nrab uas tshwj xeeb hauv cov duab thaij duab tshwj xeeb yog Campbell cov kwv tij, uas nyob hauv Spiritualist hauv zej zos ntawm Lily Dale, New York. Allen Campbell (1833-1919) thiab Charles Shourds (1863-1926) tsis yog kwv tij, tab sis nyob thiab tuav seev cev ua ke. Lawv tus kheej-kev taw qhia raws li "cov kwv tij" tej zaum yuav tau npaj los tawm tsam taug xaiv hais tias lawv nyob ua ke raws li ib tug homosexual ob peb, nyob rau hauv ib lub sij hawm thaum qhov no yuav tsis tau zam. Lawv lub npe nrov tshaj plaws, suav nrog Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865) thiab Napoleon (1769-1821), tau ua tiav rau pej xeem, nrog rau Campbell cov kwv tij 'ob txhais tes tsis txhob kov cov canvas. Lub Campbells 'tus tub kawm yog ntseeg tias nws yog ib phau ntawv ntawm Allen cov lus qhia, Azul. Nws yog ib daim duab muaj zog, thiab niaj hnub no Lily Dale cov neeg tuaj ncig thiab cov neeg tuaj xyuas lawv tshaj tawm cov kev paub ntawm sab ntsuj plig. [Duab ntawm sab xis] Rau cov neeg tim khawv nyob hauv Lily Dale ua tim khawv:

"Thaum lub sijhawm Sai [ntawm Lub Xya hli ntuj 15, 1898] muaj lub teeb txaus rau peb pom txhua yam zoo kawg nkaus thiab nco ntsoov qhov kev loj hlob ntawm kev kos duab ntawm daim duab. Mr. Campbell tau txais thiab Azur, nws siv nws lub cev, tau muab peb cov lus zoo nkauj heev [...] Tom qab ib co suab paj nruag, muab teeb ntxiv, coj daim ntaub, thiab lo! Daim duab tiav. [...] Thaum peb tabtom qhuas nws, muaj li tom qab ntawm lub taub hau ib lub hnub qub, uas yog tam sim no pom "(Nagy 2012: 74-75).

Tsis ntev tshaj plaws rau cov duab ntawm cov huab tais tau ntau dhau los yog cov Npawg Bangs, Elizabeth (1859-1920) thiab May (Mary) Elvira (lossis Eunice, 1862-1917) ob ntawm Lily Dale thiab ntawm Chesterfield, Indiana. Cov viv ncaus Bangs precipitated portraits ntawm cov neeg tuag. Ob tug nus Campbell Cov kwv tij thiab cov Poj Npib Bangs tau rov hais dua li kev dag, tab sis muaj kev tiv thaiv los ntawm ib feem tseem ceeb hauv American Spiritualist hauv zej zog. [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Lub siab dawb huv duab tau los ua ke nrog cov lus hais "Swami Laura Horos," aka Ann Odelia Diss Debar (1849-1911?), Uas tau hais tias yuav tsum tau coj los ntawm cov ntsuj plig ntawm European qub masters thiab sim inter alia rau British Secret haiv neeg hu ua Hermetic Order ntawm Golden Dawn. Debar twb raug kaw nyob rau hauv 1901, raug txim mus rau xya xyoo raug kaw ob qho tib si rau kev dag thiab kev ua nkauj nraug kev ua nkauj nraug hauv nws lub tuam tsev hauv London. Kawm xov xwm hais tias Debar yog "lub ntiaj teb tus poj niam phem tshaj plaws," uas ua rau cov duab ua rau cov ntxhuav ntau tshaj plaws tshwj xeeb yog txhawj xeeb (Buescher 2014).

Thiab cov neeg tim khawv tau lees tias nyob hauv ib tug neeg txawv ntawm Debar, muaj npe nrov Italian Gustavo Adolfo (1903-1994), ib tug txiv neej uas tsis tau txais nyiaj rau nws cov seans thiab tau nto moo rau nws cov kev ua si charitable, "txhuam ntawm lawv tus kheej" ua hauj lwm kos npe los ntawm Francisco Goya (1746-1828), Georges Braque (1882-1963), los yog Kandinsky (Lugli 2008) - txawm hais tias nws tsis paub leej twg nrog rau kev cai dab qhuas ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiab tsis paub meej tias lawv yog ib feem ntawm lawv cov "txawj ntse ntsuj plig" tau tsim cov duab (Bonfiglio 2003).

