NOVA CANA TIMELINE
1947 (May 2): Rau xyoo Angela Volpini tau txais nws thawj kev sib txuas lus dawb huv nyob rau hauv lub zos ntawm Casanova Staffora, Lombardy, Ltalis, nyob rau hauv cov roob Apennine.
1947 (June4): Angela, muaj xya hauv lub Xya hli ntuj 2, tau ntsib nws thawj yam khoom ntawm Virgin Mary nyob rau hauv ib qho chaw hu ua Bocco ntawm lub toj saib xyuas Casanova Staffora.
1947 (July 4): The second apparition occurred in which the vision confirmed that she is Mary. This established a series of apparitions on the fourth of the month over nine years.
1947 (Kaum Hlis 4): Hnub ci tsim khoom, ua rau lwm tus pom tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Fátima, tau qhia thaum lub sijhawm pom.
1947 (Kaum Ib Hlis los sis Kaum Ob Hlis Ntuj): Lub diocese ntawm Tortona, pom pom cov neeg coob coob sib sau ua ke ntawm Casanova Staffora, pib tshawb xyuas.
1948 (Plaub Hlis 18): Qhov tseem ceeb ntawm Italian kev xaiv tsa ntawm 1948 coj qhov chaw. Christian Socialists tau lub hwj chim tiv thaiv cov koom haum pab pawg neeg sab laug thiab cov neeg suav liab.
1950 (Kaum Ib Hlis 4): Hnub ci tsim khoom, ua rau lwm tus pom tshwj xeeb tshaj yog Fátima, tau qhia thaum lub sijhawm pom.
1950: Lub tsev ntawm cappellina (Lus Askiv: "chapel me") pib ntawm qhov chaw ntawm cov khoom; tam sim no tus pej thuam tau ntsia hauv 1960.
1952 (Lub Xya hli ntuj 6): The first indications of the decision of the diocesan commission of enquiry became known. Angela’s character was praised and she was declared mentally sound, but the Church took the position that there was no evidence to judge her apparitions as supernatural.
1955 (November 4): The last apparition in the regular series occurred, but the Virgin promised that she would return once more.
1956 (June 4): The final apparition took place in which the Virgin foretold a great spiritual revival after a period of instability among the nations. She said that God is merciful and would spare the people punishment.
1957 (August 15): The Diocese of Tortona agreed that a church could be built at Bocco as a Marian shrine.
1958 (April 9): Angela presented a file of her messages to Pope Pius XII at St Peter’s in Rome.
1958 (June 22): The first stone of the new church was blessed by senior priest Monsignor Ferreri, with many pilgrims present.
1958: The association Nova Cana tau tsim los ntawm Angela thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum yim.
1959 (November 4): The bell of the new church was blessed by Canon Caldi, delegate of Bishop Melchiori of Tortona.
1962 (June 4): Monsignor Rossi, also a delegate of the bishop of Tortona, celebrated the Mass at which the new church was blessed and inaugurated.
FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM
Cov xwm txheej ntawm Casanova Staffora tau tshwm sim nyob rau hauv cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev ua tsov ua rog Ltalis, thaum lub caij nyoog tsis txaus ntseeg heev. Nyob rau hauv 1947, tom qab kev ua tsov ua rog Ltalis yog nyob rau lub sij hawm ntawm kev mob siab khov kho tias seb yav tom ntej tsoom fwv yuav ntseeg Christian Democrat, thiab txhawb nqa lub Koom Txoos, los yog Socialist / Communist, nrog txoj kev hem thawj rau txoj kev kav lub neej hauv lub neej no pom tias nyob hauv thawj ib nrab ntawm lub xyoo pua nees nkaum thiab hauv Cold War lub sijhawm. Cov ntseeg Democrats yeej qhov kev xaiv tsa tseem ceeb hauv lub Plaub Hlis 1948 thiab nyob hauv hwj chim rau qee xyoo lawm (ntawm lwm tus, saib Ginsborg 1990).
