Catherine Wessinger

Ceg Davidian (1981-2006)

BRANCH DAVIDIAN TIMELINE [Saib qhov profile txuas ntxiv no)

1981 Vernon Howell (hnub nyoog 22) tuaj txog ntawm Mount Carmel Center nyob sab nrauv ntawm Waco, Texas.

1984 Vernon Howell tau sib yuav Rachel Jones (hnub nyoog 14 xyoos), tus ntxhais ntawm ceg ntev Davidians Perry thiab Mary Belle Jones.

1984 Lois Roden tau xa ib tsab ntawv caw cov ceg ntoo David thoob plaws lub tebchaws tuaj rau Mount Carmel rau Kev Hla Dhau thiab hnov ​​Vernon Howell muab kev kawm Vajlugkub.

Xyoo 1984 Kev Ua Kevcai Hla Dhau ntawm ceg Davidians tau muab faib ua ke ntawm cov neeg uas tau mloog Vernon Howell cov kev tshawb fawb hauv phau Vajlugkub thiab cov neeg uas tuaj koom nrog George Roden.

Xyoo 1984 Vim yog George Roden qhov kev ua phem, cov tub ntxhais kawm ntawm ceg ntoo David tom qab Vernon Howell tawm Mount Carmel mus nyob hauv Waco.

1985 Vernon thiab Rachel Howell tau mus xyuas cov neeg Ixayees, qhov chaw nws tau txais nws txoj kev hu xovtooj. Qhov no yog keeb kwm ntawm nws tus kheej li David Koresh.

1985 David Koresh thiab ceg Davidians nyob ntawm ib lub chaw pw hav zoov uas lawv tsim nyob hauv hav zoov ze Palestine, Texas.

Xyoo 1985 Koresh tau mus rau California thiab Hawaii mus rau proselytize. Nws txhawb nws pab pawg thiab suab paj nruag hauv Los Angeles.

1986 Koresh thiab Clive Doyle tau mus xyuas Australia kom tshaj tawm Koresh cov lus. Koresh tom qab ntawd rov qab mus rau Australia ob zaug ntxiv thiab tau txais kev hloov siab los ntseeg.

1986 Lois Roden tuag thiab George Roden tau tswj hwm Mount Carmel.

1986 Koresh pib coj tus poj niam ntxiv (extralegal) nrog rau leej twg kom muaj menyuam kom ua tiav qhov nws tau qhia yog phau Vaj Lug Kub Npaiv Npaum.

1987 George Roden thiab Koresh thiab ib pawg ntawm nws cov thwjtim tau koom nrog kev sib ntaus sib tua ntawm Mt. Carmel; cov neeg koom raug ntes.

1988 Qhov kev sim siab ntawm Vernon Howell (David Koresh) thiab nws cov txiv neej tau ua rau muaj kev txiav txim siab ntawm cov txiv neej thiab pawg neeg txiav txim txiav txim rau Howell. Txhua tus raug tso tawm hauv tsev kaw neeg.

Xyoo 1988 Hauv qhov xwm txheej tsis sib xws, George Roden raug kaw rau hauv ib lub sijhawm. Nws kuj tseem raug txwv tsis pub rov qab mus rau Mount Carmel vim qhov rov ua haujlwm ntawm qhov kev txwv qub uas tau raug tshem tawm thaum xub thawj los ntawm Lois Roden.

1988 Cov ceg ntoo Daviv rov qab los rau Mount Carmel thiab pib kho vaj tse.

1988 Steve Schneider tau ua nws thawj zaug mus rau Tebchaws Askiv los nthuav qhia Koresh cov lus rau Adventists. Koresh tau taug qab los ntawm kev mus xyuas tebchaws Askiv kom ua raws li txoj cai. Ntau tus neeg Askiv hloov siab lees txim tau txais.

Xyoo 1989 Koresh tau pib qhia qhov "Tshiab Teeb" tshwm sim tias txhua tus poj niam (nrog rau cov poj niam uas twb tau yuav lawm) hauv zej zog yog nws cov poj niam, thiab tag nrho cov txiv neej uas tsis yog nws tus kheej yuav tsum tau ua poj niam.

1989 Marc Breault thiab nws tus poj niam, Elizabeth Baranyai, tawm ntawm Mount Carmel, tsiv mus rau Australia, thiab tau pib ib qho kev sib tw kom tsis lees paub Koresh thiab nws cov lus qhia.

1990 Vernon Howell tau hloov nws lub npe mus rau David Koresh.

Xyoo 1990 Koresh tau pib muaj ntau qhov kev lag luam uas cuam tshuam nrog kev yuav thiab muag ntawm caj npab thiab lwm yam khoom siv ntawm phom qhia.

1991 David Jewell, uas tsis yog ceg Davidian txiv ntawm Kiri Jewell, hnub nyoog kaum, tau txais kev saib xyuas ib ntus ntawm Kiri thaum nws tuaj xyuas nws hauv Michigan.

Xyoo 1992 Martin King ntawm Australia Ib Txoj Haujlwm Tam Sim No taug kev nrog cov neeg ua haujlwm hauv lub koob yees duab mus rau Mount Carmel los ua yeeb yaj kiab Koresh muab kev kawm Vajlugkub thiab xam phaj Koresh rau zaj dab neeg tawm hauv Australian TV.

Xyoo 1992 Marc Breault tau ua tim khawv txog Koresh txoj kev sib deev nrog cov ntxhais tsis tau muaj hnub nyoog hauv lub rooj sib hais saib xyuas hauv Michigan. Qhov tshwm sim yog tias leej niam, ib tug ceg ceg Davidian, poob kev saib xyuas.

1992 Koresh tau tshawb xyuas los ntawm Texas Cov Kev Tiv Thaiv Me Nyuam Me, tab sis rooj plaub raug kaw vim tsis muaj pov thawj.

1992 Cov ceg David tau tsiv mus rau hauv lub tsev loj ntawm Mount Carmel uas lawv tau pib tsim xyoo 1991, rhuav tshem cov tsev neeg.

Xyoo 1992 Muaj coob tus ceg Daviv tuaj rau Mount Carmel tuaj ua kevcai Hla Dhau. Cov lus iab liam ntawm pab pawg neeg tua tus kheej ua pov thawj tsis muaj tseeb.

1992 (Liab) Cov Cwj Pwm David tau paub tias Mount Carmel tau raug soj ntsuam los ntawm cov txiv neej nyob hauv ib lub tsev hla txoj kev thiab cov nyoob hoom qav taub nquag ya saum taub hau.

1993 (Lub Ob Hlis 28) Txog 9:45 teev sawv ntxov cov neeg sawv cev nrog Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Dej Cawv, Luam Yeeb, thiab Phom phom tau ua tub rog tawm tsam ntawm qhov chaw nyob ntawm Mount Carmel kom xa daim ntawv tso cai, thiab kev tua tau tshwm sim. Rau Ceg Davidians thiab plaub tus neeg sawv cev ATF tuag.

1993 (Lub Peb Hlis 1) FBI cov neeg sawv cev tau tswj hwm Mount Carmel thiab saib xyuas kev tawm tsam. Tank raug coj mus rau lub tsev nyob rau hnub tom qab.

1993 (Lub Plaub Hlis 19) Lub tank thiab CS-gas quab yuam ntawm qhov chaw nyob los ntawm FBI Pab Pawg Pabcuam Kev Cuam Tshuam pib thaum 6:00 teev sawv ntxov Hauv kev sib cav uas tau tshwm sim, xya caum-rau ceg Davidians tuag.