Thaum lub sij hawm ntawm David Duguid, tsis muaj dua Madame Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891), nyob rau theem ntawm nws cov hauj lwm, nws kuj yog cov khoom plig ceev ceev heev. Hauv nws txoj kev tshawb 2001 kuj, John Patrick Deveney tau hais tias nws Cov duab no yog "nyob rau hauv kaum ob." Lawv suav nrog cov duab hauv 1875 ntawm tus Vaj Ntxwv Yawg Vaj - uas, tom qab tau thov Blavatsky, yog ib tug thiab tib yam nrog Theosophy tus Hilarion - [Duab ntawm txoj cai] thiab lwm, ntawm 1877, ntawm ib "Tiruvalla Yogi" los ntawm "Dab Tsi Ntsuj Plig los yog Thaj Tsam Cov Neeg Sib Koom" (Deveney 2001: 525-46). Txawm hais tias feem ntau ntawm cov hauj lwm no tau ua "sai sai," lawv hais tau tias thawj thawj cov npe ntawm Theosophical painters yog tsis muaj dua Madame Blavatsky nws tus kheej.

Ib qho thib ob, ntau hom duab ntawm cov duab ua yeeb yam nrog cov duab ntawm cov ntsuj plig hauv nruab nrab ntawm lub caij nyoog. Victor Hugo (1802-1885) yog ib tug kws sau ntawv zoo dua li nws yog tus neeg pleev kob, thiab nws tus duab pleev xim rau nws thaum lub sij hawm nws nyob hauv nws lub tsev nyob hauv Jersey, Channel Islands, 1853-1855 (thiab tom qab ntawd) yuav nyuaj rau decipher (Audinet , Godeau, Viau, Evrard thiab Méheust 2012). Lwm yam kev kho mob, txawm li ntawd los, tau ua tiav cov txiaj ntsim zoo. Lawv nrog cov phooj ywg zoo tib yam xws li Hugo, xws li cov neeg paub zoo uas hu ua Victorien Sardou (1831-1908) thiab Gustave Le Goarant, Conte de Tromelin (1850-1920).

Thaum lub sij hawm ntawm Hugo, cov neeg uas xav nrhiav cov neeg ntawm cov neeg tuag uas tau tuag hauv Teb Chaws Asmeskas tau siv lub txiaj ntsim ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Tamsim no muaj ob peb ntawm Wella Percy (1833-1900?) Thiab Lizzie Pet Anderson (1839?-1896), koom tes hauv lub neej thiab Kev Ntsuj Plig, tab sis lawv sib nrauj hauv 1875. Lub Andersons puas tau ua ntau tshaj li cov txiv neej tuag ntawm cov poj niam thiab cov me nyuam rau cov neeg muaj nyiaj. Lawv channeled thiab pleev xim masters ntawm kev txawj ntse xws li Confucius (551-479 BCE), tus poj koob yawm txwv Masonic Hiram Habiff, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] thiab cov tswv cuab ntawm "band of Old Atlantis." Lawv raug txhawb los ntawm Gallery ntawm dab kos duab, phau ntawv journal nyob rau hauv Brooklyn hauv 1882-1883 thiab nkaus rau cov duab ua nrog rau kev pab los ntawm cov ntsuj plig (Winchester 1882: 1-3). 

Dab tsi tshwm sim ntawm qhov chaw ntawm Spiritualist qhov qub txeeg qub teg, thiab kev xyaum coj zoo rau cov neeg ntseeg hais tias lawv paub lawv cov neeg tuag lawm. Nyob rau hauv Lily Dale, cov duab ua yeeb yam yog tsim los ntawm cov nrab Susan Barnes. Thoob ntiaj teb, nto moo nyob rau hauv daim teb no yog cov tub ntxhais British sab ntsuj plig uas yog Frank Leah (1886-1972) thiab Coral Polge (1924-2001). Qhov kev lig kev cai yog txuas ntxiv los ntawm ntau pua tus neeg ua yeeb yam. Coral Ryder (b. 1971) thiab Ann Bridge Bridge hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv, Francesca Ferraro (b. 1966) hauv Canada, thiab Angelique van Bezouwen (b. 1961) nyob hauv lub Netherlands.

Cov qeb thib peb suav cov duab (feem ntau lwm tus tshaj li cov duab) uas yog tsim los ntawm cov neeg ua yeeb yam uas hais tias cov ntsuj plig coj lawv tes. Tsis pub dhau Kev Ntseeg Brazilian, trance artists feem ntau yog cov yeeb yaj duab nto moo thiab cov sculptors, thiab tsim haujlwm hauv lawv cov style thaum kev sib tw ceev. José Medrado (b. 1961), ntawm lub Cidade da Luz, channels, inter alia, Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) thiab Edgar Degas (1834-1917). Thaum channeling Degas, Medrado ua cov duab thiab sculptures. Lub npe hu ua Medrado hauv Brazil yog Luiz Antônio Gasparetto (b. 1949), uas yog xim thiab sculpts nrog nws txhais tes coj los ntawm Degas, Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510), Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), thiab ntau lwm cov nto moo. Nyob rau hauv Ltalis, qhov chaw ua yeeb yam ntawm Oberto Airaudi (1950-2013), tus founder ntawm lub zej zog ntawm Damanhur thiab ib tug neeg pleev kob paub zoo, yog txuas ntxiv tom qab nws tuag los mediums uas ob txhais tes yog coj los ntawm nws tus plig (Zoccatelli 2017).