Believers in Casanova Staffora agree that the national context was relevant to the beginning of the shrine; the decade 1944-1954 saw more Marian apparitions in Italy than in any other modern period. Angela first reported seeing the Virgin Mary on June 4, 1947, having passed her seventh birthday two days before. The first message from the Virgin Mary was: “I have come to teach the way to happiness on this Earth … Be good, pray and I will be the salvation of your nation” (Angela Volpini’s website 2016). The first part of this message is written on a board at the site of the apparition, the cappellina (ib qho chaw me me uas muaj ib tug pej thuam thiab cim los ntawm lub laj kab). Rau Angela, thawj tus cim no tau tsim txhua yam uas nws tau muaj txij li thaum ntseeg txog Vajtswv, Mary, thiab tib neeg:
It was the aim of the human life, it was all human possibilities, it was what gave meaning to every human living. It was the joy of the Creator. With great approximation I can say that I have contemplated the universal world, through the eyes of the Madonna I have seen all mankind … I saw all the story of human beings (Angela Volpini’s website 2016).
Thaum lub sijhawm ua ntej no pom, Angela [Duab ntawm txoj cai] yog ib tug ntxhais hluas hauv ib tsob neeg ua liaj ua teb, tau noj cov nyuj nrog lwm cov me nyuam hauv thaj chaw hillside known as Bocco, a few hundred metres outside the main village. At about four o’clock in the afternoon she recalls sitting on the grass putting flowers into bunches. She felt someone lift her up and, thinking it was her aunt, turned round to see an unknown woman with a beautiful face. Angela was a sole visionary, as the other children did not share this experience (one of the characteristics of a successful and long-term apparition movement is clarity over whom the Madonna is speaking through; a multiplicity of voices may harm the reputation of the case). Angela immediately identified her vision as the Virgin Mary, and this was confirmed in the second apparition one month later on the July 4, 1947, when the vision declared herself to be Mary. This was further clarified on the August 4, when she referred to herself as “Mary, Help of Christians, Refuge of Sinners.” These are traditional titles of Mary.
Pilgrims tsis ntev los no hauv lawv txhiab tus neeg Casanova Staffora. Los ntawm lub caij nplooj zeeg ntawm 1947, nws yog lub teb chaws xov xwm; ntawv xov xwm xws li La Stampa thiab hnub no covered the story. The crowds participated in the dramatic events: the title of Ferdinando Sudati’s book (2004) promoting the apparitions, Dove posarano thiab kuv tus phooj ywg (“Where her feet rested”), refers to the fact that pilgrims claimed to have seen the invisible Mary’s feet imprinted on the flowers which had been placed to honour her. Angela’ gestures and charismatic smile assured them that Mary was present; she presented flowers to the Virgin and children to kiss and bless, and she carried the invisible Christ child in her arms. The shrine overlooks the beauty of the Apennine river valley below, providing a memorable backdrop to the scene. In the late 1940s, the hillside was literally covered with people. Like many Catholic visionaries, Angela as a child seer attracted a great deal of attention. Many priests visited too, and the diocesan authorities at Tortona began an investigation. Angela describes how intensively she underwent interviews by priests, journalists, and doctors: she recalls being taken from her home for about forty days and kept in a room without windows. This pressure was applied to see if Angela would admit that she had falsified the visions, but she did not.
Angela’s apparitions were experienced in a series, like other apparitions, in this case on each fourth of the month up until June 1956, with some breaks over the years. A series helps to create a pattern of pilgrimage. The messages were not unfamiliar in the Marian apparition tradition: the Virgin requested prayer, penance, a chapel and, eventually, a larger sanctuary. The Casanova Staffora apparitions also echoed the famous apparitions of Fátima in 1917, increasingly well-known across Europe in the late 1940s, with the anticipation of a great miracle, warnings of divine punishment, and sensational reports of movements of the sun, for the first time on the October 4, 1947 and then later on the November 4, 1950, three days after the definition of the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary by Pope Pius XII.