Xyoo 1994 Ib qho kev sim ua txhaum cai raug kaw los sim cov nqi tawm tsam kaum ib ntawm ceg ntoo Davidian muaj sia nyob.

1995 Crape myrtle ntoo tau cog rau ntawm Mount Carmel rau txhua ceg Davidian uas tuag xyoo 1993.

1999 Clive Doyle thiab nws niam Edna Doyle tau tsiv rov qab rau Mount Carmel. Ib lub tsev teev ntuj tshiab thiab cov qhua lub chaw tau tsim tsa.

1999 Tus Kws Lij Choj General Janet Reno tau tsa tus qub Senator John C. Danforth ua Tus Kws Pab Tswv Yim Tshwj Xeeb los tshawb xyuas seb qhov kev ua ntawm FBI cov neeg ua haujlwm ua rau muaj neeg tuag thaum lub Plaub Hlis 19.

2000 Tus Kws Pab Tswv Yim Tshwj Xeeb tau ua "FLIR reenactment" ntawm Fort Hood los txiav txim siab tias flashes ntes ntawm Forward Looking Infrared zaj duab xis thaum lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993 yog rab phom tsis siv neeg coj mus rau ceg ntoo David.

2000 Kev foob txhaum cai tuag raug coj los tawm tsam tsoomfwv los ntawm cov txheeb ze ntawm ceg ntoo David thiab cov neeg tuag ceg Davidian uas tau los rau hauv tsev hais plaub hauv tsoomfwv. Cov ntaub ntawv raug tshem tawm.

2000 Daim Ntawv Qhia Danforth, uas xaus lus tias kev ua ntawm FBI cov neeg ua haujlwm tsis ua rau cov ceg Davidians tuag rau lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993, tau luam tawm.

2000 Raws li qhov tshwm sim ntawm Lub Tsev Hais Plaub Siab Siab, ob peb ceg Davidians tau txo lawv cov kab lus.

2000 (Lub Plaub Hlis 19) Kev ua kev nco txog thawj zaug tau muaj nyob hauv lub tsev teev ntuj tshiab.

2006 Clive Doyle tawm Mount Carmel; Tus qhua Center raug kaw. Charles Pace, tus yaj saub ntawm pawg neeg sib tw uas tsis lees paub David Koresh ua tus yaj saub thiab tus Mexiyas, tau tswj hwm Mount Carmel.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Xyoo 1981, thaum 22-xyoo-laus Vernon Howell, uas xyoo 1990 tau hloov nws lub npe mus rau David Koresh (1959-1993), tuaj txog ntawm Mount. Carmel Center nyob sab nraud ntawm Waco, Texas, ceg Davidian Xya-hnub Adventist txav tau nyob rau hauv 26 xyoo. Nws tau tsim los ntawm Ben Roden (1902-1978) hauv 1955, thiab, xyoo 1981, kev txav mus los ntawm nws tus poj niam. Lois Roden (1905-1986). Lub ceg Davidian lub zog tau sib cais los ntawm ib pawg ua ntej hauv Waco, Davidian Xya-hnub Adventists coj los ntawm Victor T. Houteff (1885-1955). Ob qho kev txav mus los yog kev tawm tsam los ntawm Lub Koom Txoos Xya Hnub Adventist, thiab yog li ntawd Davidians thiab ceg Davidians tau saib cov ntawv sau ntawm Ellen G. White (1827-1915), tus yaj saub Xya-hnub Adventist, ua pov thawj. Raws li tus qauv ntawm Ellen G. White, ob tug Davidians thiab ceg Davidians saib lawv cov thawj coj uas tau piav qhia txog phau Vajlugkub tej lus faj lem uas lawv pom tau hais tias yog cov yaj saub.

Lois Roden cov xwm txheej ua tus yaj saub Davidian ceg tawv tau tawm tsam los ntawm nws tus tub ua phem, George Roden (1938-1998); yog li ntawd, thaum Vernon Howell tau ua ib qho txuj ci rau kev kawm thiab txhais cov nqe lus hauv phau Vajlugkub, nws tau pib txhawb nws ua nws tus qub txeeg qub teg. Cov ceg David uas nyob ib ncig ntawm North America tau raug caw tuaj rau Mount Carmel ua Kevcai Hla Dhau xyoo 1984 kom hnov ​​Howell muab kev kawm Vajlugkub. Qhov no tau qhia txog kev hloov pauv ntawm kev ntseeg siab ntawm qee tus ceg ntoo ntev ntev Davidians nyob ntawm Mount Carmel mus rau Vernon Howell. Lawv suav tias Lois Roden tau ploj “Tus Ntsuj Plig ntawm Kev Qhia Txog Kev Cia Siab” (Pitts 2009).

Tom qab xyoo 1984, Howell thiab nws cov thwjtim tau tawm ntawm Mount Carmel vim yog George Roden qhov kev ua phem. Lawv nyob hauv Waco ib lub sij hawm, tom qab ntawd nyob hauv ib qho chaw pw hav zoov hauv Mexia, Texas, thiab tom qab ntawd tau nyob hauv ib lub chaw pw hav zoov uas lawv tau tsim hauv cov ntoo piney ze Palestine, Texas (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012: 58-63; Martin 2009: 33- 41; Haldeman 2007:33–38).

Xyoo 1985, Howell thiab nws tus poj niam Rachel tau mus xyuas cov neeg Ixayees qhov chaw Howell tau muaj kev paub uas qhia tias nws yog Khetos rau Hnub Kawg. Qhov no qhia txog qhov tshwm sim ntawm nws tus kheej li David Koresh (Tabor 2005). Tom qab lawv rov qab los rau Texas, lawv tus tub Cyrus yug. Cov ceg David tau sau tseg tias nws qhia nrog kev ntseeg siab thiab muaj cai ntau dua tom qab nws rov qab los ntawm cov neeg Ixayees.

Thaum cov zej zog nyob ntawm Palestine camp, muaj coob tus tswvcuab tau mus ua haujlwm hauv Texas, California, thiab Hawaii. David Koresh tau mus rau California, Hawaii, thiab Australia mus rau proselytize. Hauv Los Angeles, nws txhawb nqa nws pawg pob zeb; nws txoj kev ntseeg tau qhia nyob rau hauv cov nkauj uas nws sau thiab hu.

Xyoo 1986, Koresh tau qhia rau nws cov thwjtim tias Vajtswv xav kom nws coj poj niam ntxiv nrog rau leej twg kom muaj menyuam uas yuav ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv Kev Txiav Txim yav tom ntej. Hauv Texas thaum lub sijhawm ntawd, kaum plaub yog lub hnub nyoog uas nws raug cai rau ib tug ntxhais mus yuav nrog niam txiv tso cai. Koresh thawj tus poj niam extralegal yog kaum plaub, tab sis tus thib ob, Michele Jones, tus viv ncaus ntawm nws tus poj niam Rachel, yog kaum ob thaum nws thawj zaug sib deev nrog nws (Thibodeau nrog Whiteson 1999: 109, 114).