Brazilian mediums tsim duab sculptures ntxiv nrog rau cov duab thaij duab. Ntsig vaj tse kuj muaj nyob. Iulia Hasdeu (1869-1888), ib tug tub ntxhais hluas Romanian poet leej twg tuag thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum yim, qhia los ntawm mediums rau nws tus naas maum leej twg, philologist Boian P. Hasdeu (1838-1907), kev npaj kho vaj tse rau nws lub ntxa hauv Bucharest thiab nto moo "Castle Hasdeu" hauv Câmpina, tiav hauv 1896. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Lwm qhov qauv ntawm tus qauv ntawm tus qauv yog Italian lub zos ntawm Rosazza, nyob ze Biella, ua ntawm 1880 thiab 1899 rau Italian senator thiab Freemason, Federico Rosazza (1813-1899), los ntawm cov neeg pleev kob Giuseppe Maffei (1821-1901). Nws tau raws li cov kev npaj uas tau txais los ntawm Augustine ntawm Hippo (354-430), uas tsis yog ib tug kws lij choj nyob rau hauv nws lub neej, thiab ib tug txiv neej tsis muaj npe los ntawm Volterra, Tuscany, uas, tsis ceeb, pom zoo kom qhia cov architectural elements ntawm nws hauv lub nroog.

Degas yog qhov tseem ceeb heev rau keeb kwm ntawm daim duab, Degas "raws li channeled los ntawm Medrado (los yog Gasparetto)" rau cov kws sau ntawv keeb kwm yog tsuas xav paub. Lwm cov neeg ua yeeb yam uas tau ua hauj lwm nrog lawv txhais tes coj ua los ntawm cov ntsuj plig, txawm li ntawd los, tsim cov duab qub heev. Thaum xub thawj, lawv tau kawm xwb nyob rau hauv qeb ntawm "cov duab kos duab" lossis "art brut" (ib daim ntawv sau los ntawm Fabkis cov tub paj nruas Jean Dubuffet, 1901-1985, uas tau zoo heev los ntawm kev kos duab), uas kuj tau ua haujlwm los ntawm txoj kev ua yeeb yaj kiab thiab cov neeg mob hlwb. Qee lub sij hawm, ntsuj plig ua yeeb yam twb psychiatric cov neeg mob, xws li Fabkis cov neeg tua neeg Aimable Jayet (1883-1953) thiab Swiss nruab nrab, Hélène Smith (Catherine-Elise Müller, 1861-1929), uas tau kos duab rau ntawm lub ntiaj teb Mars thiab tau kawm los ntawm psychiatrist Théodore Flournoy (1854 -1920: Flournoy 1900).

Txawm li cas los xij, "tus neeg sab nraud" yog ib txoj kev sib tw (Wojcik 2016). Critics kuj yuav maj mam paub txog "ntxub" cov neeg ua yeeb yam raws li ib feem ntawm kev "keeb kwm" kos duab, tsis hais cov nqi siab ua lawv cov haujlwm hais kom ua ntawm cov khoom lag luam. Qhov no yog cov ntaub ntawv ntawm British artist Madge Gill (1882-1961) leej twg, nrog ob txhais tes coj los ntawm tus Myrninerest (Kuv Txuas Txais), tsim txhiab tus tub txib uas muaj nqi liab qab, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] thiab qee cov hauj lwm loj heev rau calico. Myrninerest tseem niaj hnub no tus kws hu ua British Tibet, uas tau luam tawm hauv 2013 phau ntawv rau tus ntsuj plig thiab Madge Gill (Tibet thiab Boxer 2013).

Tus kws tshaj lij kos duab tawm sab nraud hail Augustin Lesage (1876-1954), ib pab neeg Fabkis txoj haujlwm, ua tus kws kho mob ntawm sab ntsuj plig, "tso nws tus kheej mus kiag rau tes ncaj qha ntawm nws tus ntsuj plig hauv ib lub xeev kev zoo siab" (Wojcik 2013: 102). Qhov tseeb tiag, Fabkis tau tsim ntau tus ntsuj plig ua yeeb yaj kiab ib txwm muaj nyob hauv qeb ntawm "kev kos duab sab nraud", los ntawm Jeanne Tripier (1869-1944), Fleury Joseph Crépin (1875-1948), thiab Victor Simon (1903-1976) mus rau Laure Pigeon ( 1882-1965) thiab Raphaël Lonné (1910-1989). Fernand Desmoulin (1853-1914) yog qhov sib txawv: tus neeg pleev kob ntawm kev kawm, thaum xyoo 1900 thiab 1902, nws tsim cov duab kos, kos npe nrog cov npe ntawm tus ntsuj plig (lossis nrog lub npe sib txawv ntawm tib tus ntsuj plig) nws ntseeg tau coj nws txhais tes, "Tus Xib Hwb," "Koj tus Tswv Laus," thiab "Astarte." Cov kev kos duab los ntawm Marguerite Burnat-Provins (1872-1952), txwv tsis pub ib tus kws sau ntawv ntsiag to thiab tus neeg pleev kob ntawm thaj av nyob deb nroog, feem ntau tau muab cais ua "nruab nrab" kos duab, tab sis nws tsis tshua pom lawv tus ntsuj plig (Le Maléfan 2011).