Angela’s apparitions concluded on the June 4, 1956, and she says that she has not had any further experiences of this kind. The message of this final vision was important in determining future directions. According to Angela, Mary said:
Qhov txuj ci tseem ceeb no twb pib, thiab ib zaug ntxiv Vajtswv txoj kev hlub tshua tau muab lub ntiaj teb tshem tawm nws txoj kev rau txim. Ntau tus neeg yuav rov qab los rau lub Koom Txoos thiab lub ntiaj teb yuav muaj kev thaj yeeb nyab xeeb. Tab sis ua ntej ntawd, ntau lub tebchaws yuav tsum shaken thiab renewed. Nco ntsoov kuv lo lus kawg: hlub Vajtswv ua tsaug, hlub koj tus niam ntuj saum ntuj, hlub ib leeg. Kuv yuav tsis rov qab los, tab sis kuv yuav muab cov cim thiab qhov chaw cog lus tseg, kom koj paub tias kuv yuav nrog koj nyob (Sudati 2004: 174, kuv txhais lus).
Therefore the sixteen year-old Angela, immediately after the final apparition, announced that the miracle would be a spiritual renewal which had already begun. This, and the removal of the threats of divine chastisement, distinguished Casanova Staffora from other apparitions in the second half of the twentieth century that emphasised apocalyptic miracles and punishments. Angela’s mission was to be more grounded and more optimistic about the direction of human society. Angela remembers that:
Maivliag tau hais rau kuv tias qhov txuj ci tseem ceeb yuav loj hlob ntawm kev paub zoo thiab kev paub. Hauv 1958, kuv nrhiav tau lub koom haum Nova Cana los pab rau txoj haujlwm no. Nova Cana attempts to focus people’s attention on the coming of the Kingdom of God, just as the wedding at Cana was the manifestation of the divinity in Jesus. It is a centre for dialogue. I realised the need for a space in which people could reflect on their desire for fulfilment and come to know that it could be realised (Interviews, October 28-31, 2015, also quoted further below).
Despite priestly support for Angela, two diocesan bishops of Tortona, Egisto Melchiori and Francesco Rossi, announced that they could not authenticate the apparitions, in 1952 and 1965 respectively. They expressed their appreciation of Angela’s character and the orthodoxy of her message, and could not rule out the possibility of a supernatural origin. However, they felt that the apparitions were more likely to have been triggered by the experience of her first communion and her coming into contact with the story of Fátima. Nonetheless, the diocese did grant permission for the building of a shrine church at Bocco, the first stone was laid in 1958, and the building was formally blessed by an episcopal delegate in 1962. The relationship with the Church has not always been smooth, but the diocese continues to provide support by appointing a priest to celebrate Mass at Bocco once a month. Furthermore, Angela has enjoyed strong friendships with many priests and monks, most notably the priest and politician Don Gianni Baget Bozzo (1925-2009) and the monk Frate Ave Maria (1900-1964) of the hermitage of Sant’ Alberto di Butrio.
DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM
Angela’s messages from Mary are optimistic about human potential in a way that anticipates later Catholic movements, such as Tsim Vaj Ntsuj Plig thiab Tib neeg, Siab Alive. They also have non-Catholic parallels in the Human Potential Movement in the United States arising in the 1960s. For Angela, however, this vision was already fully present in the initial apparition on the June 4, 1947, when Mary said that “I have come to teach the way to happiness on this Earth.” Angela says that:
Mary yog ib lub cim ntawm keeb kwm ntawm tib neeg. Tag nrho tib neeg quavntsej muaj lub sijhawm rau kev ua tiav thiab nkag mus rau hauv qhov kev qhia Vajtswv Txojlus, thiab Maivliag yog qhov uas cov neeg no pom tag nrho.
Thaum Angela hais txog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm tib neeg kev dim daws, nws tsis nrog nws tus kheej nrog kev ntseeg rhuav tshem ib se, tsis nrog feminism theology yog. Txawm li cas los xij, nws pom zoo tias thaum poj niam ua rau nws nyuaj rau nws lub suab uas tau hnov hauv lub Koom Txoos.