Xyoo 1987, George Roden tau khawb lub hleb ntawm Anna Hughes, uas tau faus rau hauv toj ntxas ntawm Mount Carmel. Roden sib twKoresh mus rau qhov kev sib tw kom pom tias leej twg tuaj yeem tsa nws sawv hauv qhov tuag rov qab los. Koresh tsis kam lees thiab tshaj tawm qhov kev tsis sib haum xeeb rau McLennan County Tub Ceev Xwm Lub Tsev Haujlwm. Cov neeg sawv cev tsis kam mus rau Mount Carmel yam tsis muaj pov thawj tias lub cev tau raug tshem tawm ntawm nws qhov ntxa, yog li Koresh thiab nws cov txiv neej qee tus tau yuav riam phom tiv thaiv thiab mus rau Mount Carmel sim thaij duab lub cev yam tsis tau kuaj pom los ntawm Roden. Thaum lawv nyob ntawd, Roden tau tua lawv, thiab Koresh tau tua rov qab. Tub ceev xwm cov thawj coj tuaj txog ntes Koresh thiab nws cov txiv neej (Doyle nrog Wessinger thiab Wittmer 2012: 65-66; Haldeman 2007: 55-59).

Qhov kev sim siab hauv 1988 tau ua rau raug txim ntawm ceg Davidian cov txiv neej, tab sis pawg neeg txiav txim tsis tuaj yeem txiav txim siab seb Howell (Koresh) puas tau ua txhaum ntawm kev sim tua neeg. Tag nrho lawv mus dawb. George Roden raug kaw hauv tsev lojcuj vim sau ntawv hem rau tus kws txiav txim plaub ntug, thiab cov ceg ntoo David tau muaj kev txwv tsis pub Roden los ntawm Mount Carmel cov cuab yeej rov ua haujlwm. Cov ceg ntoo Daviv rov qab los rau Mount Carmel mus nyob, thiab ntxuav cov tsev me me uas lawv yuav nyob kom txog thaum xyoo 1992 thaum lub tsev loj tiav lawm. Lawv nrhiav tau cov cuab yeej los ua cov tshuaj methamphetamine hauv ib lub tsev, uas Koresh tig mus rau Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Tub Ceev Xwm (Haldeman 2007: 59-63).

Xyoo 1988, Steve Schneider, ib tug ntawm Koresh cov thwj tim, tau mus rau Askiv los nthuav qhia kev kawm Vajlugkub txog Koresh cov lus rau Adventists. Koresh kuj tau mus xyuas tebchaws Askiv los nthuav qhia nws cov lus. Ntau tus neeg Askiv hloov siab los ntseeg tau tau txais uas thaum kawg yuav tsiv mus rau Mount Carmel.

Xyoo 1989, Koresh tau qhia tias tag nrho cov poj niam hauv zej zog yog nws cov poj niam, thiab txhua tus txiv neej tsuas yog nws tus kheej yuav tsum tau ua poj niam (Tabor thiab Gallagher 1995: 68-76). Muaj coob tus ntawm nws cov menyuam pib yug los. Marc Breault thiab nws tus poj niam Elizabeth Baranyai tau tawm ntawm pab pawg thiab tsiv mus rau Australia. Breault tau ua haujlwm los yaum Australian ceg ntoo David tias Koresh cov lus qhia tsis tseeb. Breault tau hu rau Asmeskas cov tub ceev xwm thiab xov xwm hauv Texas thiab Australia txog Koresh cov dej num (Tabor and Gallagher 1995:80-93).

Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis, 1990, Koresh tau qhia rau Henry McMahon, tus neeg muag phom muaj ntawv tso cai, uas tau qhia Koresh txog phom thiab kev lag luam phom (Thibodeau thiab Whiteson 1999: 127). David Koresh thiab qee tus ntawm nws cov txiv neej tau nce thiab muag phom thiab lwm yam khoom siv ntawm phom qhia: (1) npaj rau kev tiv thaiv tus kheej hauv kev ua phem uas Koresh tau kwv yees yuav tshwm sim raws li ib feem ntawm Endtime txheej xwm thiab (2) kom tau nyiaj rau txhawb cov tswv cuab ntawm zej zog.

Xyoo 1992, hauv Michigan Breault tau ua tim khawv txog Koresh txoj kev sib deev nrog cov ntxhais hluas hauv lub rooj sib hais txog kev saib xyuas ntawm Kiri Jewell uas tau nyob nrog nws niam, Sherri Jewell, ntawm Mount Carmel. Kiri txiv tsis yog ceg David. Kiri tau tshaj tawm tias Koresh tau sib deev nrog nws thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum xyoo hauv chav tsev motel uas nws niam tau tso tseg. Sherri Jewell poob kev saib xyuas thiab rov qab mus rau Mount Carmel. Kiri tsis kam them nqi, tab sis nws txiv tau foob ib qho kev tsis txaus siab nrog Texas Child Protective Services. David Koresh tau raug tshawb xyuas tab sis rooj plaub raug kaw vim tsis muaj pov thawj (Tabor thiab Gallagher 1993: 85-86; Kiri Jewell cov lus pov thawj thiab cov lus sau nyob rau hauv Kev Sib Tham Sib Tham 1995: 1: 147-55).

Xyoo 1992, cov ceg David uas nyob ib ncig ntawm North America thiab lwm lub tebchaws tau mus rau Mount Carmel los ua kevcai Hla Dhau hauv lub tebchaws. lub tsev loj los ntawm kev mloog Koresh cov kev kawm Vajlugkub. Txog lub sijhawm no, cov tsev me me tau raug rhuav tshem. Breault thiab lwm yam qub ceg Davidians liam rau Sheriff's Department hais tias ceg Davidians yuav ua phem pab pawg neeg tua tus kheej thaum lub sij hawm Passover lub lim tiam, tab sis tsis muaj dab tsi tshwm sim (Doyle nrog Wessinger thiab Wittmer 2012: 71-72).

Thaum lig xyoo 1992, cov ceg ntoo David tau paub tias lawv tau nyob hauv kev soj ntsuam los ntawm lub dav hlau dav hlau dav hlau thiab cov txiv neej uas tau xauj tsev hla Ob Chav EE Ranch Road los ntawm Mount Carmel. Nws pom tseeb rau cov ceg ntoo David tias ob tug txiv neej los ntawm lub tsev uas tuaj rau Mount Carmel ntawm ntau yam pretexts tau tshuaj xyuas lawv cov khoom. Muaj ib zaug nyob rau xyoo 1993, ob tug txiv neej tuaj nrog ob rab phom AR-15 semi-automatic, tau qhia rau Koresh, thiab nrog nws mus tom qab lub tsev loj los tua riam phom (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:115-19; Haldeman 2007: 73-74; ATF memo reprinted in Hardy with Kimball 2001: 326). Tsis paub txog cov ceg David thaum lub sijhawm ntawd, cov txiv neej tau nrog Lub Tsev Haujlwm Saib Xyuas Dej Cawv, Luam Yeeb, thiab Phom phom. Ib tug ntawm lawv, Robert Rodriguez, tuaj rau Mount Carmel rau kev kawm Vajlugkub nrog Koresh nyob rau hauv lub tsev. Thaum lwm tus neeg sawv cev ATF xam phaj Henry McMahon, tus neeg muag phom uas muaj ntawv tso cai nrog Koresh ua lag luam, nws hu Koresh thaum ATF cov neeg sawv cev nyob. Los ntawm McMahon, Koresh txuas ntxiv kev caw rau ATF cov neeg sawv cev tuaj rau Mount Carmel thiab tshuaj xyuas nws cov riam phom; cov neeg sawv cev tau rub tawm qhov kev caw thiab tsis kam tham nrog Koresh hauv xov tooj (Henry McMahon zaj lus tim khawv hauv Kev Sib Tham Sib Tham 1995: 1: 162-63).