Ib qho piv txwv ntawm cov xwm txheej thiab cov tsis xwm yeem ntawm qeb ntawm cov neeg tuaj sab nrauv, raws li tau thov los ua cov yeeb yaj duab uas ua los ntawm cov rog tsis muaj zog, yog tus neeg kos npe hauv Czech, yog Zemánková (1908-1986). Raws li nws cov hauj lwm hais kom nce nqi tseem ceeb, tub lag luam yuav sim tso nws sab esoteric, txawm hais tias nws tswj hwm tias nws cov haujlwm "pleev xim lawv tus kheej" raws li qee qhov "quab yuam" coj nws (Šimková and Zemánková 2017). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Ntawm qhov tsis sib xws, peb pom me ntsis kev kawm paub txog tus ntsuj plig, nrog yuav luag tsis muaj kev ua lag luam. Utrecht lub hauv paus Het Johan Borgman Fonds ua haujlwm zoo kawg hauv kev khaws cov duab los ntawm cov neeg paub qis hauv Dutch tus ntsuj plig, qee tus ntawm cov txuj ci tseem ceeb, xws li Jan Huibreght Verwaal (1889-1945?), Hendrix Cornelis Mansveld (1874-1957), thiab Jacoba C . Calkoen (1866-1944). Lub hauv paus Dutch tshwm sim ua tsaug rau kev pab nyiaj los ntawm tus kws kos duab zoo dua, Johan Borgman (1889-1976), tus uas tsis yog tus kws tsim ntsuj plig tab sis tau mob siab rau sab ntsuj plig (Kramer 2015).

Cov yeeb yam tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev ntseeg siab, uas tsim nyog rau txoj kev kawm sib txawv, los ntawm kev sib txuas lus los yog kev sib txuas lus nrog cov neeg uas ntseeg tau tias yog ciaj sia es tsis tuag: Masters, uas raws li Theosophy nyob (yog laus heev) qhov chaw hauv Tibet lossis lwm qhov, thiab neeg txawv tebchaws. Blavatsky nws tus kheej txhawb nqa "Master painting," nyob qhov twg Theosophical artists tau coj los ntawm Masters raws li kev ua yeeb yam ntawm Spiritualist raug coj los ntawm cov ntsuj plig. Qhov no yog qhov tseeb rau cov neeg txawv teb chaws uas, piv txwv li, tau tshoov chaw ua hauj lwm ntawm lwm tus neeg Asmeskas cov neeg tuaj txawv teb chaws, "Yaj Saub" Royal Robertson (1936-1997).

Hauv tebchaws Askiv, keeb kwm kev kos duab, nrog kev pab me ntsis ntawm kws tshawb fawb ntawm Western esotericism xws li Marco Pasi (saib Grant, Larsen thiab Pasi 2016), tau pib sau cia tsis ntev los no tias qee tus neeg pleev xim lub cev, txhua tus poj niam, ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv hnub yug European niaj hnub kos duab thiab tsis tuaj yeem raug suav tias yog "tus kws tshaj lij sab nraud." Xyoo 2007 Ph.D. kev tso tawm ntawm Yale los ntawm Rachel Oberter ntawm Victorian Spiritualist ua yeeb yam hu nkauj tawm Georgiana Houghton thiab Anna Mary Howitt-Watts (1824-1884: Oberter 2007). Cov ntawv nthuav qhia tom qab tau muab tso rau hauv cov txheej txheem no nrog lub luag haujlwm Constance Ethel Le Rossignol (1873-1970). Howitt-Watts's (lossis nws tus ntsuj plig 'kev cog lus ua haujlwm) tau txiav tawm luv luv los ntawm kev mob hlwb. Ethel Le Rossignol pleev xim tsuas plaub caug plaub ua haujlwm, thiab ib txwm hais tias lawv tus kws sau tiag tiag yog tus ntsuj plig "JPF" Lawv lub ntsiab lus tau piav nyob rau hauv nws loj hom nws tus kheej luam tawm 1933 phau ntawv, Ib lub tuam txhab zoo (Le Rossignol 1933). Nws zoo heev, idiosyncratic style nrauj nws nyob hauv ib qho artistic niche. [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Lwm tus lub npe yuav tsum muab ntxiv rau: Alice Mary Theodosia Pery (1833-1906), ib tug tswv cuab ntawm ib pawg neeg British aristocratic tsev, uas tsis tau kos npe rau nws txoj hauj lwm tiam sis twb paub, thiab cov kev xav, Georgiana Houghton (thiab tej zaum Madge Gill). Nws tau thov tias cov ntsuj plig ua sai sai ua cov kab, oval, lub voj, thiab lwm txoj kab nkhaus los ntawm nws txhais tes, thiab nws tau ua tiav cov chaw npliag nrog nws cov kev txawj ntse. Lwm tus phooj ywg ntawm Houghton yog tus nruab nrab ntawm Minnesota, Elizabeth Blanchard (ca. 1841-1876), paub txog nws qhov khoom tshwj xeeb uas tsim muaj ephemeral "dej duab" (tab sis qee cov duab muaj sia nyob). Cov taum dej ntawm cov dej nag tau ntxhua los ntawm Blanchard nrog nws tus ntiv tes, thiab ib los yog ntau lub ntsej muag tshwm, thiab tseem nyob hauv cov thooj av. Houghton piv rau cov ntsej muag los ua Pery (Houghton 1876).