Angela hais txog Maivliag li neeg ua tiav raws li nws: nws yog thawj tib neeg ua kom ua tiav thiab yog li tus qauv rau txhua tus. Maivliag muaj kev sib raug zoo nrog kev sib raug zoo nrog Vajtswv, thiab Angela (paub txog kev txhais lus ntawm nws tsab xov xwm) ua rau kom tseeb tias Vajtswv thiab Maivliag yog qhov txawv txav thiab tsis txhob totaub yuam kev. Lub hom phiaj ntawm txhua tus neeg yog Mary, tiam sis kuj yog rau txhua tus neeg kom muaj kev txawv txav. Los tsocai Angela:
Kev ua haujlwm yog kev loj hlob ntawm peb tus kheej kev tsis lees paub, uas peb tau nyob nrog Vajtswv. Lub tswvyim ntawm Vajtswv yog nyob ntawm tus kheej; nws yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm tus kheej. Thaum twg tib neeg tiav, peb tuaj yeem nkag mus rau ntawm txoj hauj lwm los ntawm Vajtswv. Muaj kev xaiv, kev xaiv los hlub.
God’s project was incarnation and God chose Mary. This was because she was the one human being who was acknowledging and realising her potential. She committed herself to her own desire to love and was not bound by the culture around her. She discovered that the secret of God was that this could be done.
Angela kuj hais tias:
Qhov no yog lub hom phiaj ntawm kev muaj peev xwm tab sis nws nyob ntawm peb. Txoj haujlwm ntawm tau txais cov lus yog peb lub luag haujlwm. Cov neeg ntseeg sawv cev ntawm txhua txojkev ntseeg nyias nyiam qhov no rau Vajtswv. Maivliag tso siab rau nws tus kheej. Maivliag tsis ua haujlwm ntawm Vajtswv kom nws ntsib kev hlub. Qhov no yog qhov project ntawm tag nrho tib neeg quavntsej: 1) Kom tus kheej, uas yog lub hom phiaj ntawm creation, thiab 2) hlub, uas yog los tuav tus tib neeg zoo. Lwm yam raws li.
Rituals / kev xyaum
Lub thaj neeb ntawm Bocco, Casanova Staffora, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] yog ib feem ntawm Roman Catholic diocese ntawm Tortona. Yog li ntawd cov kev cai rituals ua raws li cov Catholic sacraments uas yog muab los ntawm cov pov thawj ntawm lub diocese. Angela Volpini thiab xyaum ua cov tswv cuab ntawm Nova Cana nyob hauv lub Koom Txoos Catholic.
ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP
Angela ntaus nws ib feem hauv zaj xov xwm ntawm qhov rov qab tsim dua ib lub koom haum tshiab rau kev thov Vajtswv, Nova Cana, nyob rau hauv 1958. Lub hom phiaj koom siab yog cov hluas, nws cov cai thiab kev hlub rau tib neeg, thiab kev sib sau ntawm nom tswv kev xav thiab kev ntseeg ntuj. Tsis zoo li lwm 20th xyoo pua Catholic mov xws li Opus Dei, lub Nova Cana lub zog tau tended zaum ntawm sab laug ntawm txoj cai spectrum tsis yog txoj cai. Qhov no tau ua tim khawv los ntawm nws cov kev sib txuas nrog Latin American pawg ntseeg, thiab kev sib cuag nrog cov npis sov nrog kev ntseeg kev ntseeg zoo licas xws li Helder Camara thiab Oscar Romero. Angela hais tias nws tau raug caw los ntawm Latin American cov npis sov los sib tham txog cov ntsiab lus ntawm lub Vatican Council thib ob uas nws tus kheej lub zeem muag ntawm tib neeg cov peev xwm sib haum. Hauv 1960s thiab 1970s, Nova Cana nyiam cov menyuam kawm ntawv thiab cov neeg ua haujlwm sab laug, thiab raug lub txim rau cov tswvcuab hauv lub Koom Txoos ntawm kev sib txuas lus. Thaum Angela txais qhov ntawd Nova Cana thiab nws txoj kev pab tib neeg tau ua rau nom tswv loj heev, nws tseem hais tias nws tsis yog tus coj ntawm pawg ntseeg (socialism thiab communism yuav qhia meej meej rau hauv cov keeb kwm ntawm kev cai Italian). Tom qab teeb meem nrog lub Koom Txoos tias qhov no tshwm sim, Angela tau sib raug zoo rau pawg ntseeg hauv 1980s thiab tau tsim nws tus kheej los ua tus xib fwb Catholic thiab tus hais lus; ntau phau ntawv thiab ntau cov khoom tau sau txog nws thiab nws tau tshwm sim ntau zaus hauv TV. Nyob rau hauv xyoo tsis ntev los no, cov npis sov ntawm Tortona tau mus xyuas lub thaj neeb ntawm Bocco thiab nws tseem nyiam cov pilgrims.