ATF cov neeg sawv cev tau txais ntawv tso cai los tshawb xyuas Mount Carmel qhov chaw nyob thiab ntes Koresh. Lawv qhov kev iab liam yog tias cov ceg Davidians tau hloov pauv raug cai yuav AR-15 phom ib nrab tsis siv neeg rau M-16 riam phom tsis siv neeg yam tsis tau them tus nqi thiab sau cov ntaub ntawv xav tau kom tau txais daim ntawv tso cai. Txij li thaum cov neeg sawv cev ATF tsis pom muaj pov thawj uas txhawb nqa qhov kev thov no, daim ntawv pov thawj tsim los kom tau txais kev pom zoo ntawm daim ntawv tso cai los ntawm tus kws txiav txim plaub ntug tau sau nrog cov lus hais txog kev coj noj coj ua thiab kev tsim txom menyuam yaus (Tabor thiab Gallagher 1995: 100-03). Kev tsim txom menyuam yaus tsis nyob hauv ATF txoj cai. Cov neeg sawv cev ntawm ATF tau npaj los ua qhov "tsis muaj khob" "nrawm nkag" rau hauv qhov chaw nyob. Txhawm rau kom tau txais kev cob qhia los ntawm Tub Rog Tshwj Xeeb ntawm Fort Hood hauv Killeen, Texas, thiab kev txhawb nqa los ntawm National Guard helicopters thiab pilots, ATF cov neeg ua haujlwm dag ntxias tias cov ceg Davidians tau ua haujlwm ib lub chaw kuaj tshuaj methamphetamine (Lub Tsev Cov Neeg Sawv Cev 1996: 30-55).

Kev tawm tsam ATF tau ua thaum sawv ntxov Lub Ob Hlis 28, 1993, txawm tias Robert Rodriguez ceeb toom cov thawj coj tias
Koresh tau kawm tias kev tawm tsam yuav tshwm sim. ATF cov neeg ua haujlwm tuaj txog hauv cov tsheb thauj neeg, thiab cua daj cua dub rau pem hauv ntej thaum lwm pab pawg neeg ua haujlwm tsoo lub qhov rais hauv pem teb thib ob, raug rho tawm haujlwm thiab cuam tshuam cov grenades sab hauv, ua ntej nkag mus (saib cov duab hauv Gifford, Gazecki, thiab McNulty 1997). Cov tub rog ATF tseem nyob hauv National Guard helicopters.

Kev tawm tsam tshwm sim uas plaub tus neeg sawv cev ATF raug tua thiab nees nkaum tus neeg raug mob, qee qhov hnyav; David Koresh tau txais ib qho mob hnyav rau nws sab thiab lwm qhov txhab ntawm nws lub dab teg; Perry Jones (64, Neeg Asmeskas), Koresh txiv yawg, tau txais lub qhov txhab tuag; plaub lwm ceg Daviv raug tua thiab ob peb tug raug mob. Txog 5:00 teev tsaus ntuj hnub ntawd Michael Schroeder (29, Neeg Asmeskas), lwm ceg Davidian, thiab ib tug phooj ywg tau sim taug kev rov qab mus rau Mount Carmel los ntawm qab lub tsev. Schroeder tab tom sim rov qab mus rau nws tus poj niam, tus menyuam mos, thiab peb tus menyuam xeeb ntxwv ntawm Mount Carmel. Nws raug tua thiab tua los ntawm ATF cov neeg sawv cev nyob rau ntawm lub tsev tom qab Mount Carmel. Nws lub cev nyob qhov twg nws poob rau plaub hnub (FBI 1993a). Ntawm rau tus ceg ntoo David uas tuag thaum Lub Ob Hlis 28, plaub yog neeg Amelikas, ib tug yog Askiv, thiab ib tug yog Australian. Ib tug, Jaydean Wendel (34, Asmeskas), yog leej niam ntawm plaub tus menyuam.

Cov neeg sawv cev FBI tau coj tus thawj coj ntawm Mount Carmel thaum Lub Peb Hlis 1. Lawv tau coj cov tso tsheb hlau luam thaum Lub Peb Hlis 2 tom qab Koresh tau thim rov qab rau qhov kev pom zoo los tawm thiab raug coj mus kaw. Txij Lub Ob Hlis 28 txog Lub Peb Hlis 5, nees nkaum ib tus menyuam raug xa tawm los ntawm lawv niam lawv txiv. Txij lub Peb Hlis 2 txog Lub Peb Hlis 23 cov neeg laus tuaj tawm ntawm ntau lub sijhawm, qee zaum hu nkauj, qee zaum hauv pab pawg (FBI 1993a). Thaum twg cov neeg laus tawm los, FBI pab neeg tawm tsam hu ua Pab Pawg Pabcuam Kev Cuam Tshuam rau txim rau cov ceg ceg David uas tseem tshuav ntau txoj hauv kev: txiav tawm hluav taws xob; crushing thiab tshem lawv cov tsheb nrog tso tsheb hlau luam; blasting high-decibel suab rau lawv (FBI 1993a; Tabor 1994). Lub teeb ci ntsa iab taw qhia ntawm qhov chaw nyob thaum hmo ntuj muaj lub hom phiaj ntawm kev tsis pom SOS cov cim qhia tias ceg ntoo Davidans thawj zaug tshwm sim rau lub Peb Hlis 12 (FBI 1993a). Lub teeb kuj yog lwm txoj hauv kev los cuam tshuam cov ceg ntoo David txoj kev pw tsaug zog.

Koresh thiab Steve Schneider, uas tau ua feem ntau ntawm kev sib tham, tau hais tias cov ceg ntoo David yuav tawm los tom qab yim hnub ua Kevcai Hla Dhau. Koresh tau kwv yees rau cov ceg ntoo David tias lawv yuav raug tua thiab tua neeg lossis "txhais" rau Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej thaum nyob ua Kev Cai Hla Dhau (Craddock 1993). Thaum tsis muaj kev tawm tsam rau lub lim tiam ntawd, thaum lub Plaub Hlis 14, hnub tom qab xaus Kev Hla Dhau, Koresh tham nrog nws tus kws lij choj hauv xov tooj thiab nyeem ib tsab ntawv uas nws tau tsim nws txoj kev tawm mus. Nws yuav sau ib phau ntawv me me (saib Qhia Tshwm 10:1-11) muab nws cov lus hais txog Kev Tshwm Sim Xyaum, thiab tom qab ntawv tau muab rau Drs. James Tabor thiab J. Phillip Arnold, ob tug kws tshawb fawb hauv phau Vajlugkub uas tau sib tham nrog cov ceg ntoo David hauv kev sib tham hauv xov tooj cua thaum lub Plaub Hlis 1, nws thiab lwm ceg ceg David yuav tawm los. Koresh tus kws lij choj tau tshaj tawm txoj kev npaj rau FBI cov neeg sawv cev. Tom qab hnub ntawd, Koresh tsab ntawv raug xa mus rau FBI nrog rau Koresh daim ntawv cog lus kom tuav nws tus kws lij choj los sawv cev rau nws (FBI 1993a). Thaum Lub Plaub Hlis 16 Koresh tau tshaj tawm rau tus neeg sib tham hais tias nws tau sau nws cov lus hais txog Thawj Foob, thiab cov ceg ntoo David tau pib thov cov khoom siv ua cov lus, uas tau xa rau lub Plaub Hlis 18 (Wessinger 2000: 77, 105; FBI 1993a).

Lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993, thaum 6:00 teev sawv ntxov lub tank thiab CS roj foob tau ua los ntawm FBI cov neeg sawv cev ntawm qhov chaw nyob. Lub CS, raug tshem tawm hauv methylene chloride, tau muab tso rau hauv lub nozzles ntawm lub tank 'booms thiab xa los ntawm ferret rounds uas raug rho tawm haujlwm rau hauv lub tsev. CS gas burns ntawm daim tawv nqaij thiab cov mucous daim nyias nyias, uas yuav ua rau mob bronchial pneumonia, ntuav thiab asphyxiation. CS (chlorobenzylidene malonitrile) hloov mus rau hauv cyanide thaum sib cuag nrog dej, uas nyob rau hauv lub cev ua rau mob, edema thiab to ntawm cov kua los ntawm lub capillaries. CS kuj hloov mus rau cyanide thaum nws hlawv. CS roj yog npaj rau kev siv sab nraum zoov los tswj cov neeg coob coob, thiab tsis pom zoo siv rau hauv qhov chaw kaw (Hardy with Kimball 2001: 264-66, 290; House of Representatives 1996: 68-75).

Tanks tau tsav los ntawm thiab rhuav tshem qhov chaw ntawm lub tsev. Ib lub tank tsav los ntawm lub hauv ntej ntawm lub tsev mus rau lub qhov rooj qhib ntawm lub pob zeb vault nyob rau ntawm lub hauv paus ntawm lub hauv paus pej thuam, qhov chaw uas cov me nyuam yaus thiab lawv niam tau txais chaw nyob. Lub tank gassed thaj tsam ntawm 11:31 txog 11:55 teev sawv ntxov (Hardy nrog Kimball 2001: 275-76, 285). Thaum 12:07 teev tsaus ntuj thawj qhov hluav taws kub tau pom nyob rau hauv lub qhov rais thib ob hauv pem teb, thiab hluav taws kub hnyiab hauv lub tsev sai sai. Cuaj tus neeg dim, raug kev kub nyhiab rau nruab nrab. Xya caum-rau ceg Daviv ntawm txhua lub hnub nyoog tuag.

Nees nkaum ob tug me nyuam los ntawm cov me nyuam mus txog rau hnub nyoog 13 tuag nyob rau hauv lub vault. Tus lej no suav nrog ob tus menyuam mos uas yug thaum lub sijhawm CS foob pob hluav taws thiab hluav taws. Kaum plaub, suav nrog cov menyuam mos uas raug mob, yog David Koresh cov menyuam yaus. Xya tus tub hluas, hnub nyoog 14-19, tuag. Ntawm cov neeg laus uas tuag, 23 yog neeg Amelikas; ib tug yog Australian; 20 yog cov neeg Askiv, feem ntau nrog Jamaican keeb kwm; ib tug yog Canadian, ib tug yog Israeli, thiab ib tug yog New Zealander. Ib tug ntawm cov poj niam uas dim qhov hluav taws kub, Ruth Riddle (31, Canadian), muaj nyob rau hauv nws lub hnab tshos ib tug floppy disk uas Koresh txoj kev txhais ntawm Thawj Foob ntawm Phau Ntawv Qhia Tshwmsim tau txais kev cawmdim (tso tawm nyob rau hauv Tabor thiab Gallagher 1995: 191- 203).

Ua ntej qhov kev tawm tsam, FBI cov neeg sawv cev tau hais los ntawm ceg ntoo Davidian Janet Kendrick tias raws li Xwm Txheej Taug Kev 9: 6-13 cov ceg David ntseeg tias yuav muaj Kev Hla Dhau Thib Ob. Ib tug txiv neej uas tau nkag mus rau hauv lub tsev thaum lub sij hawm siege, Louis Alaniz, tawm tuaj rau lub Plaub Hlis 17 thiab hais rau FBI cov neeg sawv cev tias cov ceg Davidians tau txiav txim siab ua Kevcai Hla Dhau Thib Ob rau lub Plaub Hlis 14-21 ([FBI] 1993b). Qhov no yuav yog lub sijhawm uas Koresh tau sau nws "phau ntawv me me."

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Ntau tus ceg ntseeg David, suav nrog David Koresh, muaj keeb kwm ntawm Hnub Xya. Yog li ntawd, zoo li Hnub Xya Hnub Nyoog Kawg, Ceg Davidians kawg tau txhawj xeeb txog kev nkag siab hauv phau Vajlugkub tej lus faj lem txog kev ntseeg uas yuav tshwm sim hauv Hnub Kawg thiab tsim Vajtswv lub Nceeg Vaj. Koresh tau qhia tias nws thiab cov ceg ntoo David yuav ua lub luag haujlwm tseem ceeb hauv cov xwm txheej ntawd.

Cov ceg David tau txiav txim siab, thiab cov uas tseem muaj txoj sia nyob tseem xav tias lawv tus kheej yog cov “nthwv yoj yoj”, yog thawj “thawj txiv hmab txiv ntoo” uas tau muab sau rau hauv Vajtswv lub Nceeg Vaj. Lawv lub tswv yim ntawm "wave sheaf" yog raws li phau Vajlugkub piav qhia txog kev sau qoob loo siab tshaj plaws thiab ripest stalks ntawm barley nyob rau lub caij nplooj ntoos hlav thiab coj lawv mus rau qhov chaw dawb huv ntawm Kev Hla Dhau qhov chaw uas “nws tau yoj los ntawm ib tug pov thawj ua ntej tus Tswv” (Doyle with Wessinger thiab Wittmer 2012:83; saib Lev. 23:10–14). Raws li Clive Doyle cov neeg muaj txoj sia nyob, "cov yoj yoj yoj tau yog pab pawg ntawd hauv txhua tiam neeg uas thawj zaug lees paub Vajtswv cov lus qhia thiab ua raws li Vajtswv, qee zaum raug nqi ntawm lawv lub neej." Lawv “tau tawm hauv kev ntseeg ua ntej txhua tus…” (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:84).

Thaum Khetos (Yexus Khetos) tau sawv rov los, lwm tus neeg, cov tswv cuab ntawm lub yoj yoj yoj mus txog rau lub sijhawm ntawd, tau sawv rov los nrog nws (saib Mathais 27:52–53). Raws li Ceg Davidian kev ntseeg, cov tswv cuab ntawm yoj sheaf yog martyrs uas raug tua vim lawv mloog Vajtswv lus; lawv tau muab rau Leej Txiv “raws li cov khoom plig ntawm Khetos txoj kev kov yeej kev tuag thiab qhov ntxa” (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:84).

Koresh qhia hais tias tus Khetos tus Ntsuj Plig tau coj ntau tus neeg incarnations ua ntej Tswv Yexus (Yexus Khetos). Koresh qhia tias nws yog tus Khetos kom ua tiav cov xwm txheej uas tau hais tseg hauv phau Vajlugkub hais txog Hnub Kawg. Nws thiab ntau tus ntawm nws cov thwjtim yuav raug tua tuag hauv kev tawm tsam los ntawm tsoomfwv Meskas, sawv cev los ntawm "ob tug tsiaj nyaum" lossis "lwm yam li tsiaj nyaum" nyob rau hauv Phau Ntawv Qhia Tshwm (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012: 92; saib Rev . 13:11–18). Tom qab ntawd, Koresh yuav sawv hauv qhov tuag rov qab los nrog cov thav duab uas tseem tshuav, suav nrog cov neeg tua neeg ntawm ceg ntoo Davidian zej zog. Koresh li Khetos yuav coj ib pab tub rog ntawm 200 lab (Tshwm Sim 9: 16) martyrs ntawm lub hnub nyoog (tag nrho nthwv dej sheaf) uas yuav ua raws li Vajtswv txoj kev txiav txim. Cov tswv cuab ntawm yoj yoj sheaf nyob rau lub sijhawm ntawd kuj yuav los ua ib feem ntawm Khetos cov tub rog. “Txog lab lwm tus neeg yuav sawv rov los tom qab, tab sis thawj pab pawg no yuav tsum tau coj los ua kom nyob rau hauv Kev Txiav Txim koj muaj ib tus neeg los ntawm txhua tiam neeg kom tib neeg yuav raug txiav txim los ntawm lawv cov phooj ywg” (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012: 85 ).