Georgiana Houghton yog ib tus neeg uas tau thov tias, thaum nws ua yeeb yam, nws ob txhais tes raug siab tswj los ntawm nws cov kev taw qhia, xws li tsis paub "lag ntseg thiab ruam" tuag neeg pleev kiab hu ua Henry Lenny thiab cov Correggio (1489-1534). Nws tus kheej tau nyiaj txiag nyob rau hauv London hauv 1871 puas tau nyiam ib co ntawv ceeb toom, txawm tias tom qab ntawd nws tsis nco qab lawm. Houghton hais tias nws Lub qhov muag ntawm Vajtswv (ca. 1862), ib tus thawj coj thiab ib qho tseem ceeb hauv kev kos duab ntawm kos duab kos duab, yog kos npe los ntawm Correggio. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Thaj plaws, Tus Thawj Coj ntawm Kev Lom Zem ntawm Italian tau hloov ntau heev hauv nws lub ntiaj teb. Ntawm qhov tod tes, txawm hais tias nws yuav txaus siab los mloog cov lus qub (yav tas los?) Nemesis ntawm sab ntsuj plig-esoteric kos duab xws li Januszczak tshaj tawm tias Houghton invented paub kos duab ua ntej Kandinsky, thiab txawm ua yeeb yam ua ntej Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) (Januszczak 2016 ), tag nrho cov no yuav tsum saib tsam tsis yog exaggerated. Ib txhia ntawm Houghton cov duab, xws li Tus Tswv Yexus Khetos tus Tswv (1862), tau sib txuas ua ke uas niaj hnub ua ke ntawm ob peb kab ntawm cov kab thiab cov xim nrog cov xeeb ceem Christian thiab Spiritualist imagery.

Oberter thiab Pasi (Oberter 2007; Pasi 2015) pom qhov zoo sib xws ntawm cov hauj lwm, thiab paub txog lig, ntawm Houghton thiab Swedish neeg pleev kob Hilma af Klint (1862-1944). Lub luag hauj lwm ntawm Kl Klint ua lwm pioneer ntawm kos duab kos duab yog tam sim no nce paub. Af Klint tau qhia los ntawm tsib tus cwj pwm cob qhia, txawm tias lawv tau ua raws nraim li cas nws txoj haujlwm yog qhov teeb meem ntawm kev sib cav. Nws kuj yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm Theosophical Society thiab, tom qab, ntawm Anthroposophical Society (Pasi 2015).

Raws li Pasi tau hais tseg, tej zaum peb yuav tsum tsis txhob rov qab kos dua kos duab kos duab los ntawm Kandinsky mus rau Klint los yog Houghton, vim hais tias lawv tsis muaj ib qho txoj kev xav ntawm abstraction, thaum Kandinsky ua (Pasi 2015: 103-04). Tsis tas li ntawd, txoj hauj lwm ntawm ob lub yeeb tshuaj ntawm Spiritualist, tsis zoo li Kandinsky's, tsis yog feem ntau paub txog cov neeg ua yeeb yam niaj hnub no, yog tias thaum Klint txhob txwm tshaj tawm li, txij thaum nws nug tias nws cov duab kos duab yuav tsum tsis txhob muab pov thawj ua ntej nees nkaum xyoo dhau los ntawm nws txoj kev tuag, thiab qhov tseeb lawv tau nthuav tawm hauv kev nthuav tawm hauv 1980s. [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Tab sis dab tsi txog Kandinsky tus kheej kev sib raug zoo nrog Spiritualism? Nws tau hais txog Kev Ntsuj Plig hauv nws phau ntawv sau thiab nws phau ntawv Txog Kev Ntseeg hauv Nruab Nrab (1911), thiab ua kev sim parapsychological, nrog rau kev tshem ntawm cov ntxhuav thiab telepathic kev sib txuas lus los ntawm Munich nrog phooj ywg nyob rau hauv Russia (Washton 1968: 140-41). Nws hailed tiv thaiv ntawm Spiritualism, xws li German tus kws tshawb fawb Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner (1834-1882), li neeg siab tawv txiv neej ua tsis ncaj ncees los ntawm cov khoom siv kev kawm (Ringbom 1970: 50-51).