Angela piav txog Nova Cana raws li hauv qab no:
Nova Cana muab lub impulse rau lub hnub yug ntawm thawj kauj ruam uas nws lub hom phiaj yog mus rau nqi cov nyiaj txiag cov ntsiab lus uas ua nyob rau hauv lub cheeb tsam nyob rau hauv tej yam kev mob ntawm ntev ntev marginalization. Ua tsaug rau qhov kev pom zoo ntawm tus kheej tias Nova Cana tau hno mus rau yam kev koom tes, cov tswv teb nyuab siab tau hloov mus rau cov neeg ua lag luam niaj hnub nim no. Piv txwv li cov tsiaj txhu thiab ua liaj ua teb tau tsim (Angela Volpini lub website 2016).
Nova Cana runs successful conferences, seminars, and courses, and it has enabled Angela to publish several books, with distribution in the thousands. Angela’s husband, Giovanni Prestini, a sociologist, has contributed to the setting up of co-operatives in the agricultural regions surrounding Casanova Staffora. Nova Cana ua haujlwm txhawb tus kheej hauv kev txom nyem hauv zej zos thiab yog li pab neeg paub txog lawv cov peev xwm rau kev coj noj coj ua, kev sib raug zoo, thiab kev loj hlob ntawm nom tswv. Nova Cana tej yaam num tseem tawm hauv Peru, Brazil, Qaib ntxhw, thiab South Africa.
TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES
Nova Cana has always existed at a distance from the official Catholic Church, despite the support of many priests and the visits of bishops to the shrine at Bocco. Early on, while Angela was a child, the Church was not persuaded to authenticate the apparitions, a decision which still stands. Later on, the adult Angela’s interpretation of her visions differed in some aspects to Catholic teachings as established by the Vatican. However, this does not make Nova Cana a sect, as the community has never made a complete break from the Church. All of Angela’s teachings reflect the Catholic culture into which she was born.
One major contrast between Angela’s vision and the Church’s official teaching consists in the fact that she believes we are all immaculate. This does not conform to the doctrine of the Church, in which Mary is the sole instance of immaculate conception. Angela contrasts her own vision to Church doctrine by saying that the Church emphasises God’s initiative and Jesus’ redemption, whereas she puts much more weight on human fulfilment and belief as definitive in the liberation of humanity. For her, Jesus was more a revealer of our potential than a redeemer; she is against passive views of human involvement in salvation. She says:
Qhov no tau ua kuv txoj hauj lwm, pab tib neeg ua kom muaj zog dua rau lawv tus kheej thiab lub ntiaj teb, thiab ua raws lawv lub siab nyiam uas yog lub hauv paus pib. Tej yaam num ntawm Nova Cana yog ib qho piv txwv ntawm qhov kev cai lij choj no. Tus txiv neej nyob rau hauv tib neeg yog lub peev xwm thiab xaiv. Ib tug yuav tsum pom lub peev xwm no hauv tib neeg. Cov lus no yog qhia txog tib neeg ntau tshaj txog Vajtswv. Kev rau siab ntseeg yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm txoj kev sib raug zoo nrog Vajtswv. Yog tsis muaj qhov no, tsis muaj kev ncaj ncees rau lwm tus. Lub Koom Txoos tsis hais ntau txog zaj xov no; tiam sis lub Koom Txoos qhia hais tias tus txiv neej yog ib tug neeg txhaum thiab yuav tsum muaj tus Cawm Seej, tab sis qhov tseeb yog qhov kev tsim nyog rau txoj kev cawm seej yog sab hauv. Tswv Yexus, los ntawm nws cov lus, kev ua, kev ua neej, txoj kev tuag thiab kev sawv rov los, qhia txog kev ywj siab rau peb. Txoj kev cawm seej yog qhov peb ua tiav thiab peb tus nqi.