Cov Txwj Laug Nees nkaum plaub hauv Tshwm Sim 4:4, 10-11, Koresh cov me nyuam, raug suav hais tias yog ib feem ntawm cov yoj yoj. Koresh tau qhia tias nws cov menyuam tau "yug rau Kev Txiav Txim." Nws tau qhia tias cov menyuam yaus tau nyob hauv ntiaj teb ua ntej thiab tau xaiv rov qab los ua lub luag haujlwm hauv Kev Txiav Txim (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:87).

Raws li Branch Davidian txoj kev ntseeg, cov tswv cuab ntawm lub yoj sheaf yuav tuaj koom kev sib yuav ntawm tus Me Nyuam Yaj (David Koresh li Tswv Yexus) saum ntuj ceeb tsheej (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:88; saib Rev. 19:7-9). Txij li thaum xyoo 1978, thaum Lois Roden tau txais kev tshwm sim tias Vaj Ntsuj Plig Dawb Huv yog poj niam, Ceg Davidians tau ntseeg tias muaj Leej Txiv Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej. Tswv Yexus yog Leej Tub. Nyob rau lub sijhawm kawg, Leej Tub yuav muaj ib tug phooj ywg zoo kawg nkaus, “kev txuas ntxiv ntawm tus Ntsuj Plig” (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:88). Tom qab tus Me Nyuam Yaj nyob saum ntuj, cov mej zeej ntawm lub ntees tuag yuav “suab nkauj tshiab” (Tshwmsim 5:8–10, 14:2–3) rau 144,000 tus uas sawv saum lub Roob Xi-oos nrog tus Me Nyuam Yaj (Christ. ), yog li no thiaj muab Tswv Yexus cov lus rau lawv.

Cov neeg Yudais noj mov ntawm Shavu'ot lossis Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-21) thaum lub caij ntuj sov thaum ntxov yog lub sijhawm sau qoob loo. Ib qho piv txwv ntawm cov nplej tau ci rau hauv ob lub ncuav uas tau yoj rau ntawm tus Tswv. Hauv ceg ntseeg Davidian txoj kev ntseeg, ob lub ncuav yoj sawv cev rau 120 tus thwjtim ntawm (Yexus) Khetos, thiab 144,000 Hnub Kawg. Lawv yog thawj cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo hauv kev sau ntawm tus ntsuj plig (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012:89). Lawv kev sib sau ua ke yog qhov pib ntawm Vajtswv lub Nceeg Vaj ntawm lub Ntiaj Teb.

“Cov neeg coob coob” (Tshwm Sim 7:9-17), lub cim ntawm cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo lub caij ntuj sov (txiv hmab txiv ntoo thiab zaub), yuav raug sau rau hauv lub Nceeg Vaj los ntawm 144,000. Cov neeg los ntawm txhua haiv neeg, txawm tias txhua txoj kev ntseeg, yuav raug caw tuaj koom lub Nceeg Vaj hauv Lub Tebchaws Dawb Huv. Lawv yuav raug caw tuaj koom lub Koobtsheej Tsev Pheebsuab, Sukkot, lub caij nplooj zeeg. Cov txiv hmab txiv ntoo lub caij ntuj sov no tau sau los ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb thaum lub sijhawm ntawd. Txoj kev sawv hauv qhov tuag rov qab los, cov neeg tuag uas yuav raug ntxiv rau lub Nceeg Vaj, tshwm sim tom qab ntawm ceg Davidian qhov xwm txheej (Doyle with Wessinger and Wittmer 2012: 90).

Kenneth GC Newport (2006, 2009) tau piav qhia li cas Victor Houteff, tus yaj saub David, tau hais qhia tias nyob rau qee lub sijhawm cov neeg David yuav tau ua kev cai raus dej (saib Matt. 3:11). Lub ntsiab lus no tau txuas ntxiv los ntawm Ben Roden, thiab tshwj xeeb tshaj yog los ntawm Lois Roden. Nws tau qhia tias cov neeg nyob hauv “Lub nroog Yeluxalees” ( Mount Carmel ), yuav raug kev cai raus dej “los ntawm kev nkag mus rau hauv tag nrho,” tsis yog “tso” xwb, uas yog “qhov rooj” mus rau lub Nceeg Vaj (Roden 1978). David Koresh thiab nws lieutenant Steve Schneider (1990) kuj tau qhia tias cov ceg David yuav tsum tau ua kev cai raus dej kom huv. Lub tswv yim no yog implicit nyob rau hauv lub npe ntawm ceg Davidians 'cov cuab yeej, uas yog Ameslikas muaj thiab hu ua Mount Carmel los ntawm Davidians. Roob Carmel nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws dawb huv yog qhov chaw uas tus yaj saub Eliyas thov Vajtswv kom muab hluav taws hlawv Eliyas txoj kev txi nyob rau hauv kev sib tw nrog cov yaj saub ntawm Npa-as, uas tau kov yeej thaum hluav taws los saum ntuj los hlawv fij (1 Vajntxwv 18:19-39). .

Rituals / kev xyaum

Ben Roden tau teeb tsa kev ua raws li "Txhua Hnub" raws li lub sijhawm thov Vajtswv thiab kawm Vajlugkub thaum sawv ntxov thiab yav tav su ntawm
lub sij hawm cov pov thawj nyob hauv lub tuam tsev Yeluxalees tau ntseeg tias yuav muab ib tug menyuam yaj uas xyeem rau saum lub thaj kom hlawv kom theej tus pov thawj tej kev txhaum lossis tej kev txhaum. Lois Roden tau ntxiv rau Kev Ua Txhua Hnub Kev noj cov kua txiv hmab txiv ntoo thiab cov kua txiv hmab txiv ntoo tsis muaj tshuaj, cov cim sawv cev rau Tswv Yexus cov ntshav thiab lub cev muab rau tib neeg (Kev xam phaj nrog Clive Doyle, Lub Xya Hli 3, 2004; Martin 2009: 22-23; Haldeman 2007: 34 , 88 ib.). Qhov kev coj ua no tau txiav tawm tom qab lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993.

Cov ceg David tau txais txiaj ntsig los ntawm xya-hnub Adventists thiab cov Davidians ua kev cai dab qhuas ntawm "kev kawm Vajlugkub," uas phau Vajlugkub cov nqe lus tau piav qhia nyob rau hauv ib qho kev nthuav qhia Vajtswv txoj hau kev rau Hnub Kawg. Cov kev tshawb fawb hauv phau Vajlugkub yog cov cuab yeej tseem ceeb ntawm kev tshaj tawm, hloov dua siab tshiab, thiab npaj cov tswv cuab yoj yoj rau cov xwm txheej yav tom ntej. Koresh tau muab kev kawm Vajlugkub ntev, ib yam li Steve Schneider, thiab Marc Breault ua ntej nws tawm hauv zej zog. Ib tug Cwj Pwm Davidian uas kawm tau ntawv zoo nyob hauv vaj lug kub tuaj yeem kawm Vajlugkub.