Lub hwjchim ntawm Theosophy rau Kandinsky (thiab ntawm kev sib txuas ntawm lwm yam kev kos duab luminaries, xws li Mondrian, Lawren Harris, 1885-1970, Malevich, thiab Giacomo Balla, 1871-1958, los qhia txog qee tus xwb) tam sim no feem ntau lees paub. Tsis zoo li Mondrian thiab Harris, Kandinsky tsis yog tus tswvcuab koom nrog pawg neeg Theosophical Society. Tsis yog nws yog ib tug neeg ua yeeb yam. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tau kawm los ntawm Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) thiab thaum nws pom nws cov duab, nws nug hais tias: "Nws muaj peev xwm ua tau thiab nws paub yam. Nws puas tau clairvoyant? "(Ringbom 1970: 70).

Nws yog ib qho yooj yim los nthuav qhia cov khaub ncaws ntawm cov neeg niaj hnub nim no xav nrog Spiritualism, nrog ntau pua lub npe. Tab sis tsis nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov neeg mob hauv cov seans, los yog nyeem cov phau ntawv hais txog Kev Ntseeg, tiag tiag cuam lawv cov duab. Nyob rau hauv 2011, American historian Charles Colbert sau ntau tus American cov neeg ua yeeb yam, nws tau sib cav, kev xav ntawm Spiritualism yog qhov tseem ceeb, xws li cov neeg ua yeeb yam Fitz Henry Lane (1804-1865), William Sidney Mount (1807-1868), George Fuller (1822 (1884-1825), William Pinkham Ryder (1894-1847), thiab Robert Henri (1917-1865) Harriet Hosmer (1929-1805) (Colbert 1873). Colbert's sau yog haub ntxias, tab sis cov neeg Meskas tseem tsis tau muaj kev ntseeg ntau xyoo dhau los no. Inness thiab Powers feem ntau Swedishborgians, thiab tus ntawm Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1819-1895) rau lawv cov txuj ci tseem ceeb tshaj Spiritualism tus.

Cov ntaub ntawv tshwj xeeb ntawm cov American painters yog James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), uas tau siv nws lub neej nyob rau London thiab tau ua los ntawm cov British Pre-Raphaelites. Tsuas yog Whistler nyiam ua Spiritualism zoo sau tseg (Keshavjee 2013), tab sis nws yog ib feem ntawm "Swedenborgian-Spiritualist" ntawm London, uas tau zoo heev rau cov Pre-Raphaelites, nrog rau tus thawj tus thawj tsim ntawm lub zog, neeg pleev kob Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882). Raws li Anna Francesca Maddison tau qhia nws hauv 2013 doctoral dissertation, nyob rau hauv qhov chaw ntawm no network ntawm Swedenborgians thiab Spiritualists nyob rau hauv London yog Sophia de Morgan (1809-1892), niam txiv Potter William de Morgan (1839-1917), uas nws tus poj niam Evelyn (1855 -1919), ib tug Spiritualist (Lawton Smith 2002), yog ib yam dab tsi raug hu ua tus kws kho mob Pre-Raphaelite kawg (Maddison 2013).

Ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm cov Vaj Ncauj Kev Ntsuj Plig nyob hauv Prague hauv tsev luam ntawm Czech tus kws lij choj Ladislav Ian Šaloun (1870-1946). Cov artist feem ntau cuam tshuam los ntawm cov Cov neeg seev cev yog tus kws kos duab thiab luam ntawv Josef Váchal (1884-1969) (Nroog 2014: 255), uas rov qab mus rau cov hauj lwm ntawm sab ntsuj plig hauv nws txoj hauj lwm, txawm tias nws yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm Theosophical Society. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Thiab nws yog kab tias ntau tshaj li qhov xav paub tshaj Czech pej xeem František Kupka (1871-1957), uas tau mus ntawm Theosophy inspired paintings xws li Txoj kev Silence (1900-1903) kom tsim tau qee yam khoom plig zoo tshaj plaws, nrog rau Amorpha (1912), pib nkag mus rau nws lub neej xws li Kev Ntseeg Spiritualist (Mládek 2011).