Angela sees these ideas as central to the vision of the Second Vatican Council. Like others who followed radical interpretations of the Council, such as Catholic liberation and feminist theologians and some progressive moral theologians, Angela regards herself as a Catholic but not one that would accept the view of the Magisterium without question. She says that: “Unity is very important but not at the expense of the conscience. Unity is not conformity, but unity in diversity.”
Divergence between the hierarchy of the Church and visionaries who are often female as alternative sources of authoritative teaching is more common than perceived to be the case (see Maunder 2016). The assumption that visionaries merely restate Church teaching and thereby exist only to reinforce the status of the Vatican is not justified. This viewpoint can be derived perhaps from Bernadette Soubirous, famous in the Church as the model visionary who said that Mary referred to herself as “the Immaculate Conception” just four years after Pius IX declared this as dogma. She is the most well-known seer, perhaps, but not the normal case.
Lub Koom Txoos pom kev pom zoo, tab sis xav tau los ntawm devotees ntawm apparitions, yog qhov zam tsis yog txoj cai. Lub sijhawm xyoo pua nees nkaum teb chaws Europe, tsuas yog plaub lub ntsiab lus (ntawm Fátima [Portugal, visions nyob 1917], Beauraing, Banneux [ob qho Belgians, 1932-1933], thiab Amsterdam [Lub Netherlands, 1945-1949]) raws li tau pom zoo los ntawm tus diocesan npiv sov . Lwm tus tau txais kev cai lij choj ntawm cov neeg ua hauj lwm diocesan tiam sis tsis muaj kev paub txog tus kheej ntawm lawv tus kheej: piv txwv muaj xws li cov vaj tse German hauv Heede (1937-1940), Marienfried (1946) thiab Heroldsbach (1949-1952). Muaj ntau tus neeg tau txais kev sib haum xeeb uas lub Koom Txoos lees txais lub neej ntawm lub thaj neeb thiab tau txais kev txhawb pab, xws li kev foom koob hmoov ntawm lub tuam tsev thaj chaw thiab kev pov thawj ntawm cov pov thawj kom ua kev zoo siab rau pawg Qhov no yog rooj plaub hauv Casanova Staffora. Lwm yam piv txwv ntawm kev sib cav xws li San Sebastian de Garabandal (Spain, 1961-1965), San Damiano (Ltalis, 1964-1981) thiab Medjugorje (Bosnia-Herceovina, 1981-hnub).