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

David Koresh's "charisma," txhais ntawm no yog kev ntseeg ntawm nws cov thwjtim tias nws tau nkag mus rau qhov tsis pom ntawm txoj cai (Wessinger 2012: 80-82), yog raws li nws lub peev xwm "qhib" lossis qhia lub ntsiab lus ntawm lub Xya Lub Hwj Chim ntawm Phau Ntawv Qhia Tshwm nyob rau hauv lub teeb ntawm lwm nqe vaj lug kub hauv Phau Qub thiab Phau Tshiab. Thaum lub sij hawm siege, Steve Schneider hais rau FBI tus neeg sib tham hais tias cov ceg Davidians sim txhua yam uas Koresh qhia tawm tsam phau Vajlugkub. Phau Vaj Lug Kub Npaiv Npaum King James yog qhov kawg ntawm txoj cai rau cov ceg ntoo David. Phau ntawv nws tus kheej muaj charisma vim nws yog Vajtswv Txojlus.

Thaum Lub Peb Hlis 15, Schneider tau thov kom Dr. Phillip Arnold, uas cov ceg ntoo David tau hnov ​​hauv xov tooj cua, tau tso cai los tham txog phau Vajlugkub tej lus faj lem nrog Koresh. Schneider tau hais tias yog tias Arnold tuaj yeem muab lwm txoj hauv kev los txhais phau Vajlugkub cov lus faj lem, cov ceg David yuav tawm los txawm Koresh hais li cas (Wessinger 2000: 73-74; Wessinger 2009: 34-35; Kev sib tham daim kab xev no. 129, Lub Peb Hlis 15. Ib., 1993). FBI tsis tau tso cai rau Arnold sib txuas lus ncaj qha nrog ceg Davidians. Nyob rau hnub kawg ntawm kev tawm tsam, kev sib tham tau khaws ntawm cov cuab yeej soj ntsuam tau qhia tias Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Cuam Tshuam cov kev coj ua tau txhawb nqa ceg ntoo David txoj kev xav tias lub sijhawm tau los rau ntau tus neeg tuag nyob rau hauv kev mloog lus rau Vajtswv Txoj Haujlwm Kawg (Wessinger 2009).

Cov ceg ntoo David suav nrog cov tswv cuab ntawm tsev neeg uas tau nyob ntawm Mount Carmel txij li hnub Ben thiab Lois Roden nrog rau cov tswv cuab hloov siab los ntseeg David Koresh. Cov tswv cuab txoj kev cog lus rau Koresh tau txhawb nqa los ntawm nws txoj kev sib deev nrog cov ntxhais thiab cov poj niam, ntau tus uas tau yug nws cov menyuam los yog cev xeeb tub los ntawm nws, thiab cov txiv neej txoj kev sib deev. Ceg Davidians ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv ntau lub peev xwm ntawm Mount Carmel thiab deb ntawm cov cuab yeej los txhawb lub zej zog.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

cov ntev profile ntawm lub vev xaib no tham txog cov teeb meem thiab cov teeb meem cuam tshuam nrog David Koresh's Ceg Davidians kom ntxaws dua. Muaj ntau lub ntsiab lus ntawm kev tsis sib haum xeeb thiab kev sib cav. Ob peb ntawm lawv yog:

  • Kev sib deev tsis sib haum xeeb hauv zej zog, thiab Koresh txoj kev sib deev nrog cov ntxhais hluas.
  • Txawm hais tias cov ceg Davidians tau hloov AR-15 cov phom ib nrab tsis siv neeg rau M-16 riam phom tsis siv neeg yam tsis tau them se thiab sau cov ntaub ntawv xav tau rau daim ntawv tso cai.
  • Txawm hais tias tsis yog qhov kev tawm tsam ATF yog qhov tsim nyog.
  • Txawm hais tias ATF cov neeg ua haujlwm paub tseeb dag txog qhov raug liam tias muaj tshuaj methamphetamine lab ntawm Mount Carmel kom tau txais kev cob qhia Tub Rog Tshwj Xeeb Tub Rog thiab Kev Pabcuam Hauv Tebchaws.
  • Txawm hais tias ATF cov neeg sawv cev raug rho tawm tsis pom hauv lub tsev, ib yam dab tsi uas tsis raug cai rau cov tub ceev xwm Asmeskas ua.
  • Txawm hais tias ATF tus neeg sawv cev lossis ceg Davidians raug tua ua ntej, thiab sab twg tau tua feem ntau.
  • Qhov tsis muaj kev tshawb nrhiav ntawm kev tua Michael Schroeder los ntawm ATF cov neeg sawv cev.
  • Txawm hais tias los yog tsis ua los ntawm FBI Pab Pawg Pabcuam Kev Cuam Tshuam muaj lub hom phiaj ntawm kev ua phem rau kev sib tham kom tsis txhob Cuam Tshuam David tawm los.
  • Txawm hais tias muaj kev cuam tshuam hauv kev sib tham thaum lub Plaub Hlis 14 thaum Koresh nthuav tawm nws txoj kev tawm mus, lossis yog tias qhov no yog lwm qhov kev ncua sij hawm raws li FBI cov neeg sawv cev liam.
  • Txawm hais tias David Koresh txoj kev ntseeg apocalyptic tau ua rau muaj hluav taws kub hnyiab thaum lub siege pib (Newport 2006, 2009), lossis seb Koresh thiab cov ceg David tau nyeem cov xwm txheej los saib seb lawv puas tau ua lossis tsis haum rau qhov kev kwv yees apocalyptic scenario thiab tau kho lawv phau Vajlugkub. txhais lus raws li (Gallagher 2000; Tabor and Gallagher 1995; Wessinger 2000, 2009).
  • Qhov ntau npaum li cas FBI cov neeg txiav txim siab paub txog thiab nkag siab txog qhov cuam tshuam ntawm Koresh txoj kev ntseeg ntawm kev tua neeg thaum lawv tsim thiab coj cov kev tawm tsam tawm tsam cov ceg David (saib Wessinger 2009; FBI 1993a; ntev profile ntawm nplooj ntawv no.
  • Txawm hais tias Tus Kws Lij Choj General Janet Reno tau yuam kev rau kev pom zoo ib txoj kev npaj rau kev ua phem rau lub Plaub Hlis 19 los ntawm kev nthuav tawm cov ntaub ntawv tsis raug txog lub xeev ntawm kev sib tham thiab cov teebmeem ntawm CS roj rau menyuam yaus, cov poj niam cev xeeb tub, thiab cov neeg laus (saib [FBI ] 1993c).
  • Txawm hais tias qhov kev ua ntawm FBI Pab Pawg Pabcuam Cuam Tshuam Pabcuam rau kev tua hluav taws thiab kev tuag ntawm xya caum-rau ceg ceg David thaum lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993, lossis seb lub luag haujlwm rau qhov hluav taws kub tsuas yog rau David Koresh thiab ceg David.
  • Qhov teeb meem ntawm ntau hom pov thawj uas ploj lawm, raug rhuav tshem, thiab raug txwv vim kev ua ntawm ATF thiab FBI cov neeg sawv cev.
  • Txawm hais tias cov ceg Davidians raug foob thiab sim ua txhaum cai hauv 1994 raug txiav txim ncaj ncees thiab muab cov lus ncaj ncees (saib Richardson 2001).
  • Txawm hais tias FLIR (infrared thermal imaging) tapes kaw los ntawm Nightstalker dav hlau ya saum lub tsev thaum lub Plaub Hlis 19, 1993, tau kaw cov phom tsis siv neeg coj mus rau sab nraum lub tsev, raws li tau liam los ntawm ntau tus kws tshaj lij Asmeskas FLIR, tab sis tsis lees paub los ntawm cov kws tshaj lij Askiv. ntiav los ntawm tsoom fwv (saib Gifford, Gazecki, thiab McNulty 1997; Danforth Report 2000; Hardy with Kimball 2001; McNulty 2001).
  • Txawm hais tias tsis yog Danforth Report (2000) tsim los ntawm Tus Kws Pab Tswv Yim Tshwj Xeeb John C. Danforth, uas tshem tawm tsoomfwv cov neeg saib xyuas lub luag haujlwm hauv kev tuag, yog lo lus kawg ntawm rooj plaub (saib Rosenfeld 2001; thiab Newport 2006).


ua tim khawv

Breault, Marc, thiab Martin King. Xyoo 1993. Sab hauv Cult: Ib Chilling, Exclusive Account of Madness and Depravity in David Koresh's Compound. New York: Kos npe.