Kupka yog ib qho tseem ceeb hauv cov kab kos los ntawm cov cim (tiam sis qhov no yog tam sim no ib yam kev sib tw hauv keeb kwm kev kos duab) kom paub kos duab. Lwm yog Lithuanian neeg pleev kob thiab composer Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875-1911). Nws kuj tau mus kawm rau sab ntsuj plig ntawm cov pawg ntseeg nyob hauv Warsaw coj los ntawm nws tus xibfwb, Kazimierz Stabrowski (1869-1929) (Kazokas 2009: 54), nws yog ib qho tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ua yeeb yam artist thiab ib tug Theophophist (thiab, tom qab, Anthroposophist) ( Hess thiab Dulska 2017). Lwm tus kws tshaj lij, xws li cov neeg ua yeeb yam Norwegian, Edward Munch (1863-1944) tau ntsib cov Vaj Ncauj Nyuaj Siab hauv lub nroog Nyab Laj (Faxneld 2015), thiab Milieus zoo sib xws, zoo nkauj rau cov neeg ua yeeb yam, nyob hauv Sweden, Finland, thiab Iceland, thiab raws li nyob rau hauv Eastern Europe thiab Latin America, qhov twg, tsuas yog ib qho piv txwv, Costa Rica cov neeg ua yeeb yam, Enrique Echandi (1866-1959), los ua tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm pawg thawj coj ntawm sab ntsuj plig, Centro Espiritista Claros de Luna (Zavaleta Ochoa 2004: 100). [Image ntawm txoj cai] Italis Futurists tau tshwm sim los ntawm cov duab thaij duab (Cigliana 2002), thiab qee cov neeg, nrog rau cov neeg pleev kob Giacomo Balla (Balla 1984, 387), tau mus kawm cov Spiritualist se tiaj, qee leej tau tsim los ntawm cov neeg Asmeskas Seramist, Francesco Randone (1864 -1935) (saib Matitti 2014: 55-57).

Txawm hais tias lawv lub hwj chim yuav tsum tsis txhob raug exaggerated, cov txiv ntawm kos duab kos duab tau me ntsis cuam tshuam los ntawm Xav Forms los ntawm Theosophical cov thawj coj Annie Besant thiab Charles Webster Leadbeater (Besant thiab Leadbeater 1905) thiab los ntawm Leadbeater tus Tus txiv neej pom thiab pom (Leadbeater 1902) .Cov kawg ntawm cov lus qhia tau raug tsim los ntawm cov neeg Litusian Theosophist, suav Maurycy Prozor (1849-1928), thiab ob phau ntawv muaj cov kev xav ntawm kev xav ntawm kev xav ntawm kev xav ntawm psychis "pom" kev xav thiab kev xav, uas rov tshwm sim zoo sib xws kos duab.

Rau lwm cov neeg ua yeeb yam thiab cov hlua, cov pawg neeg pab txiav txim yog tseem tawm. Qee tus neeg tau pom txog Kev Ntsuj Plig (Spiritualist) ntawm Swiss-German artist, Paul Klee (1879-1940), tiam sis nws tsis lees txais txhua yam kev koom tes hauv lub occult (Ringbom 1977). Tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov ntaub ntawv ntawm cov Surrealists. Lawv tau tsim cov paj huam ("tsis sau ntawv") thiab duab ("drawing drawing") tsis paub txog qhov yuav tshwm sim los ntawm, cov xeev hloov ntawm kev puas hlwb los ntawm ntau hom kev kawm. Txawm li cas los xij, txawm tias tus txheej txheem zoo li cov qauv duab, Surrealists tsis pom zoo tias cov ntsujplig tau ua haujlwm nrog lawv cov "tsis siv" haujlwm, thiab qee tus txawm qhia lawv kev ua siab phem rau Kev Ntseeg. Muaj ntau tus ntawm lawv tus kheej tau tshaj tawm cov neeg tsis ntseeg Vajtswv thiab cov ntseeg Marxists, nrog rau tus thawj coj ntawm André Breton (1896-1966), thiab lawv tau hais tias Freudian tsis nco qab txog qhov ob lub Surrealists thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm ntawm cov ntsuj plig tau "ua" (Bauduin 2014 ). Kev ntseeg, txawm li cas los xij, tswj hwm tias ib txhia Surrealists tau ua cov txuj ci siab tiag tiag tsis paub txog nws. Lawv cov neeg raug tsim txom ntawm lawv tus kheej txoj kev xav, thiab ntaus nqi rau txoj haujlwm tsis nco qab uas nws yog neeg sau ntawv tiag tiag. Yuav nws li nws yuav, Surrealists twb paub txog, thiab tus los ntawm, cov duab kos duab. Ib rooj plaub hauv point yog Mev artist Salvador Dalí (1904-1989). Nrog cov raug Daliceque hyperbole, nws tau thov tias "muaj ntau sab ntsuj plig nyob hauv kev kos duab tshaj txhua txoj haujlwm hauv Sistine Chapel" (Lafayette 2015: 214).