Thaum kawg, thaum Angela Volpini ntsib cov khoom pom los ntawm ntau phav phav pilgrims nyob rau hauv 1940s thiab 1950s, qhov no yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws ntuj thiab qub nyob rau hauv lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub sij hawm. Tus me nyuam pom tau nkag siab nyob rau hauv Catholicism raws li enjoying tshwj xeeb los ntawm Vajtswv txoj kev nyiam vim hais tias ntawm lawv innocence, ib saib rov qab los ntawm Cardinal Ratzinger, tom qab Pope Benedict XVI, nyob rau hauv Cov lus ntawm Fatima (Bertone thiab Ratzinger 2000). Txawm li ntawd los, kuv tsis ntev los no, Peb cov pojniam ntawm lub teb chaws: Apparitions ntawm Mary nyob rau hauv 20th Century Catholic Europe nug seb puas yog muab tus me nyuam seers rau hauv qhov kev ceeb toom ntawm pej xeem cov xim yuav raug xam raws li qhov tau txais kev pom zoo ntxiv txog kev txhawj xeeb ntawm kev tiv thaiv menyuam yaus. Gilles Bouhours ntawm Espis nyob rau Fabkis (qhov pom kev pom tshwm rau ib pawg ntawm cov menyuam ntawm 1946 thiab 1950) tsuas yog ob xyoos xwb thaum nws pom ib qho kev pom kev. Tsis tas li ntawd, yog li ntawd, cov neeg tsis pom kev zoo tshaj plaws tom qab 1980s thaum ntxov (thaum Medjugorje cov me nyuam pib muaj qhov yog toog) tau cov neeg laus. Lub rooj txhawb siab ntawm lub siab ntseeg vim kev pom zoo rau cov menyuam yaus nyob deb nroog thaum lub sijhawm tsiaj txhu [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tau ua qauv txheem thoob teb chaws Europe thoob plaws ib nrab xyoo, tiam sis qhov tshwm sim no ploj tam sim no.
Image # 1: Duab ntawm Angela Volpini pe hawm ua ib tug me nyuam yaus.
Image # 2: Duab ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm Bocco.
Image # 3: Duab ntawm Angela Volpini herding nyuj li ib tug ntxhais hluas.
TXOJ KEV *
* Quotes nyob rau hauv cov ntawv nyeem ntawm Angela Volpini uas yog unreferenced yog los ntawm kev sib tham thaum kuv ua haujlwm hauv Casanova Staffora, Kaum Hlis 28 - 31 2015.
Angela Volpini’s website. 2016. Accessed from http://www.angelavolpini.it nyob rau 5 Kaum Ib Hlis 2016. Translations by Laura Casimo.
Bertone, Tarcisio thiab Ratzinger, Yauxej. 2000. Cov lus ntawm Fatima. Vatican City: Koom Txoos rau Lus Qhuab Qhia ntawm Kev Ntseeg. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/cfaith/documents/rc_con_cfaith_doc_20000626_message-fatima_en.html nyob rau 5 Kaum Ib Hlis 2016.
Ginsborg, Paul. 1990. Keeb Kwm Ntawm Tuam Tsev Ltalis: Lub Zej Zog thiab Kev 1943-1988. London: Penguin.
Maunder, Chris. 2016. Peb cov pojniam ntawm lub Tebchaws: Qhov chaw ntawm Mary nyob hauv 20th-Century Catholic Europe. Oxford thiab New York: Oxford University Press.
Nova Cana’s website. 2016. Accessed from http://www.novacana.it/index.htm nyob rau 5 Kaum Ib Hlis 2016.
Sudati, Ferdinando. 2004. Dove Posarono nyob rau hauv Piedi: Le Apparizioni Mariane di Casanove Staffora (1947-1956). Thib Peb. Barzago: Marna Spiritualità.
Volpini, Angela. 2003. La Madonna ntaus ib NoiCov. Trento: Reverdito Edizioni.
Thawj coj, Sarah J., ed. 2007. Mary: Tus Txiaj Ntsig Tag Nrho. London thiab New York: Txuas ntxiv.
Graef, Hilda thiab Thompson, Thomas A. 2009. Niam Mab Liab: Lub Keeb Kwm ntawm Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab Kev Ua Siab, Cov Ntawv Tshiab. Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria.
Rahner, Karl. 1974. Maivliag, Niam tus tswv. Wheathampstead: Anthony Clarke.
Ua tsaug rau Angela Volpini rau kev pom zoo los xam phaj los ntawm tus sau ntawm Casanova Staffora nyob rau lub Kaum Hlis 2015, rau Maria Grazia Prestini rau cov lus txhais ntawm cov kev xam phaj no, thiab mus rau Nova Cana community for providing excellent hospitality. Thank you also to Laura Casimo for translating passages from Angela Volpini’s website.
10 Kaum ib hlis 2016