Craddock, Graeme. 1993. Zaj lus tim khawv ntawm Graeme Craddock. Lub Tsev Hais Plaub Hauv Cheeb Tsam, Western District of Texas, Waco Division, Federal Grand Jury Proceedings. Plaub Hlis 20.

Danforth, John C., Tus Kws Pab Tswv Yim Tshwj Xeeb. 2000. "Daim Ntawv Qhia Kawg rau Tus Lwm Thawj Coj Tus Kws Lij Choj Txog Kev Sib Tham 1993 ntawm Mt. Carmel Complex." Kaum Ib Hlis 8.

Doyle, Clive, nrog Catherine Wessinger thiab Matthew D. Wittmer. 2012. Kev Taug Kev Mus Los: Hu Xov Xwm ntawm ib ceg ceg Davidian. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. ib 1993a. WACMUR Major Event Log, Lub Ob Hlis Ntuj-Lub Xya Hli 1993. Muaj nyob rau hauv Lee Hancock Collection, Southwestern Writers Collection, Texas State University-San Marcos.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. 1993 ib. "Passover Analysis Addendum." Plaub Hlis Ntuj 18. Muaj nyob rau hauv Lee Hancock Collection, Southwestern Writers Collection, Texas State University-San Marcos.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. ib 1993c. Reno Briefing File. Muaj nyob rau hauv Lee Hancock Collection, Southwestern Writers Collection, Texas State University-San Marcos.

Gallagher, Eugene V. 2000. “'Theology Is Life and Death': David Koresh on Violence, Persecution, and the Millennium.” Pp. 82-100 hli Millennialism, Kev tsim txom, thiab kev nruj kev tsiv: Cov xwm txheej keeb kwm, kho los ntawm Catherine Wessinger. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Gifford, Dan, William Gazecki, thiab Michael McNulty, cov neeg tsim khoom. Xyoo 1997. Waco: Txoj Cai Kev Koom Tes. Los Angeles: Fifth Estate Productions.

Haldeman, Bonnie. 2007. Puas muaj kev txhawj xeeb txog ceg ntawm cov ceg Davides: Daim ntawv keeb kwm ntawm David Koresh's Niam, ua ed. Catherine Wessinger. Waco: Baylor University Press.

Hardy, David T., nrog Rex Kimball. Xyoo 2001. Qhov no Tsis yog Kev Ua Phem: Nkag mus rau Lub Vev Xaib ntawm Txoj Cai Lies Hais txog qhov xwm txheej Waco. Np: Xlibris.

Tsev Neeg Sawv Cev. Xyoo 1996. Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Ua Haujlwm ntawm Tsoom Fwv Teb Chaws Tub Ceev Xwm Cov Tub Ceev Xwm mus rau ceg ceg David. Qhia 104-749. Washington, DC: US ​​Government Printing Office.

Kev Sib Tham Sib Tham. Xyoo 1996. Kev ua ub no ntawm Tsoom Fwv Teb Chaws Tub Ceev Xwm Cov Tub Ceev Xwm mus rau Ceg Davidians (Part 1-3). Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Ncaj Ncees No. 72. Washington, DC: US ​​Government Printing Office.

Martin, Sheila. Xyoo 2009. Thaum Nkawd Muaj Kuv Cov Lus Ceeb Tsheej: Nco txog ib ceg ceg Davidian tus poj niam thiab niam, ua ed. Catherine Wessinger. Waco: Baylor University Press.

Michael McNulty, tus tsim tawm. Xyoo 2001. FLIR Project. Fort Collins, Colo.: COPS Productions.

Newport, Kenneth GC 2009. “'Ib Kev Cai Raus Dej los ntawm Hluav Taws': Cov ceg Davidians thiab Apocalyptic Self-Destruction. Nova Religion 13: 61-94.

Newport, Kenneth GC 2006. Ceg Davidians ntawm Waco: Keeb Kwm thiab Kev Ntseeg ntawm Apocalyptic Sect. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pitts, William L., Jr. 2009. “Cov Poj Niam Cov Thawj Coj hauv Davidian thiab ceg Davidian kev lig kev cai.” Nova Religion 12: 50-71.

Richardson, James T. 2001. “'Showtime' in Texas: Social Production of the Branch Davidian Trials.” Nova Religion 5: 152-70.

Roden, Lois. 1978. “Kev Cai Raus Dej los ntawm Hluav Taws,” audiotape. Lub Peb Hlis 21. Muaj nyob hauv Texas Collection, Baylor University.

Rosenfeld, Jean E. 2001. “Kev Siv Tub Rog ntawm Waco: The Danforth Report in Context.” Nova Religion 5: 171-85.

Schneider, Steve. Xyoo 1990. Cov ntawv sau cia hauv phau Vajlugkub qhia hauv Manchester, England. Muaj nyob rau hauv Texas Collection, Baylor University.

Tabor, James D., thiab Eugene V. Gallagher. Xyoo 1995. Vim li cas Waco? Cults thiab Sib ntaus sib tua rau kev cai dab qhuas ywj pheej nyob rau hauv America. Berkeley: University of California Xovxwm.

Tabor, James D. 2005. “David Koresh.” Encyclopedia ntawm kev ntseeg, kho los ntawm Lindsay Jones, 8: 5237-39. 2d ua ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Thompson Gale.

Tabor, James. 1994. "Cov xwm txheej ntawm Mount Carmel: Ib Daim Ntawv Txhais Lus." Lub Ob Hlis. Accessed los ntawm http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/gopher/text/religion/koresh/Koresh%20Log nyob rau 20 Plaub Hlis 2013.

Thibodeau, David, thiab Leon Whiteson. Xyoo 1999. Ib qhov chaw hu ua Waco: A Survivor's Story. New York: Public Affairs.

Wessinger, Catherine. 2012. "Charismatic Cov Thawj Coj hauv Cov Kev Ntseeg Tshiab." Pp. 80-96 nyob rau hauv Lub Cambridge Khub rau Kev Ua Kev Cai Tshiab, kho los ntawm Olav Hammer thiab Mikael Rothstein. Cambridge: Cambridge University Xovxwm.

Wessinger, Catherine. 2009. "Kev tuag hauv hluav taws ntawm ceg Davidians 'Run Carmel: Leej Twg Dais Lub Luag Haujlwm?" Nova Religion 13: 25-60.

Wessinger, Catherine. 2000. “1993 ¾ Ceg Davidians.” Hauv Yuav ua li cas lub Millennium los ua nruj ua tsiv: Los ntawm Jonestown mus rau Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej lub rooj vag. New York: Seven Bridges Xovxwm. Accessed los ntawm http://www.loyno.edu/~wessing nyob rau 20 Plaub Hlis 2013.

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