Cov thawj coj ntawm cov tub ntxhais kawm ntawv tseem niaj hnub mus koom nrog Spiritualism. Serbian kev ua yeeb yam Marina Abramović (b. 1946) tau los ua nws tus kheej nruab nrab ntawm kev coj ua kev cai dab qhuas Brazilian nruab nrab-kho neeg mob, Yauhas ntawm Vajtswv (b. 1942), thiab muab tso rau hauv nws cov hauj lwm Spiritualist, thiab lwm tus muab los ntawm Afro-American thiab aboriginal Australian religions (Pešić 2017). Cov no tau yuam kev vim Dab Ntxwg Nyoog los ntawm cov evangelical thiab fundamentalist American critics thaum 2016 Asmeskas kev sib tw khiav haujlwm. Raws li nws cov phooj ywg nyob ze rau Hillary Clinton, qhov no ua rau kev ntxias ntawm Dab Ntxwg Nyoog tawm tsam Democratic tus neeg sib tw (saib Introvigne 2016). Thaum lub sijhawm no qhia tau hais tias kev sib koom tes nrog Kev Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv tseem muaj peev xwm nthuav cov neeg ua yeeb yam rau kev thuam thiab kev hais lus, kev sib raug zoo mus, thiab ntau tus piv txwv kuj tau yooj yim ntxiv rau peb cov npe.

Thaum xaus, peb tuaj yeem pom zoo nrog Januszczak (2016) uas Houghton (thiab hais txog Klint, thiab lwm yamCov duab ntawm sab ntsuj plig) tsis yog nyob ntawm lawv tus kheej xwb, Kandinsky thiab Mondrian [pom ntawm txoj cai] tiam sis tseem pab tau cov neeg keeb kwm paub txog tias Kev Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv, thiab qhov tsis sib haum xeeb yog qhov tseem ceeb rau cov tswv yim no kom nkag siab txog kev kos duab tshiab. Qhov teeb meem no tau hloov pauv nyob rau hauv xyoo tas los no, thiab ntau tus neeg ua yeeb yam neeg paub tam sim no yuav pom txog lub luag haujlwm ntawm Kev Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv nyob rau hauv txoj kev mus rau kev kos duab kos duab niaj hnub. Tab sis tsis yog txhua tus ntawm lawv. Nyob rau hauv 2017, lub Tsev khaws puav pheej Guggenheim tau tsim tawm hauv New York ib qho kev nthuav qhia ntawm cov yeeb yaj duab uas muaj feem xyuam nrog rau xyoo pua puas yim Salons de la Rose + Croix nyob rau Paris, ntau leej twg tau muaj ib qho kev txaus siab ntawm Kev Ntseeg. Ib tug New York Times tus neeg hu ua lawv cov lus "tasteless" thiab "nauseating" (Farago 2017), qhov tseeb vim nws koom nrog "sordid" occult ntxhais, ib qho pov thawj tseeb uas tsis muaj neeg ntxias tau raug ntxias.

Txoj hauj lwm no, txawm li cas los xij, maj mam tsis muaj zog ntawm cov keeb kwm kos duab, thiab yog ib txwm tsis nyiam cov kws tshawb fawb ntawm Western esotericism. Rau yav tom ntej, Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv tau ntes tau "hauv huab cua," ua ntej lwm tus, cov tswv yim uas nws lub sijhawm tuaj. Rau cov ntseeg, tej zaum, tus ntsuj plig tswj hwm ntawm kev hloov mus rau ib qho txawv ntawm kev kos duab, xav paub ntau ntxiv rau niaj hnub hawm.

DAWB **
** Tag nrho cov duab yog cov yeeb yaj duab uas siv tau mus rau cov duab kos tau.

Image # 1: Georgiana Houghton, Paj Catherine Emily Stringer, 1866.
Image # 2: Auragraph los ntawm Susan Barnes.
Image # 3: Shannon Taggart, Poj niam hais tias yuav tsum channeling nws doppelgänger hauv Lily Dale, New York.
Image # 4: David Duguid zaj duab xis ntawm zaj npau suav Hafed tub huabtais ntawm Persia (txoj cai) piv rau tus duab hauv lub Cassell phau Family Bible (sab laug).
Image # 5: Allen Campbell, xiav (precipitated painting), 1898.
Image # 6: Cov duab ntawm ib tug pojniam uas tsis paub, cov duab thaij duab los ntawm cov Npawg Bangs.
Image # 7: Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, John King (precipitated painting), 1875.
Image # 8: Lub Andersons, Hiram Abiff (precipitated painting), ca. 1882-1883.
Image # 9: Tsev fuabtais Hasdeu, Câmpina, Romania.
Image # 10: Plig kos duab zoo nkauj Myrninerest los ntawm Madge Gill.
Image # 11: Paj paj los ntawm Anna Zemánková.
Image # 12: Constance Ethel Le Rossignol, nthuav tawm los ntawm Lub tuam txhab zoo series, 1920-1933.
Image # 13: Georgiana Houghton, Lub qhov muag ntawm Vajtswv, ca. 1862.
Image # 14: Ua tsaug rau Klint, Pawg IV, Tus Kaum Nkaus Loj: Adulthood, 1907.
Image # 15: Josef Váchal, kev sib kho, 1907.
Image # 16: Enrique Echandi, Medusa nrog Laurel Wreath, 1901.
Image # 17: Ua tsaug rau Klint, Evolution, Tsis yog 15, Pawg IV, Lub Xya Hli hnub qub, 1908.

ua tim khawv

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Hnubtim:
2 Lub yim hli ntuj 2017

 

 

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